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This study guide does not cover all of the material on your test. This review is meant to be a starting point to help you remember the major ideas that we covered in class. Be sure to also review the information in your notebook, lab book, and returned quizzes and tests.
1. What is ecology?
The scientific study of how living things interact with each other and their environment.
2. What are the ABCs of Ecology?
Abiotic, Biotic, and Cycles
3. What are the characteristics and needs of living things? Needs: Water, food, sunlight, shelter
Characteristics: movement, respiration, nutrition, irritability, growth, excretion, reproduction, death 4. Arrange the following from smallest to largest: population, biome, organism, community, ecosystem. Organism, population, community, ecosystem, and biome.
1. Define the following:
a. niche- the role of an organism in an ecosystem.
b. decomposer- an organism that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter.
c. producer- an organism that captures energy from sunlight and transforms it into chemical energy cccccccc cthat’s stored in energy-rich carbon compounds. Producers are a source of food for other organisms.
d. consumer- a living thing that gets its energy by eating other living things in a food chain.
e. limiting factor- a factor or condition that prevents the continuing growth of a pop. in an ecosystem 2. What do the arrows in food chains or webs mean?
Eaten by, gives energy to
3. The level of the energy pyramid with the most energy contains what type of organisms? How much energy is transferred each time you move up a level? The level that has most energy are the producers which are plants. 10% of the energy is transferred each time NJyou move up a level. 4. What is . . . a qualitative observation, a quantitative observation, and an inference? Qualitative- describing the appearance of something using words. Quality/look Quantitative- using numbers and words to describe something. Quantity/number Inference- a logical conclusion drawn from the available evidence and prior knowledge or observations. 5. Symbiosis – Define each term and give an example
a) mutualism- an interaction between two species in which both benefit. (Flowers and bees) b) parasitism- a relationship between two species in which one species is harmed while the other benefits. Xxxxx(Tapeworms and host) c) commensalism- an interaction between two species in which one species benefits without harming the dffffffother. (Moss and trees) 6. Describe the process of succession.
1. Retreating glaciers expose bare rock where nothing lives. 2. Lichens appear and when they die, particles break down the rock and soil is made. 3. After a lot of years, there is a lot of soil. Other organisms appear like moss and insects. 4. When more soil is made, there are ferns, flowers, shrubs, and small trees 5. After many years there is enough soil to support a forest. Secondary:
1. A disturbance occurs in an area and the organisms no longer live there. Soon though, crabgrass grows.
2. Then more weeds begin to grow.
3. After about ten years, pine trees grow and after 100 years, a forest may form.
4. Pines may be replaces by hardwoods.
Photosynthesis and Respiration:
1. What is photosynthesis? Where does it happen? In what type of organisms? When does it happen? Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and other producers use simple compounds and energy ddfrom light to make sugar, and energy-rich compound in the leaf of the plant. It happens during the day. 2. What is the formula for photosynthesis? Underline the reactants and circle the products. 6CO2 + 6H2O + SUN ENERGY C6H12O6 + 6O2
3. How do they enter and leave the plant?
CO2: leavesstomaspongy layerpalisadechloroplastchlorophyll H2O: rootsstemleavesxylempalisadechloroplastchlorophyll
4. What is respiration? Where does it happen? In what type of organisms? When does it happen? Cellular Respiration is a process in which cells use oxygen to release energy stored in sugars. Takes place in the mitochondria. It happens all the time.
5. What is the formula for respiration? Underline the reactants and circle the products. C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6CO2 + 6H2O
1. List the major characteristics of the six land biomes and 2 water biomes. In which biome do we live? We live in the Temperate Deciduous Forest.
a. Desert- A region so arid because of little rainfall that it supports only sparse and widely spaced vegetation.| e. Taiga- A type of forest characterized by cone-bearing, needled- leaf trees. It is also known as Evergreen Forest.| b. Freshwater- Defined as having a low salt concentration – usually less than 1%. Plants and animals in freshwater regions are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration.| f. Temperature Deciduous Forest- Consists of trees that lose their leaves every year.
Examples include oak, maple, beech, and elm. Has all four seasons. Plants become dormant in the winter.| c. Grassland- Characterized as lands dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees.| g. Tropical Rainforest- Contains at least one-half of the world’s species of plants and animals and are dominated by tall, broad-leaved trees. Tropical rainforests are wet and hot year-round and have nutrient poor soil. Found @ the equator.| d. Marine- A biome consisting of waters containing 3.5% salt on average; includes the oceans and covers more than 70% of the Earth’s surface; divided into benthic and pelagic zones.| h. Tundra- A vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.|
1. Which 6 states are part of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed? 2743 km2 Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New York. 2. Define the following:
a. tributary- a stream or other body of water, surface or underground, which intermittently contributes its aaaaaaaaawater in small quantities to another larger stream or body of water. b. estuary- the lower end of a river where it meets the ocean and freshwater and saltwater mix. c. watershed- an area or region drained by a river, river system, or other body of water. 3. What are the 2 critical roles oysters play in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem? Oysters are filter feeders, consuming phytoplankton and improving water quality while filtering the water for food. As generations of oysters settle on top of each other and grow they form reefs that provide structured habitat for many fish species and crabs. Oysters also improve dissolved oxygen. 4. What are the roles of SAV?
They provide underwater life with food and habitat, absorb nutrients, trap sediment, reduce erosion, and add oxygen to the water. They are an excellent measure of the Bay’s overall condition because their health is closely linked with the Bay’s health. 5. What are the roles of wetlands?
Wetlands are transitional areas between land and water. While some wetlands are noticeably wet, others do not always have visible water. An area is defined as a wetland based on its soils and vegetation. All wetlands are dominated by hydrophytes, which are plants that are adapted for life in wet soils. Wetlands also have hydric soils, which are soils that are periodically saturated or flooded.
Water Quality Factors:
1. What can affect the temperature of water?
The shallowness of the water, the air, and the shade.
2. Draw a simple pH scale. What is neutral? _7_ the most basic? _14_the most acidic? _1_ Basic
3. Why is dissolved oxygen needed in water? How does the oxygen get into the water? Just as we need air to breathe, aquatic organisms need dissolved oxygen to respire. It is necessary for the survival of fish, invertebrates, bacteria, and underwater plants. DO is also needed for the decomposition of organic matter. There are three ways that oxygen gets dissolved into water. One is by diffusion, when oxygen diffuses into the water directly from the air above it. Next is aeration, this can be cased by wave action of water spilling over rocks and waterfalls or you aerator. And the third is by waste products of plants. Aquatic plants produce oxygen as a waste product of photosynthesis and this dissolves into the water.
4. What causes the uncontrolled growth of green algae in the Bay? What is the name for this process? Nitrites act as fertilizer for aquatic plants such as algae and contribute to the sequence of events called eutrophication. An excess of nitrates causes algae to grow and cover the entire surface of the water. The plants that grow underwater do not get enough sunlight so they die and begin to decompose. Eventually the algae will die and be decomposed by bacteria in the water. Decomposition and the lack of green plants resultfin a decreased amount of oxygen in the water. Without enough oxygen, fish and other organisms will die.