Study Guide for Anthropology Exam Essay

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Study Guide for Anthropology Exam

GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY
* Study of human kind, perspective of all people & all times * Full understanding of what it means “to be human” * Very diverse as a species
BIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
* Understanding relationship between biology and culture
HOLISTIC
* Referring to the whole system
* Relating to or concerning the whole system rather than just part of the system * e.g. medicine→treatment of the whole body * consider all parts of the body:
* spiritual
* genes
* family system
* what they eat
COMPARATIVE (CROSS CULTURAL)
* Comparing cultures
* No judgments made
ETHNOCENTRIC
* Belief in inherent superiority of one’s own ethnic group/culture * Tendency to view other ethnic group/culture from own perspective * Self-centeredness to one’s own ethnic group/culture * Saying goes “there’s no way like the American way” * Most cultures are generally ethnocentric * As an anthropologist, one must be open-minded

CULTURAL “RELATIVISM”
* As an anthropologist, one must think each other culture has merit within its own system * System shouldn’t be judged * Must review a culture for what it accepts
* Accept practices that one may not approve of (e.g. female circumcision) FIELDWORK * Time of data collection
* Going out to the field & studying the culture
* e.g. taking DNA samples, research, working in the lab, etc. 4 SUBFIELDS OF ANTHROPOLOGY * Franz Boas invented the “4 Field Approach”
* Practiced in the United States
* Sometimes may overlap, all anthropology
1. Linguistic Anthropology
* Study of the language of people, study of communication * Language: set of written/spoken symbols that refer to things, make it possible the transfer/knowledge from one person to the next * e.g. 6,000-7,000 spoken languages in the world * sociolinguistics: subfield of linguistics that investigate language’s social context * social norms of using language (e.g. way we talk to doctor, dog, parents) * gender is a cultural stereotype put on a person due to their sex * men and women have different uses of speech 2. Cultural Anthropology (Sociocultural)

* Culture-learned behavior that’s distinct amongst a group of people * Passed down through generations * Evolutionary; changes
* Estimated 5,000 distinct cultural groups on the planet
* Different levels of culture & sublevels
* North vs. South vs. Midwest vs. Northeast
* Studying behavior
* Kinships, family, friends, food, religion, etc.
* Specialize in different areas
* Medical anthropology: how cultures treat diseases
* Political anthropology: difference in power
* Economic anthropology: study of goods & resources
3. Archeology
* Study of the material remain of past human life & activities * Artifacts: material objects from past cultures (e.g. tools, pottery, ceramics) * Ecofacts: natural material used by humans * Features: artifacts/ecofacts that cannot be removed from their context * Excavation & lab work * Very systematic & controlled because what one uncovers, one also destroys * e.g. shipwreck: artifacts found in the water are preserved, when it’s taken above sea, artifacts are being destroyed in the process * documentation is essential * Specialties: any time period including but limited to classical archeology & contract archeology * Contract vs. Academic * Biggest difference: required by law to stop construction if artifacts are found & contact archeologists * Contract
under budget, time, law constraints 4. Biological Anthropology

* Study of human biological evolution & human biocultural variation * Evolutionary significance of variation * Unheard of to find a nearly complete fossil
AMERICAN ANTHROPLOGY
* Franz Boas
* Turn of the 20th century
* “Father of Anthropology” (invented the 4 Field Approach) * Trained the first generation of well-known anthropologists * Set the standard on how anthropology should be studied in America * Came up with biocultural perspective * Ales Hrdlicka

* Worked at the Smithsonian
* Most well known for his interest in the skull
* Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1918) * “Voice of the Field” * Also founded the American Association of Physical Anthropology (1929) * Charles Darwin * “History of Evolutionary Thought”

