Study On Active Directory And Exchange Server Computer Science Essay

Active Directory is a big depository for information approximately objects as users, spheres, computing machines, sphere accountants, groups, contacts, and shared resources ( such as files and pressmans ) . All objects in Active Directory are protected by a security system based on Kerberos, an industry-standard secret-key encoding web hallmark protocol. Almost the full Exchange 2007 constellation is stored in the Active Directory ; this information is stored in a divider of the Active Directory called the Configuration divider. The Configuration divider is replicated to all sphere accountants in the full wood, non merely the sphere in which the Exchange waiter is installed.

Exchange Server 2007, like Exchange 2000/2003, depends wholly on a healthy and working Active Directory and the handiness of Domain Name Service ( DNS ) services. In order for Exchange waiters to properly locate sphere accountants and planetary catalogs, DNS must accurately decide sphere accountant and planetary catalog service location records and host information every bit good as information about Active Directory sites. Exchange must recover constellation and recipient information from Active Directory as good ; if either DNS or Active Directory does non react to an Exchange 2007 waiter ‘s questions, clients will non be able to authenticate, reference searchs will non happen, and electronic mail will non flux.

When an Exchange waiter starts running services such as the Microsoft Exchange System Attendant, the Microsoft Exchange Active Directory Topology service determines in which Active Directory site the Exchange waiter is located and so locates all sphere accountants and planetary catalog waiters in that site. Exchange Server so reads its constellation from Active Directory ; this would include finding which roles that waiter supports, the letter box databases to mount, etc.

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When Exchange 2007 Hub Transport waiter is routing messages to Exchange receivers, it must question a planetary catalog waiter in order to find belongingss of the receiver such as proxy references, place letter box waiter, and letter box limitations.

1.2 Active Directory Site Membership

Exchange Server 2007 is an Active-Directory-site-aware application. Exchange 2007 uses Active Directory site information for a twosome of intents.

Exchange 2007 waiters automatically learn the Active Directory topology and determine in which Active Directory site each Exchange 2007 waiter is located. Exchange Server uses the IP subnets to turn up the sites ; if the subnet information is uncomplete or wrong, Exchange Server will non be able to right find site rank and mail may non be delivered decently.

Different Exchange Server 2007 waiter functions use the Active Directory site information in different ways:

All Exchange 2007 waiter functions use the site architecture to turn up sphere accountants and planetary catalog waiters closest to them from the web ‘s position.

Hub Transport waiters determine the distant Hub Transport waiters names in other Active Directory sites to which they need to convey messages intended for remote Mailbox waiters.

Mailbox waiters determine which Hub Transport waiters are in their ain site so they can advise those waiters that they have messages that must be transferred.

Unified Messaging waiters submit voicemail messages and facsimiles to Hub Transport waiters in their ain site for routing to Mailbox waiters. Unified Messaging waiters do non reassign voice mail and facsimile messages straight to a Mailbox waiter.

Client Access waiters look for site information in order to find if they are located in the same Active Directory site letter boxs that they are being asked to supply entree to. If non, the Client Access waiter refers the client to a Client Access waiter that is in the same site as the needed Mailbox waiter.

Exchange Server refers Outlook 2000, 2002, and 2003 clients to planetary catalog waiters that are in the same site as the Exchange waiter for planetary reference list searchs.

If there are failings in Active Directory site design, Exchange 2007 will expose them. For Active Directory woods with more than one Active Directory site, the subnets must be decently defined and associated with the appropriate site.

1.3 Domain Controllers and Global Catalog Servers

In an Exchange 2007 environment, the Global catalog waiters need to be at least Windows 2003 Server Service Pack 1 or subsequently, each sphere should be at Windows 2003 sphere functional degree, and the wood should be at Windows 2003 functional degree. Though practically it may non be the scenario, the following are the minimal demands for Windows 2003 sphere accountants and Active Directory in an Exchange apparatus:

Each Active Directory site that has Exchange 2007 waiters must hold at least one Windows 2003 Service Pack 1 or subsequently planetary catalog waiter. For redundancy, an extra planetary catalog waiter should be available.

Each sphere that will host Exchange 2007 waiters or mail-enabled receivers must be at a lower limit Windows 2000 native functional degree.

For Exchange 2007 Outlook Web Access planetary reference list, Windows 2003 Service Pack 1 or subsequently planetary catalog waiters is required.

The scheme maestro flexible individual maestro of operations function must be hosted on a sphere accountant running Windows 2003 Service Pack 1 or subsequently.

