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I’ve taken many English classes in high school including Ap Literature and Ap Language. I came to this University already knowing a lot about typing papers more so argumentative papers; Going through this English class has taught me so much more than stuff about literature and language, it has taught me how to be me. I have learned here how to write and express myself, how to think for myself, and how to find the answers to the things that I don’t know.
Most importantly I have learned how important writing summaries are.
I have always been a thinker, but throughout my coursework, I have greatly sharpened my critical analysis skills. Instead of focusing on proposed meanings or biographical background, I have learned to continuously ask ‘why’ on many different levels. I challenge myself to dig into a text as deeply as possible and unpack every detail to develop a satisfying close read. Writing had always been one of my strengths, but it was challenging to take that initial step past the high school essay form that constricted my ideas for so long.
Moving past this form, however, has greatly opened my mind. My thoughts are now able to be more complex because I have learned how to sustain a logical argument in an organized manner for a summary. Typing these summaries has created a backbone for all my papers coming up.
Green-Lippi, Rosina. “Language Subordination”. English with an Accent Second Edition
This Chapter provides information concerning the ‘language subordination process’ or how people are oppressed and excluded via standard language ideologies.
According to Lippi, an PhD linguist and novelist, one of the most interesting inquiries in this section isn’t whether individuals buy in to standard language belief systems, since it has just been set up that we as a whole do to a certain extent. She poses the more difficult question of how language subordination works, and offers ‘The language subordination model’ as an analytical tool to probe how SLIs (specific language impairment) are disseminated and why people accept the inferior or stigmatized social positions that consenting to a SLI grants them. She goes on with the model, which includes the following processes: language is mystified; authority is claimed; misinformation is generated; targeted languages are trivialized; conformers are held up as positive examples; non-conformers are vilified or marginalized; explicit promises are made; and threats are made. This chapter builds on the previous ones by discussing what the social implications are of asking people to speak a certain language, or with a certain accent.
This chapter give knowledge on how society use sociolinguist to discriminate against certain group of people based on how they speak. Lippi also, proves that it’s not how people speak; it’s more to it such as race and that society use language-focuses discrimination as a cover up. I appreciate how she took her time with this chapter and the rest of the book because it looks into the everyday life of people who face this issues with society and call out anyone that discriminate against accents and none speaking English languages. If I pursue Language Subordination as a topic, I will investigate how society is trying to change this discrimination viewpoint towards accents of all kinds.
Lee, Nala. “The Status of Endangered Contact Languages of the World”. Annual Reviews 2020
Vol 6 page 301-18.
This article provides information on the endangerment of contact languages around the world such as Creole, Pidgins and other mixed languages. Contact languages are when 2 or more languages come together and interact with each other which make them influence one another, such as Creole. According to Lee, an PhD linguist and Assistant Professor for National University of Singapore, contact languages are twice more than risk of endangerment than non-contact languages. Lee believes this because of the involving economic, political, geographical, demographic, and sociocultural factors around them. She claims that every 3 months at least one language becomes extinct and that the loss of these languages are consequential. Lee believes that loss of language is the loss of cultural or ethnic identity.
This article gives knowledge on why we need to protect all languages, but most importantly contact languages. It also gives an insight on how this loss of languages affect certain cultures. I appreciate how Lee is very committed to helping this study and how she identified key points into this study from the gap within language endangerment, to why we should care about the loss of contact languages. I’m curious on how she is expecting to help these languages from becoming extinct. If I pursue the endangerment of contact languages as a topic, I will investigate what is being done to preserve these languages now and what can be done in the future so, nothing like this cannot happen again.
Luu, Chi. “The life Changing Linguistics of… Nigerian Scam Emails”. JSTOR DAILY 2019.
This article gives a insight of how language is used to manipulate and trick people into sending them money. According to Luu, who is a resident linguist for JSTOR Daily and is a computational linguist and NLP researcher, Nigerian scammers go after gullible, overconfident and intelligent people. She claims in these emails they greet you in flattering, if broken, flowery language and how many people still fall for this scam such as businesses and individuals. Luu discusses how they sweet talk or promise their victim something in return for sending money or bank information over. The Nigerian scammers tell their victims that they will get a large amount of money for only sending in the small advance fee. Luu then discusses how language is used in these con jobs, they give use language that is eye catching to their victims, such as (greedy) imagination, relieving their fears, and bond building languages.
This article gives great knowledge about what we can expect from these Nigerian scammers and what type of language they use to reel you in. I appreciated how Luu explained how these emails can sometimes have badly written English on purpose to make the victim feel empathy to the situation. I was a bit curious on how the Harvard professors got caught up in these scams. If I pursue the language of scammers as a topic, I will investigate how the scammers know that they have a potential victim and in what ways are they advancing or changing their approaches as people are starting to catch on.
Nelson, Jacqueline. “Denial of racism and its implications for local action”. Sage Journals 2013
Vol 24, Issue 1.
This article provides insight on how modern times identify racism as denial. According to Nelson, an PhD social researcher, people deploy four discourse to deny or minimize racism: Temporal deflection; spatial deflection, deflections from the mainstream; and absence discourses. Nelson believes People defend and protect one’s local area from being branded racist space is discussed as a driver of those denial discourses. She claims local denial of racism is also linked to national politics od racism and anti-racism. Nelson discusses how the way denial discourses narrow the range of possibilities for local anti-racism is discussed, as is the importance of acknowledgment of these forms of racism will broaden the scope of local anti-racism.
This article give knowledge on how governments retreat from multiculturalism, and the preference for ‘harmony’ rather than ‘anti-racism’ initiatives. It also gives insight on interviews that was undertaken with participants involved in local anti-racism. I appreciate how invested Nelson is in this research to show how racism is manifested. I’m curious in how she thinks we can respond to racism, both as individuals and by challenging and practices that reproduce racism and inequality.
Young, Vershawn. “Should Writers Use They Own English?” Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies
2010 Article 10 Vol. 12 Issue 1
This article gives insight on how people are viewed when using their own way of English when writing and questions whether we should be able to do so. According to Young, a professor teaching in Communication Arts and English Language and Literature at the University of Waterloo, black English and ant other dialect or version of English is just as legitimate as what people think of as Standard or General English. Young points to studies that show that most people in the United States don’t speak “General” English even in Standard English, there are multiple varieties. He then points out that when English undergoes greater scrutiny, and mistakes, accents, or dialects are read as wrong, and this enables people to judge those English speakers. He feels this is wrong and must stop. And it has to stop when General English speakers decide to embrace other Englishes.
This article give knowledge on how people are viewed based on how they write. It goes in to support and defend why people should be allowed to write how they won’t. In typing this article Young is also typing in his own way which I feel support and make the audience agree with him better. While I do see and agree with Young that we should increase cultural language in papers and be more open to variety, I do not see this method ever being fully implemented in an academic paper. If I pursue Should Writers Use They Own English as a topic, I will look into how Young is implementing this into his classrooms as he is a professors and is there any other linguistics that share his view point.
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