1. International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state 2. Political conflict: conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the “reform” of the tax system led to paralysis and bankruptcy. 3. The Enlightenment: impulse for reform intensifies political conflicts; reinforces traditional aristocratic constitutionalism, one variant of which was laid out in Montequieu’sSpirit of the Laws; introduces new notions of good government, the most radical being popular sovereignty, as in Rousseau’s Social Contract ; the attack on the regime and privileged class by the Literary Underground of “Grub Street;” the broadening influence of public opinion. 4. Social antagonisms between two rising groups: the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie 5. Ineffective ruler: Louis XVI
6. Economic hardship, especially the agrarian crisis of 1788-89 generates popular discontent and disorders caused by food shortages. For the greater part of history the French revolution was believed to have been the product of social and economic unrest. The country was at the time facing a deteriorating economic condition coupled with a lag between the intellectual development and social political condition that was stagnant. In this situation it was the middle class, also known as the Bourgeoisie which was in the worst social position. This was the educated class which was heavily taxed whereas the ruling nobles and the clergy were exempted from taxation. Social Causes of the French Revolution
The vast majority of the French public belonged to the working class whose hard earned money was being used to finance the foreign wars and the court extravagance along with being the treasury with which to repay national debt. Although on the face of it the King had consolidated absolute monarchy which should have put an end to feudalism, the small land owners and the peasant class were still bound to extremely unfair contracts with the feudal lords. This tension and frustration of the working class was the result of the oppressive rule of the monarchist regime. Although the regime had been very successful in defending France from foreign invaders and sorting out internal religious and other disputes it was believed to have been extremely unfair to the general public. Economic Causes of the French Revolution
The cost of affording a respectable or even a sustained lifestyle had shot sky high with the rise in bread prices and basic necessities. On top of which the working class was obliged to pay heavy taxes to finance the governments running. This obviously led to the feeling of resentment within the bourgeoisie who wanted a more equal system of governance in France. From this point of view they were the forerunners of the whole revolution but there was another side to this social awakening and that was the decrease of importance in the belief of God. Religious Causes of the French Revolution
If we are to be fair in analyzing the root causes of the whole revolution then we will have to admit that the religion of Christianity had a big role to play in it. The religion itself is not to be blamed but it is what the nobles and priests did under the banner of religion that is to be condemned. The Christian rulers of that time were known to be extremely intolerant which resulted in the persecution of religious and ethnic minorities in France. Moreover the principles of Christianity were distorted by the priests to gain power over the people and maintain their nobility as a result intellectually straight jacketing the government.
This is the only reason why the monarchist regime of France was being considered as being backwards. When the ruling party is unjust and carries with it the banner of a religion then that religion gets the blame for being unjust. Consequently the revolutionary movement was also seen as an anti God movement because of the dealings of the so called men of God. It is actually those people who practiced injustice under the banner of religion and persecuted the people that gave birth to the atheistic spirit of the revolution and the deeds of the so called men of God can be seen as one of the major causes that ultimately led to the revolt.