* His created ideas:
* Species Change (Evolution)
* Complied data to prove his idea
* Adaptive Radiation
* Out of one species branches multiple related species
* Idea that living things can descend from a common ancestor * Gradualism * That change occurs gradually/slowly
* Species will evolve slowly over many generations
* Natural Selection
* Recognizes the impact of the environment on living organisms HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT * Middle Ages in Europe
* 2 ideas that dominated the worldly view
* Order: natural hierarchal arrangement or order to life
* Stasis: idea that things do not change (static)
* Influenced by, created by, & perpetuated by religious beliefs * Idea
of the “Great Chain of Being” * At the top, there was a “Great Being/Supreme Being” * Also impacted the natural world; wasn’t just religious * Gradually increased to most spiritual beings (dirt→angels) * Fixity of species: referring to stasis; once things were created, they were fixed * Applied to humans and the natural world * Political System

* Related to hierarchy: monarchy were at the top of the order * Static: no one could move up the chain of command * Thoughts mirrored in political system
* Young Earth
* At the time, everyone believed the Earth was only 5,000 years old instead of millions of years old * Hence the name “Young Earth” * No one ever dared to go against the established system

* 14th-18th Centuries
* Ideas slowly began to change due to the Renaissance & the Enlightment * Revival of all these fields of study * Technological advances
* Microscope
* Telescope
* Began to realize that the world was forever moving
* “Earth is not the center of the universe”
* Printing press
* Allow quick spread of ideas/information
* Exploration
* Increased travel outside of Europe
* Encountered diverse lands & people
* Brought to life all the diversity of the planet

DARWIN’S INFLUENCES
* Carolus Linnaeus
* Created the binomial nomenclature: classifying organisms with a two-name system * became the basis for modern taxonomy * Buffon
* Botanist in the King’s garden
* First to write how the environment influences organisms * However, did not believe that one species could change into another * Lamarck *
If an organism was in need, it could modify itself to meet the need & the change can be passed on to the next generation * “inheritance of acquired characteristics” or Lamarckism * Characteristics that are acquired during a lifetime of an individual can be inherited by his/her offspring * e.g. the giraffe’s neck grew as a result of trying to adapt to reaching higher leaves * organisms experiences stress in the environment that causes them to adapt & this adaption is passed on * Lamarck falsified (not true) * Lamarck’s ideas can be explained by epigenetic

* Chemical reactions that turn genes on/off according to the environment & can be passed down from generation to generation * Cuvier * Well-respected, comparative anatomist
* Paleontologist
* Noted extinct fossils & wanted to explain this
* Catastrophism: periodic catastrophes that would befall the Earth & cause mass extinction * Life forms from other regions would repopulate that particular area * e.g. earthquakes & tsunamis * catastrophes were represented in fossils

* Lyell
* Geologist: known as the founder of modern geology
* Uniformitarianism: geological processed that impact the earth have been uniform throughout time * Same thing at work in the present were also at work in the past * As a result, the landscape of Earth is constantly changing & very old * Malthus * Economist, clergyman

* Demographer: study of population; birth/death rates
* Idea that population size is limited by the resource availability & because of this, there will be competition among people for those limited resources * Arguing about population control * “The Essay on the Principle of Population”

* Alfred Wallace
* Naturalist & learned scholar
* Independently came up with the idea of natural selection (idea that the
environment can impact organisms) * Corresponded with Darwin * Deserves just as much credit & praise as Darwin

* Charles Darwin
* Influenced by biology, natural sciences, anthropology
* From a wealthy family
* Became knowledgeable about the current events
* Sailed around the world on “The Beagle” (for 5 years) where he collected data from the trip * By 1858, Wallace was going public, but Darwin didn’t want Wallace to receive all the credit * Origins of Species (1859): Darwin’s book on natural selection * Caused a huge stir in society NATURAL SELECTION

* “Survival of the Fittest”
* Not necessarily about physical fitness, more so about breeding * Breeding for certain traits occurs naturally based on the environment * Basic Processes * Biological variation
* Competition
* Something will happen to make people compete for limited resources * People with advantageous traits will survive * High death rate
* Selective pressure: any circumstance/phenomenon that affects the reproductive success of an organism in an environment * Determines which traits will be more advantageous * Fitness: measure of reproductive success

