Structured And Unstructured Peer Networks Computer Science Essay

Categories: Network

There are two types of peer-to-peer web, unstructured peer-to-peer web and structured peer-to-peer web. Load reconciliation is an of import job to be solved for efficiency of a peer-to-peer web. Due to P2P ‘s deficiency of limitation, the chief job for burden reconciliation in self-organizing webs is to place overladen nodes and transfer their tonss to others.

Heterogeneity Consideration

One of the most of import factors to be considered in P2P system is heterogeneousness. The significance of heterogeneousness is different nodes have different bandwidth and other resources like CPU, memory and disc.

Overloading of any nodes can be avoided if we take more attending to node heterogeneousness by taking capacity thresholds into consideration.

Load equilibrating issues in unstructured peer-to-peer webs

In unstructured P2P system, there is no alone identifier associated with each informations point and node in web. Therefore, burden equilibrating issue in unstructured P2P is even harder to cover with compared to structured P2P. Besides, there is no distributed hash tabular array in unstructured P2P.

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Because of missing a well defined overlay topology, nodes in unstructured P2P are indiscriminately connected.

Load equilibrating issues in structured peer-to-peer webs

In structured P2P web based on DHT, burden reconciliation remains an issue. Some nodes are map to more informations keys, and some are map to less informations keys irrespective of their heterogeneousness. These would do some nodes are overloaded and some are under-loaded. Clearly, a good designed burden equilibrating algorithm is greatly needed.

Due to the scalability, self organisation and lookup efficiency of distributed hash tabular array, it is the current tendency among the P2P research community.

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DHT protocol like Chord, Cycloid and Koorde use consistent hashing to split the identifier infinite equally among the take parting nodes. These protocols were designed with premise, which is every take parting node has same sum of resource. This is impossible because nodes are ever different in their resources. Therefore, some nodes might be assigned more informations while some might delegate lesser than their just allocated sum of informations. Overloaded or under-loaded nodes are occurred at this clip. Obviously, the node who owns a larger sum of information has to take more responsibility compared to the node with lesser informations.

As a consequence of unbalanced burden, it will do slower file retrieval and decelerate down overall system public presentation. Therefore, DHT has two chief restrictions:

1. ) Use consistent hash map to bring forth objects ID in DHT does non bring forth perfect burden balance.

2. ) In a homogeneous construction sheathing web, DHT ignore the heterogeneousness feature of P2P system.

One of the algorithms for storage burden equilibrating in distributed hash tabular array is practical waiter. However, the burden equilibrating job does non wholly solved by utilizing practical waiter. When a node is overloaded, it merely drops parts of its burden by taking its practical waiter. However, canceling practical waiters may do other nodes become overladen. Therefore, it brings the burden job to other nodes.

In a heterogeneousness P2P system, it is desirable that each node has a load proportional to its resource capableness. Even if the P2P system is homogenous, it is difficult to guarantee that burden in every nodes is balance because of the dynamism in P2P system.

There are few chief issues in P2P2 burden reconciliation:

1. ) How to find if a node is overloaded or under-loaded?

2. ) If so, how to administer the work load on the nodes?

3. ) How to split the system work load?

The system public presentation is extremely depended on the replies to these inquiries.


In this subdivision, I have summarised some of the academic publication I have found in the cyberspace. There are few P2P burden equilibrating issueaa‚¬a„?s solution here:

1. ) Routing based algorithm for unstructured P2P

Routing Discovery Procedure

if Source node S receives a question petition so

forwards SETUP message to all available neighbour nodes of S ;

Updates the burden value and writes it to the path records ;

terminal if

While routing way is non selected do

for all intermediate node I do

if node I receives SETUP message so

forwards the message to all its unvisited neighbors and records the visited node information

for constructing a backward way ;

terminal if

if node I receives ACK message so

backwards the message to its upstream neighbor from path records ;

terminal if

if node I receives ERROR message so

discards the ACK message it holds and sends ERROR message rearward along the way to the

finish node ;

terminal if

if node I is beginning node and receives ACK message so

return routing way ;

terminal if

terminal for

terminal while

return NULL.