For Exchange organisations in multiple woods that require forest-to-forest trusts, all woods involved in forest-to-forests trusts must be at Windows 2003 forest functional manner.

1.4 Exchange waiter 2007 installing

The installing demands for Exchange waiter 2007 can be split into two types:

System-wide demands

Server-specific demands

1.4.1 System-wide demands

Exchange 2007 requires the domain functional degree to be at Windows 2000 native manner or higher as illustrated in figure 1.4.1

Figure 1.4.1: & lt ; Domain functional degree & gt ;

The Active directory readying need non be done beforehand for Exchange waiter 2007 as was the instance with old versions of Exchange waiters. The Active directory readying ( ‘Adprep ‘ public-service corporation ) is run automatically during Exchange waiter 2007 apparatus.

Previous versions of Exchange waiter required a service history to be used during exchange waiter apparatus & A ; post installing processs & A ; care. The followers is a list of needed permissions required to installA an Exchange 2007 waiter into a new or bing organisation.

Local Administrator on the waiter

Enterprise Administrator

Domain Administrator

Schema Administrator ( merely required for first install to widen the Schema )

Server-specific demands

Server-specific demands for Exchange 2007 include both hardware and software.A In order to put in Exchange 2007 the waiter must be running Windows Server 2003 x64 and have SP1 installed.A .NET 2.0 Framework and MMC 3.0 must be installed prior to put ining Exchange waiter 2007 but these two constituents can besides be installed during setup.A

Exchange 2007 ‘s hardware demands are as follows:

Intel Xeon or Pentium 4 64-bit processor

AMD Opteron or Athlon 64-bit processor

1GB of RAM plus 7MB per letter box

1.2 GB of available disc infinite on the thrust on which Exchange is installed

200 MB of available disc infinite on the system thrust


SVGA or higher-resolution proctor

NTFS File System

Exchange 2007 no longer requires the IIS SMTP and NNTP services installed as it has its ain built in SMTP waiter and, for messages being transported between Exchange 2007 waiters with the organisation, uses MAPI.A Depending on the function or functions installed on the waiter, different constituents are required. Table 1.4.2 shows which extra services each function requires.

Table 1.4.2: & lt ; Roles and matching Additional Components & gt ;


Extra Component

Edge Transport


Hub Transport


Mailbox Server

Network COM+ , IIS, World Wide Web

Client Access Server

World Wide Web

Unified Messaging Server

Speechify ( installed by E2007 Setup )

1.5 Exchange Installation Process

The Exchange waiter 2007 apparatus when clicked brings the graphical screen as shown in figure 1.5.1

Figure 1.5.1: & lt ; Exchange waiter 2007 Installation screen & gt ;

Snaping on install brings the EULA followed by a choice between typical installing and a custom installing as shown in figure 1.5.2

A list of cheque boxes appear following to choose which functions need to be installed, as show in figure 1.5.3

The Exchange apparatus being graphical allows the decision maker to track the position of the installing. It besides displays any mistakes that occur during the installing. After completion of the apparatus the installer will establish the EMC ( Exchange direction console ) as shown in figure 1.5.4

Figure 1.5.2: & lt ; Exchange waiter 2007 apparatus options & gt ;

If the graphical manner of apparatus is used to put in Exchange, so the option to automatically get down EMC is given when the installing completes. Otherwise, click Start i?? All Programs i?? Microsoft Exchange i?? Exchange Management Console to establish the EMC.

It contains a list of undertakings that are needed to carry through in order to finalise the deployment. This list may be longer or shorter depending on which functions are selected in the organisation. Each undertaking is a hyperlink that will take to specific instructions on how to carry through it.

Figure 1.5.3: & lt ; Custom-making the installing & gt ;

Figure 1.5.4: & lt ; Exchange direction console & gt ;

Mailbox waiter functions

Server roles let an decision maker to divide the maps of an Exchange waiter and topographic point each function, or a combination of functions, on different waiters in the organisation. This can be done for public presentation grounds, direction grounds, or any other ground deemed necessary by the organisation ‘s policies

Exchange 2007 introduces five functions to the Exchange organisation.

Edge Transport

Hub Transport

Client Access


Unified Messaging

Edge Transport function

The Edge Transport function is installed on the border of the web and therefore is installed on a standalone waiter that is non a member of the Active Directory sphere. Because the waiter is non a member of the Active Directory sphere, Active Directory Application Mode ( ADAM ) is used to sync AD with the Edge Transport waiter. ADAM and a constituent called EdgeSync are used to execute scheduled one-way synchronism of the constellation and recipient information from Active Directory. This allows the Edge Transport to execute receiver searchs and Spam filtering.