* How many offspring one have & how many of those offspring can have offspring * e.g. man in his 50’s had 4 kids & 15 grandkids, he has more fitness than the man in his 80’s who only had 1 grandkid * Reproduction * Passed genes on to succeeding generations

* Shift advantageous traits
* Those without the advantages will die off
* Accumulation
* Assuming selective pressure remains constant
* Traits will be more common; decrease in unfavorable traits * Trait
will accumulate over time * Population: group of people
* Measured in the population through change is by the individual * New Species? * May develop new species over time, but doesn’t have to * Change in frequencies of different traits * 23 different definition

* Contrast between Darwin & Lamarck
* Lamarck says that giraffes will “grow” their necks to meet a certain need & these traits are then passed on * Darwin says in a giraffe population, there’s a variation of neck lengths & over time, the neck length of the giraffe will increase because those with shorter necks will die off through natural selection * Medium Ground Finch Example * Biological variation in the beak size

* At first, the finches ate soft seeds that were easy to break open * Increase in beak size when there was a drought (selective pressure) * Smaller, softer seeds became unavailable so the finches had to rely on another food sources which were harder seeds * Individuals with larger beaks were able to crack open the seed (advantageous trait) * The finches with larger beaks were more able to survive & reproduce, which in turn created large beaked finches & changed the mean beak size * Peppered Moths Example * In the early 1800’s, grey moths were numerous because they were able to camouflage with the natural environment so they were less preyed on * Because of pollution, black moths were more camouflaged with the environment while grey moths were preyed on more (shift in population) * Antibiotic Resistance * Penicillin was introduced in WWII & people were surviving due to healed infections * 1947 (4 years after), mutant bacteria were forming that were resistance to penicillin * Bacteria reproduces so quickly (15-20 minutes) so natural selection occurs more quickly & resistant mutants form faster * Multiple Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) * Bacteria-induced disease

* Would kill one from the inside out
* Starts in the lungs
* Antibiotics made tuberculosis scarce
* But now, there’s highly resistant forms of TB
* Resistant to two or more prime drugs used to treat TB
* Methicilin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureaus (MRSA)
* Found in hospitals
* Can survive in several types of antibiotics
* Cause infections through open wounds, weak immune system * Kills more people in the US than AIDS does * Increase hospital deaths in those that have it than those who don’t * Antibiotics kill 98% of bacteria, but 2% of bacteria are still alive & adapt to the drugs & pass on the resistance to the next generation * Key Things in Natural Selection * Environment

* Trait must be passed on; able to inherit
* Fitness (reproductive success): getting genes in the future & # of offspring who will survive to reproduce more offspring INHERITANCE * Homunculus: means “Little Man”
* Proposed that in sperm cells, there existed a tiny but fully-formed little person * Little person would just get bigger * Blending inheritance
* Children were a blend/mix of their parents, 50-50 mix of each parent * e.g. red flower + white flower = pink flower * Mendel’s worth with pea plants proved the “Little Man” theory & blending inheritance do not work * Cells * Basic unit of life

* Prokaryotic: relatively simple organisms with no nucleus (like bacteria) * Eukaryotic: contains nucleus (DNA) & organelles (sub-nuclear membrane bound components/bodies that do some function in the cell) * Cell Types * Somatic cells: make up body tissues, bone cells, cartilage, etc. * Gametes reproduction cells (sperm & egg) that contain genetic code from the parents DNA * Genetic material

* 2 chains of nucleotides (sugar+phosphate+base)
* Bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine)
* Base-pair specificity
* Adenine with thymine, guanine with cytosine
* Replication
* Development, growth, maintenance, repair
* Important that they replicate exactly
* Constantly happening
* Nuclear DNA (nDNA)
* Nucleus of every cell except red blood cells
* Thousands of genes, billions of base pairs
* Template for protein production
* Blueprint for life
* Homoplasmic: same in every cell regardless of cell type * Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) * Found in mitochondria, which produces energy for cell to function * 37 genes (much smaller segments of DNA) * Assists with mitochondrial function (production of energy) * Heteroplasmic: not identical in every cell; can be different because mitochondria can replicate & segregate HEREDITY * Gene: sequence of DNA