Load Reassignment Process

If all the waies found in forward phase are heavy loaded, the finish node will take the least hops way and initiate burden reassignment procedure. The node with the heaviest burden is selected and parts of burden points are reassigned to its vicinity.

2. ) Service Discovery Mechanism for unstructured P2P

First, make an agent call P2P Registry ( P2PReg ) as a middleware within DNS and equals. In this strategy, each node is able to register and detect desirable services automatically through current DNS within a short continuance in an efficient manner with the aid of P2PReg. With the aid of DNS, we can detect desirable equals and obtain services from the equal within a short continuance. It can guarantee that the seeking procedure consequences in a close equal that has the desired content. Finding nearby equals can greatly equilibrate burden in order to avoid hot-spot jobs. Hence, we can equilibrate the burden for content demand while provide an efficient hunt. Their simulation survey showed that functioning informations find over local hunt is so effectual in bettering the system public presentation significantly.

3. ) Allocating and reapportioning procedure for unstructured P2P

In this research paper, they build a new protocol for heterogenous unstructured P2P webs. This protocol consists of two parts, which is apportioning procedure and reapportioning procedure.

In apportioning procedure, new nodes select suited neighbors in footings of capacity and connectivity. Besides, it decides if that node can be used for working on the work load based on its capableness during apportioning procedure. This can accomplish load-balancing.

In reapportioning procedure, the node will apportion its work to other node when it leaves the web.

This protocol can optimise a P2P web by work outing burden equilibrating issue.


In this research paper, resource contribution intend a node donate their resource to P2P system during its life-time. In this attack, each node is mapped with multiple identifiers. This can better the lookup way length and the search failures significantly when multiple identifiers focused in one node. It can besides equilibrate the burden due to cardinal distribution and question burden.

However, this attack has a disadvantage which is each node needs excess infinite to hive away multiple node identifiers.

5. ) Adaptive load-balancing

The purpose of this attack is to equilibrate the routing burden. It consists of two parts, which are item-balancing and hoarding popular keys.


A heuristics based is used on the mean burden. It ensures that an under-loaded node ne’er takes more than the mean burden. Unneeded informations point are limited when reassigning informations. The chief advantage of this scheme happens when the burden of a node is larger than the mean burden.


In this attack, the system will retroflex and hoard the object on other nodes. This method can cut down the petition burden. Hence, if a node holds reproductions of the requested object in its cache, the node can straight react to the petition.

6. ) Collect file entree history and stored on each equal

In this attack, every file entree history is stored in each node. The node resourceaa‚¬a„?s information is included in the history. This information is used administering or redistributing burden and it is of import because of the dynamism in P2P system. In drumhead:

1. ) Collect file entree history for future usage.

2. ) A equal which owns a certain zone will be good divided when a new equal comes.

3. ) Using low operating expense to redistribute burden. The size of each zone owned by a node may be adjusted during the system working clip.

4. ) Use topologically-aware in informations reproduction. The transcripts of files on the equal are placed near to the group of equals which have high opportunity to entree the file.

5. ) No practical waiter are used to avoid heavy routing metadata care operating expense.

8. ) proximity-aware burden reconciliation

This attack is based on the construct of practical waiters. This burden equilibrating attack consists of four stages:

1. ) Sum up the burden and capacity information the whole system.

2. ) Class node into different class like overladen nodes, under-loaded nodes or impersonal nodes.

3. ) Assign practical waiter harmonizing to the nodes capacity and burden.

4. ) Transfer practical waiter from overloaded nodes to under-loaded nodes.

9. ) Histogram-Based Global Load Balancing

HiGLOB is used for planetary burden equilibrating in structured P2P system. Histogram here shows the position of the distribution of the burden in the system. Two cardinal constituents in HiGLOB are:

1. ) A histogram director aa‚¬ ” maintains the histogram.

2. ) A burden reconciliation director aa‚¬ ” redistributes the burden when the burden is non balanced.

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Structured And Unstructured Peer Networks Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

Structured And Unstructured Peer Networks Computer Science Essay

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