Students changes Essay
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There has been increased demand for knowledge and information due to introduction of technology in various parts of the world . The persons who seek the information and knowledge are referred to as students . Students refers to persons who may be interested in learning in any kind of institution . For example, students may be from institutions such as primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. In the universities, students may be classified as either first, second, third or fourth year students as these classification depends on time when they have enrolled for their studies in the universities.
Mature students may be found in the tertiary institutions whereby they are classified as undergraduates. These students are usually of the age 21 to 23 years old when they are being enrolled in these institutions. They stay there for either two or more years before they access the university education. Mature students may also mean persons who have been in school for many years while others have not had any secondary education, while others may be those who wish to upgrade their studies for example the post graduate students (Mistress, J.
P. and Cocking, R. R. 2000).
The reasons why students change is because of: change of interest in the studies that they had been invited to study in those institutions, difficulties in classes or financial and scholarship concerns. Students also change due to personal problems or bad influence from the peers who may have a negative attitude towards studies. School going children of ages 8 to 12 undergo changes such as biological circadian rhythms. The factors that are observed in those children are staying awake for long hours and sleeping too early in the morning instead of doing useful activities.
Pubertal changes in children start as early for the Africa Americans as compared to the whites . Adolescent children should sleep four at least nine hours, but this does not happen which later on leads to their inability to concentrate in class thus being unable to grasp all that they have been taught in class that translates to poor performance in their studies (Ormrod, J. E. 2004). Psychosocial theories In this theory, individuals are said to accomplish a series of developmental tasks. As the individual passes through the various stages of growth, social cultural or environmental influences, he or she faces many developmental challenges.
These challenges vary with age and developmental status. The sequence of developmental tasks are influenced by age related, biological, psychological and social cultural influences. It is quite tasking for an individual to settle these challenges as encountered and the patterns in which they occur may vary by gender and culture. According to Rodgers (1989), he asserts that an individual’s success in resolving each of the tasks can significantly affect the settlement of the following tasks and as a result, the rate and extent of psychosocial development. There two categories of psychosocial theories of development.
Arthur Chickerings seven vectors model (1969) deals with overall development while Erik Erikson deals with specific aspects of identity such as those relating to gender, race ethnicity or sexual orientation. Erik Erikson (1959, 1963, and 1968) developed many ideas about the psychosocial theory. The major elements found in his work and his colleagues are three. First one was epigenetic principle. This principle states that anything that grows has a ground plan and out this ground plan parts arise which each part having time of special influence until all the parts have arisen to form a functioning whole.
According to Erickson 1968, this principle is also of the view that an individual’s environment shapes the particular character and the extent of how to deal with important issues. The second principle states that a person develops through a series of crisis. It arises when biological and psychological changes interact with socio cultural demands to provide a distinctive challenge. This means a time where one needs to make choices amongst alternatives of choices. This could lead to developmental progression, regression or stasis. Third principle is the identity versus the identity confusion crisis.
This is dominant task for people of traditional college age. The identity development is an important issue in the theory of change amongst students. Therefore, it can be said that development involves integrations where the student encounter complexities in ideas, values, other people and therefore struggle to reconcile those new positions with their own ideas, values and belief. Progression brings in more awareness, skill, confidence, complexity, stability and integrations. Chickering (1969) identified vectors of development and these vectors are important because each seems to have direction and magnitude .
This theory describes the developmental dynamics that lead to it and from it. The seven factors include: Achieving competence: While in college, the students can increase their competency on intellectual areas, physical and manual skills while they improve on interpersonal skills. Intellectual, developmental of higher cognitive skills together with cultural sophistication. Managing emotions Development occurs when students learn to control their impulses and develop appropriate responses therefore they must learn how to control their anger, fear and anxiety,depression,guilt,,shame together with dysfunctional sexual or nomatic affiliations.
Moving towards interdependence It emphasizes on the need for people to interact well with others. Development here involves freedom from the need for reassurance and the approval of others as well as the self sufficiency evident in individuals’ ability to organize their own affairs, to solve problems and make decisions. Developing mature interpersonal relationship It indicates students interacting with one another, one provides a platform for learning . Mature relationships indicate that people are aware and open to other people’s ideas, background and values. Establishing identity:
It involves developing a sense of self shaped by historical, social and cultural issues emanating from the family and society. Developing purpose Growth also involves making developmental plans that integrate priorities in vocational goals and aspirations, interpersonal interests and family. Developing integrity It involves clarification and rebalancing of personal beliefs and values. It is important to note that emerging values and identity fund expression in ways that are internally and consistent and manifest themselves in good behavior (Baddeley, A. D. 1999).
Therefore, for institutions to encourage the students to develop, then they must give clear guidelines of institutions objectives and make them aware on the consistencies in their policies. They must give opportunities to students to participate in different activities, allow frequent students interfaculty interactions and provide a curriculum that is integrative in nature. Students must be allowed to actively participate in learning and form good student communities that become more meaningful. Students programs must be designed to provide proper content and more purposeful in nature.