Study About Pc Troubleshooting And Maintenance Computer Science Essay

Most of the clip when we start up our computing machines, the CPU or Central Processing Unit goes through a series of stairss or processs before the computing machine runing systems boots from the difficult disc. These initial stairss are all categorized in a system called CMOS which stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. This is the where the systems scenes such as the system clock, difficult disc position, optical thrusts and other scenes like the CPU ‘s clock velocity, FSB and so on are all on this scene.

On the other manus, the bit that shops the scenes is known as the BIOS bit besides known as Basic Input Output System. This holds the most basic computing machine instructions that are required to boot the operating system like Windows XP or Linux based runing systems such as Ubuntu. Many people ever get mistaken by naming is a CMOS bit, but since the BIOS and CMOS is so tightly intertwined, they can be both referred to as one ( Difference between CMOS and BIOS, Dennis Faas ) .

In other words, the CMOS bit shops the informations needed for the BIOS so that the computing machine may boot us decently.

The battery used to hive away the information is a lithium button battery which is located merely near the CMOS bit and the CMOS jumper. This battery clasp provides power to the CMOS bit even when the power of the computing machine is shut off. This is necessary where the bit is volatile, means that it will lose informations when there is no power unlike a difficult disc which work on magnetic attraction.

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What is BIOS & A ; CMOS

BIOS is normally known as Basic Input/Output System. It is practically the lowest degree processor that stands in between the hardware like the chipset and the processor with the operating system that is installed in a difficult disc. The BIOS gives full entree to the hardware constituents to let a creative activity of high degree runing systems such as Windows XP, Windows 7, Macintosh every bit good as Linux based runing systems. Furthermore, the BIOS is besides responsible over the behavior of the hardware, such as the processor ‘s clock velocity, the Front Side Bus or known as FSB, system clock, and many other critical hardware scenes which is required to lade or configured before the operating system loads into the Random Access Memory or RAM ( System BIOS, Charles M. Kozierok, 2001 ) .

For a computing machine to run, all the constituents must be given specific instructions on how and what they are suppose to make. Normally, that is where the BIOS semen into drama. The BIOS has a particular package in which it runs preliminary codifications or instructions which is preset into the ROM bit or Read Merely Memory bit that is executed to lade the operating system from the difficult disc into the RAM for the computing machine to foster put to death more complicated bids and instructions so that it would be easier for the processor to pass on with the RAM in footings of direction executing and entree ( The BIOS Program, Charles M. Kozierok, 2001 ) .

One of the most basic operations of the BIOS is the POST ( Power On Self Test ) . This portion is done to do certain that all of the constituents in the computing machine such as the motherboard, difficult discs, optical thrusts, artworks adapter card and other constituents are working and they are detected throughout the system.

Figure 1: BIOS that uses brassy memory

CMOS or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor is low in power ingestion and has low heat production rate engineering that is used in modern-day micro chips and it is normally known as a little battery powered constellation bit where the BIOS shops the clip, day of the month and the system constellation scenes ( What is CMOS? , 2010 ) .

The chief composing of this bit is made from Si and Ge which in a manner conducts electricity. These stuffs are so “ doped ” where drosss are added to transform it into a to the full scaled transistor, either of excess negative charged ( N-type ) or positively charged ( P-type ) . CMOS on the other manus uses both sorts of transistors in a complementary manner to make a current gate where it makes an electrical control nowadays. They practically use no power at all but this in another manner, it makes it heat up fast where this sets a major bound to the velocity where a microprocessor can run ( CMOS, 2005 ) .

The CMOS has a package which is a apparatus that is included in the creative activity of the bit. This apparatus is really critical for system constellation such as the frequence and electromotive force control of the constituents, the system day of the month and clip and the POST scenes every bit good as the boot precedence scenes for the operating system to burden.

Figure 2: Examples of CMOS apparatus package interface

Types of BIOS & A ; CMOS

Now we know that BIOS is chiefly the system where as the CMOS is the bit that contains a package that runs the BIOS.

BIOSes were programmed ab initio into ROMs or PROMs ( Programmable Read Only Memory ) CMOS french friess, where it merely stored a really limited sum of informations of the system constellation. Extensibility of the BIOS is limited to the capacity of the CMOS bit therefore many old ages subsequently BIOSes became more better when they introduce a new sort engineering known as EPROM ( Effaceable Programmable Read Only Memory ) and EEPROM ( Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory ) . Though EPROMs are eraser in a really different mode where the bit has to be exposed to UV visible radiation which passes through a little glass window on the bit, in order to unclutter all the memory cells. The bit has a little window that allows the consumption of UV visible radiation upon wipe outing the information instructions in the CMOS bit ( How to wipe out and plan an EPROM, 2003 ) .