The Edge Transport function performs a figure of maps including Anti-spam and Anti-virus protection. The Edge Transport uses connexion filtering, content filtering, receiver filtering, SenderID, transmitter and IP repute to cut down the sum of Spam delivered to the terminal users inbox. Mail tagged as Spam will sit in a Spam quarantine from which decision makers can cancel or let messages tagged as Spam. One of the top characteristics is the ability for Outlook 2003 and 2007 clients to unify their Spam scenes ( like white and black lists ) to the Edge Transport waiter to increase the efficiency and truth of the filters. The built in VSAPI has been improved and the debut of conveyance agents allows 3rd party AV applications to supply stronger AV filtering.

Edge Transport Rules are used to protect the Exchange organisation by using regulations and, based on whether the message passes or fails, appropriate action is taken. Unlike the Anti-virus and Anti-Spam processing, Edge Transport regulations are based on SMTP and MIME references, words in the topic or message organic structure, and SCL evaluation. The Edge Transport function besides handles address revising ; in Exchange 2007 an decision maker can modify the SMTP reference on in or outward mail.

The Edge Transport waiter is besides responsible for all mail come ining or go forthing the Exchange organisation. Mail travels inbound through the Edge Transport and one time the Edge Transport Rules have been applied the message is passed on to the Hub Transport waiter. Because the Edge Transport is responsible for all in and outward mail, multiple Edge Transport waiters can be configured for redundancy and burden reconciliation.

1.6.2 Hub Transport function

The Hub Transport function is responsible for all internal mail flow. This function is similar to the foothold waiter in an Exchange 2000/2003 organisation. In fact it originally was called the Bridgehead Role until it was changed.

The Hub Transport server, every bit good as the remainder of the waiter functions, is installed on member waiter ( s ) in an Active Directory sphere. There is no demand for ADAM on this, or any other function aside from the Edge Transport. Because it is a member of an AD sphere, all its constellation information is stored in AD and any other Hub Transport waiters that are installed will acquire their constellation from AD.

Inbound mail is accepted from the Edge Transport and passed on to the user ‘s letter box and all outward mail is relayed from the Hub Transport to the Edge Transport and out to the Internet. The Hub Transport and Edge Transport waiters are really similar and in fact, one can waive the Edge Transport waiter and configure the Hub Transport to accept mail from, and direct mail to, the Internet.

The Anti-Spam and Anti-virus characteristics of the Edge Transport can be configured on the Hub Transport in order to cut down the figure of waiters required. It is rather executable that merely one waiter in the Exchange organisation can be configured with all the functions. In this instance an Edge Transport function and all its characteristics will be passed on to the Hub Transport function.

1.6.3 Mailbox function

The simplest of the functions is the Mailbox Role. The Mailbox function holds the Exchange databases within which the user letter boxs are contained. It is besides place to the Public Folder databases if Public Folders is enabled ( They are non enabled by default in Exchange 2007 ) .

1.6.4 Client Access function

The Client Access Role is similar to the function of a Front-End waiter as in an Exchange 2000/2003 organisation. The Client Access waiter is the waiter that users connect to with their mail client, nomadic device, or web browser. The Client Access waiter handles all connexions whether they come from an application such as Outlook 2003 or 2007, Outlook Express, or any other MAPI, POP3 or IMAP4 client. The Client Access waiter besides handles connexions made from nomadic devices such as a Windows Mobile 5 Smartphone, or any other device utilizing Exchange ActiveSync. Exchange ActiveSync in Exchange 2007 supports all devices with PocketPC 2002/2003 and Windows Mobile 5

This function besides provides Outlook Web Access ( OWA ) . OWA allows a user to entree his or her letter box from a web browser and have full entree to all the information in the letter box including undertaking lists, calendar information, mail points and public booklets. One of the hot new maps of OWA is Sharepoint and UNC entree. Now users can entree UNC portions ( servernameshare ) and Sharepoint papers libraries cut downing the demand for complex VPN constellations.

1.6.5 Unified Messaging function

The Unified Messaging function is responsible for unifying VOIP substructure with the Exchange organisation. This allows,

combined voice, facsimile, and mail in one inbox

entree to voice, facsimile and mail via multiple interfaces

To look into voice mail connect to the Exchange waiter with OWA and the voice mail can be seen as an fond regard in email messages. Unified messaging alterations the manner user ‘s entree voice, facsimile and electronic mail.

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