* Structural: a gene that’s responsible for body structures codes for activities that enable life * Regulatory: regulates the functions of other genes; turns them on/off * Homeotic gene (Hok gene) * Guides embryological development

* In many different life forms (birds, mammals, reptiles, etc.) * Genes can be long or short with bases * Chromosomes
* Humans have 46 chromosomes
* Sequence of genes
* Karyotype: organized profile of a person’s chromosomes * Autosomes (44) * Carry genetic information on physical characteristics, but don’t determine primary sex characteristics * Sex chromosomes (2) * Determine the primary sex characteristic

* XX (female), XY (male)
* Offspring receives 23 chromosomes from each parent
* Homologous pairs (23)
* Pair of chromosomes that each chromosome carries the same information * Almost the same size & carry the same trait coding but aren’t identical * Carry genetic code for the same traits CELL DIVISION

* Mitosis
* Creates 2 daughter cells
* Identical to each other & original
* Diploid number meaning they all have 46 chromosomes
* Occurs for growth & development, tissue repair, body maintenance * Meiosis * Goes through two cycles
* Leads to gametes (sex cells)
* Recombination/crossing over occurs→ exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes * 4 daughter cells that aren’t identical to each other or original * Haploid number meaning they have half the # of chromosomes, so they have only 23 chromosomes * Gamete development * Important because recombination allows for variation which is key to natural selection CELL DIVISION MISTAKES * Deletion of chromosomes, etc.

* Nondisjunction
* Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
* Creates daughter cells with the incorrect number of chromosomes * Monosomy: one less chromosome in a pair (only have 1 instead of 2) * Can happen to autosomes which is more tragic & can be fatal * XO Turner Syndrome: monosomy in sex chromosomes * Have only 1 X but are females

* Have 45 chromosomes instead of 46
* Won’t kill you
* Trisonomy: 3 chromosomes in a pair instead of 2
* Highly variable range of impact
* In autosomes (no X or Y)
* T21-Down Syndrome
* Extra 21 chromosomes
* Could have malfunction in the heart, etc.
* T18-Edward’s Syndrome
* Growth deficiency
* Death in about 6 months
* T13- Patou
* Only survive in a few days
* In sex chromosomes ( have X or Y)
* XXY: more feminine characteristics in a male because of more X * XXX: taller but normal fertility with possible learning disabilities * XYY: taller, lower sperm count, learning disabilities MENDELIAN TRAITS

* Worked with pea plants (height & color)
* Genetic Principles
* Law of Segregation: traits are controlled by discrete units that occur in pairs * The pairs separate during gamete formation & reunited during fertilization * Therefore, each parent contributes one of the pairs to the offspring * Gene/Allele * Gene: sequence of DNA responsible for some function

* Allele: alternate form of a gene
* Dominant: described as an allele that’s expressed in the presence of another different allele (T) * Recessive: described as an allele that’s not expressed in the presence of another different allele (t) * Locus: location of an allele on a chromosome * Homozygous: two copies of the same allele (TT)

* Heterozygous: different alleles present (Tt)
* Genotype: combination of alleles or genetic makeup (TT) * Phenotype: physical expression of alleles (tall, short, etc.) * Punnet Square (see notes for examples) * Law of Independent Assortments

* Genes that code for different sort independently from each other * Variety of offspring * Some genes go together (linkage, genes are passed together) * e.g. red hair & freckles * Inheritance in Humans

* Mendelian Inheritance: inheritance of traits controlled by alleles at one locus * a.k.a. Mendelian traits * over 18,000 of them
* either present or not
* Examples:
* Earlobes: attached (recessive) vs. unattached (dominant) * Earwax: waxy, sticky (dominant) vs. dry, flaky (recessive) * PTC Paper Test: taster (dominant) * Hair line: widow’s peak (dominant) vs. straight
(recessive) * Thumb: hitcher’s thumb (dominant) vs. no bend (recessive) * Blood type * Alleles code for antigens on the surface of the blood cells (A,B,O) * Types: A, B, O * O is recessive, A & B are co-dominant in AB