Figure 3: DIP type ROM CMOS bit

Figure 4: PLCC type PROM CMOS bit

The CMOS bit on the other manus has 2 normally used types, categorized by their bundles, PLCC and DIP. PLCC stands for Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier which is a four sided bit bearer with a ‘J ‘ lead and pin spacings of 1.27mm. The lead count or legs normally range from 20 to 84 ( Minges, Merrill L. ( 1989 ) . Electronic Materials Handbook ) . DIP stands for Dual Inline Package which consists of two analogues sided electrical connecting pins connected to a rectangular lodging. Both types of bundles for the CMOS bit is fixed at 32 pins, since the CMOS scenes merely need to reassign about 32 spots across the board.

Like mentioned in the debut, the BIOS or the CMOS bit is powered by a battery that is used to hive away the scenes and instructions integral even after the power is turned off. Below are the several types of batteries the CMOS bit uses ( CMOS Battery, 2010 ) :

Figure 5: 3V Lithium Button Cell Battery

Figure 6: 4.5V Alkaline Battery

Figure 7: 3.6V Nickel-Cadmium Battery ( Solder Connectors )

Current Technologies and Models for BIOS & A ; CMOS

In today ‘s market, the current engineering used in BIOS and CMOS is the PLCC type, EEPROM CMOS bit and powered by a 3V Lithium Battery Cell. The CMOS apparatus for the BIOS include two major companies which are American Megatrends and Phoenix BIOS. There are besides other type ‘s apparatuss which are configured by the computing machine maker such as Dell, Acer, HP Compaq and many more.

The BIOS on the other manus provides excess installations in footings of the configurability of the onboard devices like the embedded sound, the processor ‘s electromotive force, FSB, Multiplier, RAM electromotive force, difficult disc boot sequence and many more.

Below are some illustrations of the CMOS apparatus screens in constellation manner for different types of apparatus:

Figure 8: CMOS apparatus chief page for AWARD Software.

Figure 9: Central processing unit Configuration scenes

Figure 10: Boot Sequence scenes

BIOS & A ; CMOS Failures and Solutions

Like the RAMs and difficult discs, the BIOS and CMOS bit can besides hold mistake and failures. There are three types of virus invasion that can impact the BIOS system:


Black Hat 2006

Persistent BIOS Infection

CIH was the first virus that was able to wipe out the content on a Flash ROM BIOS. It was besides given the moniker as “ Chernobyl Virus ” The extent of the virus lead to the expulsion of the CMOS bit from the motherboard and sent for reprogramming for it has besides distorted its basic functionality.

Black Hat 2006 is a virus that is capable to promote privileges and read physical memory, utilizing malicious processs that replaced normal ACPI maps stored in brassy memory.

Persistent BIOS Infection work as an interpolation of malicious codification into the decompression modus operandis in the BIOS, leting for about full control of the Personal computer at every start-up, even before the operating system is booted. The cogent evidence of the construct does non work a defect in the BIOS execution, but merely involves the normal BIOS flashing processs. Therefore, it requires physical entree to the machine or for the user on the operating system to be root ( Researchers unveil relentless BIOS onslaught methods, 2009 ) .

Solutions to get the better of these sorts of virus normally required either reprogramming of the CMOS bit or merely an ascent of the CMOS microcode.

To reset all the informations in the BIOS via the CMOS bit are normally done as follows:

Turn off all power and unplug all wires from the Personal computer

Open the CPU shell to uncover the motherboard

Find the jumper pins that is used to unclutter the CMOS scenes or a little button near the CMOS bit

Short the jumper pins by traveling the connection from “ 1-2 ” to “ 2-3 ” place to unclutter the scenes and take the system battery. Else, imperativeness the button for 8 seconds.

After this is done, travel the jumper connection back to its original place “ 1-2 ” and so put the system battery back in its topographic point.

Topographic point the screen back and link all the wires and turn on the power

Once the computing machine tonss and pass the POST trial, the BIOS will motivate to come in CMOS scenes to put it back once more.

After the scenes are set, salvage the scenes and go out the bill of fare so the computing machine can re-start and lade the operating system.


In decision, the BIOS is the most system for a computing machine to boot and burden scenes for the all the hardware constituents. The CMOS bit is a demand for it is the constituent that shops the instructions of the BIOS into the apparatus. Without this, the computing machine would non cognize how to lade the operating system or place the being of any hardware constituents.

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Study About Pc Troubleshooting And Maintenance Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

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