Storage, handling & preparation of fuel oils
Storage, handling & preparation of fuel oils
•Avoid oil spillage
•Prevent oil leakage
•Drain water from storage tank
•Maintain the fuel oil at higher temperature in the main storage tank
•Maintain correct pre-heat temperature
Combustion of fuels oils & burner operation & maintenance
•The heat generated by combustion of fuel is utilised by boiler or furnace of heating water or air or any process material. •Combustion effected by a burner which mixes fuel and air in proper proportion •Any petroleum is a hydro carbon, sulphur is present in significantly lower percentage •Combustion products are primarily carbon dioxide, water vapour and sulphur dioxide which pass thru the chimney along with nitrogen in the air. •For ideal combustion 14.1 kg of air is required for every kg of fuel for complete combustion. However, in practice since mixing is never perfect certain amount of excess air is needed to complete combustion and ensure release of entire heat contained in fuel oil. •Too much air will result in additional heat loss, stack loss •Less air would lead to incomplete combustion and smoke
•Hence there should be an optimum excess air level for each type of fuel which will give fuel saving. •An experienced operator relies on the smoke emitted by the chimney or colour of the flame to help in adjust air at the optimum level. However, a chemical analysis of flue gas is a more objective method that helps in achieving finer air control. •By measuring carbon dioxide or oxygen in flue gases, it is possible to estimate the percentage of excess air in flue gases. •Smoke indicates combustion condition •Burner selection should be done judiciously •Burner should be dismantled and cleaned periodically •Replace cracked burner blocks fast
•For efficient boiler operation follow correct procedures during start-up, operations, load changes and shut down.
•Water level should be at the optimum level
•Blow down the boiler regularly
•Analyse flue gases
•Check feed water temperature
•Check insulation of pipeline, flanges and joints
•Quality of the steam
•Check steam traps
•Prevent sudden boiler load fluctuation
•Prevent flame impingement align burners properly
•Adjust flame length
•Keep furnace doors closed
•Close all openings
•Prevent air infiltration
•Operate the furnace at a slight positive pressure
•Maintain correct furnace temperature
•Load the furnace to rated capacity /recover waste heat.
Dg set operation
•Optimum loading for min bsfc
•Ensure proper fuel injection
•Reduce air intake temperature
•Reduce exhaust heat loss/attempt waste heat recovery
•Correct lubrication & cooling
Even if you do not consider yourself an environmentalist, a little fuel conservation can really help not just the environment, but also your wallet! The price of petrol seems to always be on the rise. The best defense against rising gas prices is fuel conservation. Map out a good plan of fuel conservation by following these helpful ways to conserve fuel: Great fuel conservation starts before you even hit the road: • Keep your vehicle properly tuned, and it can get from 6 to 20 percent better gas mileage. • Keep your tires aligned and inflated properly. You should check your tire pressure once a month. Having tire pressures that are too low can increase your use of fuel by 3% • Replace your air filter.
• If you are not using your roof-racks, take them off! They add to drag. Unnecessary weight in your car can also take away from good gas mileage (this does not mean that you can throw your sister out of the car to conserve fuel… although, it would help!) • Another way to start good fuel conservation is to plan ahead. Combine your errands into one trip. Think about riding your bike, walking, riding the bus, or carpooling when possible and reasonable. Fuel conservation can greatly be improved while you are driving or at the pump: • Slow down! There is a reason why you coast to a gas station when your vehicle is on empty – you are not going to get to a gas station faster by driving faster when the faster you drive the more gas you use! In simpler terms, your fuel usage will greatly decrease when you are driving at speeds above 55 mph.
Besides, you will have a safer drive when you slow down, too. • Avoid rapid accelerating. In fact, you ought to let up on the accelerator (by driving slower), and when you use the accelerator, use it gently. There is a reason why it is called “stepping on the gas.” The harder you step on the gas, the faster you use up your gas. Relax your driving style. Do not drive aggressively. Accelerate slowly. Driving aggressively can lessen your fuel conservation by 30-40 percent. • Do not tailgate because it will lead to unnecessary braking and then acceleration. • Do not idle. Modern cars no longer need to warm up to run. • Turn off your car when you are waiting for someone.
• Your cruise control will add to your fuel conservation (of course, it is unreasonable to use it while just driving around town.) • Your use of the air conditioner lessens your fuel economy, as well, especially if you use it at 40 mph or more. Why not just open the window to cool off? Park your vehicle in the shade. • Using overdrive will lessen your fuel consumption while on the highway. • Drive at the highest appropriate gear.
• While at the gas pump, use the lowest octane petrol suitable for your car – check your owner’s manual. • Fill up your car with gas early in the morning and on cooler days. The colder the gasoline is, the more compact it is… you will therefore end up getting more bang for your buck. This may seem like a long road to fuel conservation, but even just doing a few of these things can really help improve your gas mileage. You could possible improve your fuel conservation by 40% or so by following some of these tips. If all of these suggestions seem overwhelming, just take a few at a time. The road to great fuel conservation can be a long one.
Most all of the tips that we have given as of yet can be found in greater detail at the U.S. Department of Energy. All of the tips on fuel conservation that we have given you so far have to do with the vehicle that you already have. If you are planning on going out and buying a new vehicle, consider a vehicle that conserves fuel by design. Check out the hybrids or smaller cars. A hybrid vehicle may cost more at the onset, but you will surely save money in the end, especially if gas prices continue to rise. If you do not need a ton of horsepower, abandon it – you will get better gas mileage. The first step to fuel conservation is education, so congratulations for being interested! You have passed the first step. Now go out there and start conserving fuel!
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 13 January 2017
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