Stylistics. poetry Essay
Functional style of language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication Belles-lettres style is a generic term for three substyles in which the main principles and the most general properties of the style are materialized.
These three sub-styles are: 1. The language of poetry, or simply verse. 2. Emotive p prose, or the language of fiction. 3. the language of the drama. Language of poetry 1 property is orderly form (rhythmic and phonetic arrangement) 2ND IS RHYTHM AND RHYME Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combinations of words.
1.couplets —when the last words of two successive lines are rhymed. This is commonly marked aa. 2. triple rhymes—aaa 3. cross rhymes—abab 4. framing or ring rhymes—abba Rhythm is based on 1) alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables 2) equilinearity, that is, an equal number of syllables in the lines, 3) a natural pause at the end of the line, the line being a more or less complete semantic unit, 4) identity of stanza pattern, (The stanza is the largest unit in verse. It is composed of a number of lines having a definite measure and rhyming system which is repeated throughout the poem. )
5) established patterns of rhyming.
English verse is called qualitative because the unit of measure of rhythm is the time allotted (spent) on its reproduction. It is qualitative because the quality of stressed and unstressed syllables is taken into consideration. In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse. 5 metrical patterns: ?? Iambic unstressed – stressed ?? Trochaic stressed – unstressed ?? Dactylic stressed – two unstressed ?? Amphibrachic unstressed – stressed – unstressed ??
Anapaestic unstressed – stressed – stressed. ?If the line consists of only one foot it is called a monometerA a line consisting of two feet is a dimeter; three—trimetre; four-tetrameter\ five—pentameter\ six— e x a m e t e r\ seven— septameter\ eight—octat a m e t e r. The juncture between the lines is wide. Enjambment throws a part of the syntagm over to the second line, thus causing the pause to grow smaller and the juncture closer.
This leads to a break in the rhythmico- syntactical unity of the lines; they lose their relative independence. Stanza enjambment is the same in nature, but it affects larger rhyth-micosyntactical units, the stanzas. Stanza. Stanza is the largest unit in verse. It is composed of a number of lines having a definite measure and rhyming system which is repeated throughout the poem. The stanza is generally built up on definite principles with regard to the number of lines, the character of the metre and the rhyming pattern.
-The heroic couple – S. that consists of two iambic pentameters; rhyme pattern aa (used In epic and odes) -Spencerian Stanza -ottava rima (eight iambic pentameters) It is composed of eight iambic pentameters, the rhyming scheme being abababcc Ballad stanza This is generally an alternation of iambic tetrameters with iambic dimeters (or trimeters), and the rhyming scheme is abcb. -sonnet.
The English sonnet is composed of fourteen iambic pentameters with the following rhyming scheme: ababcdcdefefgg, that is, three quatrains with cross rhymes and a couplet at the end. Free and accented verse. When verse retrains its metrical scheme it becomes non classical. Free verse. – lack of strictness. Accented v e r se is a type of verse in which only the number of stresses in the line is taken into consideration. b) Lexical and Syntactical Features of Verse Among the lexical peculiarities of verse the first to be mentioned is imagery, -Onomatopea -metaphor -metonymy -simile -emotional colouring.