* Type A blood is either AA or AO
* Type B blood is either B or BO
MENDELIAN DISORDERS
* Dominant: one copy of harmful allele means you have the disorder * Acondroplasia (dwarfism) * Brachydactyly (shorter/different finger lengths)
* Recessive: must have two copies of harmful allele to get full-blown disorder * Sickle cell anemia, Tay Sachs, Cystic Fibrosis * Carriers: someone who carries one of the alleles that causes the disorder * Heterozygote expression: one allele is not completely masked POLYGENIC INHERITANCE * Tend to be continuous in their expression

* Range of variation/expression
* Skin color, height, shape of eyes, eye color
* Inheritance of traits controlled by alleles at more than one locus * Skin color * Melanin production
* Multiple loci contribution
* Co-dominant alleles
* Polygenic traits
* Environmental influence
* Has less effects on Mendelian traits
* Can’t change blood types
* More impact on polygenic traits
* Height (environment can stunt growth)
* Pleiotrophy
* One gene impacting multiple traits
* Complicated process
MODERN THEORY OF EVOLUTION
* Evolution: change in genetic frequencies of a trait in a population over time * Production & distribution of genetic variation * Natural
selection (environmental influence)
* Microevolution
* Small scale changes in a population
* Below the species level
* Macroevolution
* Large scale changes that occur at or above the species level * Not observed during a short time * Occurs over thousands of generations
* Difference in not one of the process, but of the scale of the change * Series of microevolution can lead to a macroevolution * Deme: group of organisms that interbreed regularly & produce offspring (a.k.a. population ) * Gene pool: all genetic information in a deme * Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

* Mathematical equation that predicts allele distribution in a population under the ideal conditions * Tools used to assess if the population alleles are changing * Ideal conditions: constant environment, all mate & have the ability to produce offspring INFLUENCES ON ALLELE FREQUENCIES * Mutation

* Change in DNA sequence
* Spontaneous: naturally occurring
* Induced: not natural, but induced by the environment
* Creates variation, which can be passed on
* Gene Flow: movement of alleles between populations
* Interbreeding
* Creating variation
* Genetic Drift: changes in allele frequencies caused by random events * Bottleneck Effect * Reduction possible in genetic variation
* Something drastic happens & the population is suddenly reduced * e.g. Hurricane Katrina * Founder Effect
* Start with a group of individuals who goes & establishes a colony somewhere else * Genetic variation with the founders of the new colony * e.g. Ellis Von Syndrome
* Recessive disorder
* Causes dwarfism & polytactism (extra fingers)
* Occurs at higher rates among the Amish because it’s a close population with a high birthrate * Can be traced to one of the founders * Difference of Bottleneck & Founder effect is where you begin * Bottleneck is with a large population * Founder is with a small, closed population

* Natural Selection
* Balanced polymorphism (Heterozygote Advantage)
* Maintenance of 2 or more alleles in a population due to selective advantage of the heterozygote * Get selected out & have an advantage * Sickle Cell Allele
* Recessive disorder
* Found in equatorial Africa & parts of India
* Deformed red blood cells because it deforms hemoglobin
* Causes anemia, pain, & death
* Malaria
* Disease caused by parasite that attack red blood cells
* Connection between Malaria & Sickle Cell
* If you’re homozygous normal, you’re more apt to get malaria→ fitness goes down * Carriers of sickle cell are protected from malaria because the parasite can’t reproduce * Both homozygous phenotypes aren’t good, but being a carrier is good * Same relationship between Tay-Sachs disorder & tuberculosis * Carriers of Tay-Sachs are protected from TB * As well as the relationship between cystic fibrosis as a protector against cholera HUMAN VARIATION * “Voyages of Discovery” (15th-17th Century)

