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1. What was going historically during this era? What was life like? 2. What is the Enlightenment? A movement led by French intellectuals who advocated reasons the universal source of knowledge and truth. 3. What was the preferred texture of classical composers? Homophony 4. What is absolute music? Instrumental music based on abstract principles of music theory and form. 5. What are some characteristics of rhythm in Classical music? Very define and regular. 6. What are some characteristics of melody in Classical music? Short and clearly defined musical phrases with two or more contrasting themes.
7. How do classic composers handle dynamic changes? It was dramatic, and they did not let themselves be held back by terraced dynamics. 8. How is the piano different from the harpsichord? When was the piano invented? When did the piano become more popular than the harpsichord? 9. Was the basso continuo still used in classical music? It was gradually abandoned. 10. What was the size of a classical orchestra? What instruments were usually present? Classical orchestras were typically large, but came in all sizes.
Within them were violins, violas, cellos, double basses, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, kettledrums, and a harpsichord or piano. 11. Did classical composers treat all instruments alike or did they exploit the individual tone colors of the instruments? They exploited the individual tone colors of instruments. 12. What affect did the growing middle class have on music? The middle class had a huge impact on classical music. They wanted music to be available in their homes as well as easy enough for their children to take lessons to learn it.
13. What city was the musical center of Europe? Vienna.
Austria. 14. What are the complaints with opera seria (Baroque opera) which lead to the development of comic opera? Opera seria was getting too excessive with their costumes and becoming to serious. The people wanted something a little funnier. What is a symphony? How did it evolve? A multimovement orchestral form. They derived from the introductory piece called a sinfonia. Classical composers lengthened the three sections of the sinfonia then added a fourth. They organized each section according to the principles of a chosen instrumental form and treated each section as a movement, separated from the succeeding movement y a pause. 16. Explain the sonata (or sonata-allegro) form. Explain each part. (Do not confuse sonata as a form with the sonata as a particular type of piece. ) It consists of three sections exposition, development, and recapitulation which form a ternary design. The exposition contains two tonal areas, with a transition or bridge modulating from the tonic to another key. The development moves through several keys, generally using thematic material from the exposition but sometimes introducing new melodies as well. The recapitulation begins like the exposition; the same thematic material, int the tonic key.
Although this time the transition or bridge does not modulate but leads to the presentation of the second section of material in the tonic key. 17. Explain theme and variations as a form. Principles pf repetition and contras; repetition leads unity, symmetry, and balance to a composition; and contrast provides the variety necessary to keep the work interesting. 18. Explain the minuet and trio as a form. ABA. Often the third movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet. Consists of two minuets, the second (trio) lighter and more lyrical than the first. 19. Explain the rondo as a form. ABACA. Form in which any number of episodes alternate with the opening material. The tempo is usually fast and the mood merry. 20. Discuss the classical concerto. What is a cadenza? A classical concerto usually has three movements occurring in the same order of tempos as the Italian sinfonia: fast-slow-fast. Cadenza is an extended virtuosic passage for a solo instrument. 21. What is chamber music designed for? It was designed to meet the listeners on a more intimate and personal level/ for the intimate setting of a small room. 22. Define the string quartet.
A chamber ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, and a cello. Also, a composition written for this ensemble. 23. Define a classical sonata. A musical composition for solo instrument or a small number of instruments typically in three or four movements in contrasting forms and keys. 24. What are some other types of chamber groups? Woodwind quintet, the piano trio, and the brass quintet. 25. What is significant about Beethoven’s 9th symphony? In the ninth symphony the chorus and orchestra join together and show the universal love for brotherhood as well as God. 26.
What is the Viennese style? A term applied to classical style to avoid the ambiguity of “classical. ” 27. What is the Classical style? Restrained, objective style of art. 28. What is a coda? “Tail”; a closing section. 29. What is an overture? Orchestral introduction to an opera or to another vocal or dramatic work. 30. What is a comic opera? Reaction against baroque style. Light in mood and modest in performing requirements, comic operas were written in the vernacular- the language of the audience. 31. What is opera buffa? Italian comic opera. 32. Define ensemble finale.
Closing scene in which several soloists each sing different words and music at the same time. 33. What is a pants, or trousers, role? Male role written for a female performer. 34. What is a Requiem? Mass for the dead. **You also need to know that opera seria is serious opera. It’s what you normally think of when you think about opera and what was written in the Baroque era. We haven’t seen the last of opera seria yet. ** Composers: Please include the following for each (I need to be able to tell that you read about them and did not just google them or use wikipedia, etc. nd copied and pasted-read your textbook please) Dates Nationality Importance/major contribution Types of compositions Extra little tidbit 35. Hadyn- (1732-1809) was born in Austria near the border of Hungary. He was accepted as a choir boy and student at a cathedral in Vienna, where he remained until his voice changed in his late teens. Haydn entered the service of Prince Paul Esterhazy.
For nearly thirty years Haydn lived as a well-paid but over worked servant, composing many opera, symphonies, concertos, and chamber music pieces. 6. Mozart- (1756-1791) began his performing career as a child prodigy. He played piano, harpsichord, organ, and violin beautifully. He sought to please wife who was demanding and ungrateful. Mozart never learned the art of getting along with people. He could not refrain from offering honest but unsolicited criticism, nor could he bring himself to flatter potential patrons. Independent, he insisted on managing his own affairs. Mozart lived a short and difficult life, and now lies buried in an unmarked grave. 37.
Beethoven- (1770-1827) was a musical revolutionary, as effective in his field as Napoleon in his, and far truer than Napoleon to his revolutionary cause. He had little education of any kind because he left school when he was about eleven. His organ teacher encouraged him to publish a few compositions when he was about thirteen and also helped him to find his first professional positions. By the time Beethoven finally moved to Vienna from his home in Bonn, Mozart was dead. He had a difficult and temperamental personality. An ear disease affected him in his early twenties and led to total deafness.
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