* Moving out to discover the world
* Encountering difference in humans
* Monogenism: all humans were descendants of a single original pair & any variation in humans is due to environmental variation * Polygenism: variation in humans is a result of different original pairs * Early Studies (early 18th-19th Century) * Describing & classifying variation

* People categorized based on observable features like skin, head shape, etc. * Word “race” came into being * No consensus on number of races &
what constituted race * Mid 19th Century * Biological determinism

* Behavioral attributes are governed or associated with biological attributes * Just because you look a certain way means you’ll act a certain way * Today, people still think with that kind of mindset RACE

* Common definition
* Species: as in the human race
* Cultural/ethnic identity
* Religious identity
* Physical characteristics
* “Ethnicity” & “Ancestry” are used as a substitute for race * Some argue “race” doesn’t exist * Problems:
* Racism
* Not about how you look, but how people assign meaning to how you look * One group is superior over another * Not reliable way to distinguish people
* There will always be many expectations
* Entire populations cannot be categorized
* Genetic variation
* More variation within a population subgroup than there’s between different subgroups * More genetically similar than they are different * Definition from biological anthropology perspective

* One polytypic species
* Geographic pattern to phenotype variation
* Cultural affiliation with biological effects
* People who share common customs, language, belief systems, etc. married other people similar to themselves * Cline * Refers to gradual phenotype or genetic variation over geographic space * Don’t draw boundaries * “there are no races on the planet, only clines”

HUMAN VARIATION
* Environmental stress
* Rain, temperature, altitude
* Humans response to environmental stress
* Cultural: behavioral modification in response to stress * Wearing a coat because it’s cold * Compensate for pressure on your body
* Acclimatization (Physiological)
* Individual response to an environment pressure, but it’s involuntary * Reversible & short term (temporary) * e.g. sunburn, increase in red blood cell production in high altitudes, increase in sweating * Developmental * Happens at individual level, but is observable at population level * Ability to respond to stress is inherited * Response occurs during a critical period of growth & development * Not reversible, not short term * e.g. high altitude populations have larger hearts, chests, & lung capacity, different oxygen transportation * Genetic (Population) * Characterize a population

* Inherited, long term, non-reversible
* Occurs at birth because it’s inherited
* “the adaptation”
* e.g. skin color
* happens regardless of specific circumstance of the individual * Purpose? To Maintain Homeostasis * Ability of organism to maintain internal equilibrium
* Food, water, temperature
SOLAR RADIATION & SKIN COLOR
* Darker skin color in equatorial regions where there’s more solar radiation * All humans have same # of meloncites, but different in how much they produce * Melanin protects from UV radiation * More melanin naturally → can withstand more UV light

* Hence skin pigmentation is protection from solar radiation * In an area where solar radiation is greater, those who have more melanin will have the advantage & better fitness * Vitamin D Hypothesis * The body’s need for vitamin D and for UV radiation to produce it provided a selective pressure for lighter skin in the northern latitudes * Less pigmentation (at northern latitude) = better vitamin D synthesis TEMPERATURE EXTREMES * Over 120 degrees to -60 degrees is the temperature range for survival *
We respond better to heat than to cold * Heat

* Sweating: response to extreme heat (body’s way of trying to cool us down) * Vasodilatation: capillaries at skin’s surface dilate * Moving blood away from the core & out towards the surface * e.g. muscles turn pink when exercising * Cold

* Shivering: automatic response
* Trying to generate heat
* Burns a lot of nutrients
* Vasoconstriction: capillaries near the skin’s surface constricts * Decrease blood flow to surface of your skin * Keeps vital organs bathed in blood & warm
* Could lead to death in tissues like frostbites
* Body Metabolic Rate (BMR)
* Colder climate people have higher BMR than those in warmer climates * Bergmann’s & Allen’s Rule * Pattern/general relationship between climate & body size/shape * Bergmann’s Rule: body size will increase as distance from the equator decreases * Allen’s Rule: limb length decreases as distance from the equator increases OTHER ADAPTATIONS * Adapting to high altitudes

* Hypoxia: condition that develops when you don’t get enough oxygen * “oxygen starvation”

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