The background of this study aimed to assess the influence of service quality on customer satisfaction as measured using Gronroos approach (1988) in describing the two-dimensional. Dimensions of which are technical dimensions (technical quality) and functional dimensions (functional quality). In the technical dimension (technical quality) of service quality assessment is based on what service has been obtained by the consumer while at the functional dimension (functional quality) of service quality assessment based on services are performed and delivered to the customer.
The sample of this study is Starbucks at rest area Km.19 Tol Jakarta – Cikampek. The sample used in this study amounted to 130 people who are consumers of Starbucks Km.19 rest area Tol Jakarta Cikampek. From the results of studies using multiple linear regressions, we find that the technical quality and functional quality affects customer satisfaction. However, the influence exerted by the technical quality is not so dominant as compared to the influence exerted by the functional quality.
Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Technical Quality, Functional Quality
Both large and small companies are required to continuously maintain the quality of service to the products or services they offer to consumers, so they can compete with other companies in a healthy manner. Similarly, coffee shop business as one of the retail business, where competition in the business of any coffee shop is very tight and competitive, and looks to start a lot of competitors who are offering new concepts, products, and services of the same. Coupled with over time people began to experience a lifestyle change toward a modern pattern that is by making the coffee shop as a place to relaxation fit in a moment.
Therefore, as a location chosen to be used as a place of rest, services must be in accordance with existing standards. Coffee Shop by Charles J. Metelka (1991), quoted by Sugiarto & Sulartiningrum (1996): Coffee shop is a business in a commercially-managed food offering to the guests drinks or snacks with service in an informal atmosphere without being followed by a standard of service rules (as executive dining room), the types of food or a relative price (p .93). ~ 264 ~
The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012, Phuket – Thailand
According to Yazid (1999): Coffee shop is also the retail industry that has been widespread this time where the coffee shop is not only limited to offering only products, but service is one more point which will be owned by every coffee shop when the coffee shop provides a good service to every customer that exist. Service industries that are labor intensive (labor intensive), the need for manpower to do much because most of the activities of companies that cannot be replaced by machines. Based, the growth and expansion of this industry in the present must be accompanied by an earnest effort to prepare staff and skillful leadership in the organizational structure capable of providing the best service to the purchaser.
According to some experts many perceive the service differently. One expert who defines quality of service is Cristian Grönroos (1982), according to the quality of service perceived by customers will be different. It depends on the strategy chosen by the company to provide and promote services. Gronroos (1982) argues that service quality as perceived by customers can be divided into technical quality and functional quality. Picture 1 : Service quality:
The six criteria of good service quality
Source: Gronroos, C. (1988): Review of Business Vol. 9 No 3, p.12 The image above is a quality of service suggested by Cristian Grönroos pelayanaan indicating quality assessed by customers along two dimensions: technical quality and functional quality. As already described above, on the right side of the conceptual model, the functional quality dimension associated with the service process or how the service is done and delivered. Likewise, the quality of service
The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012, Phuket – Thailand assessment is also based on what customers actually received (yield), which he regarded as a technical dimension. In this method Gronroos (1988) proposed six criteria for assessing the quality of service to be: professionalism and skills, attitudes and behaviors, accessibility and flexibility, reliability and trust, recovery, reputation and credibility. Consumer or buyer does not evaluate the quality of service only on the outcome alone, but also consider its delivery. For example, people who eat diner not only assess the food taste good, it will also assess how the services provided, the friendliness of the waiters and speed in providing service, and others.
Criteria used in evaluating the quality of customer service / service becomes more difficult for marketers (marketers) to understand. Under this method Gronross (1988), which concerned the dimensions between the technical and functional service quality and yield, influence customer satisfaction. Starbucks is a coffee shop network of the United States is known as a place to socialize, especially for the urban community. Starbucks is a “service industry” which the waiter service became the starting point of what is offered to the purchasers. Intense competition that exists in this coffee shop business, then the various efforts to improve the quality of services performed in order to be superior among competitors or at least can survive to continue to run this business.
Starbucks is located in the Rest Area Km.19, competitors have adjacent like Ejo Coffee, Torabika, Coffee Bean, and Black Canyon. With so many coffee shops that have led to increasingly intense competition in this business and the only coffee shop that has the excellence and uniqueness that can win the competition. The following table shows the level of consumer requests that can be seen from an increase in sales experienced at Starbucks (Rest Area Km.19). Table 1 : Starbucks Sales Volume. Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 Sales Volume Rp.6.864.158.864 Rp.7.358.877.320 Rp.7.360.010.298 Rp.7.979.286.288
Source : Starbucks rest Area Km.19 (2010 Data). Good service can provide a good image as well. Consumers expect the value of the money they already spend to pay for any products they buy (food, beverages, merchandise, and whole bean) they expect and demand the baristas can provide the service they expect it. Barista is the designation for partners who work in this coffee shop business. Partners in this case different from the actual meaning. In a company engaged in the field of F & B defines all of its employees as partners because it follows the culture embraced by PT. Sari Coffee Indonesia, which emphasizes that all employees were people who are equal to one another that are free to have freedom of ideas and opinions.
Starbucks Barista Starbucks is part of the addition is responsible for the fulfillment of the needs of its purchasers of food, beverages, merchandise and whole bean they are also responsible for the cleanliness, neatness and convenience stores as well. Barista is also responsible for forming their stores (Starbucks Km.19 Rest Area) in order to really make Starbucks a third home for them. If the consumer gets the best service quality then the consumer will be satisfied and allow consumers to come back, and vice versa when consumers are getting poor service quality complaints and then the consumer will feel disappointed and do not want to come back again and worse, consumers are will notify his or her disappointment to others. This is a great loss for the Starbucks barista is caused by the quality of service that is not good and will ultimately affect store revenues.
Any company competing to be the leader by providing the best service quality by increasing the value of brand products so that consumers are satisfied and do not easily move to another brand METHODOLOGY This type of study is a quantitative descriptive type of research that describes the influence of service quality to customer satisfaction barista at Starbucks Km.19 Rest Area. With a population is a collection of individuals who have the qualities and characteristics that have been set. Based on the quality and characteristics, the population can be understood as a group of individuals or objects that have at least one observation of the characteristic equation (Cooper and Emory, 1995).
The population in this study were consumers / customers of Starbucks Rest Area Km.19 a rest and drink coffee, to improve fitness before continuing the journey. Sample according to according to Subagyo Djawarto and Pangestu (1993:107) is “part of the population whose characteristics are about to be investigated, and considered to be representative of the overall population (fewer in number than the total population)”. According to the Gay & Diehl (1992, in the Goddess, 2009), sample size may be accepted depending on the type of research, which is generally the minimum benchmark sample for descriptive research is at least 100 samples or 10% of the population.
And supported by research experts who consider that the size of the minimum amount of research the most appropriate sample was 100 subjects / objects (Ruslan, 2003 in the Goddess, 2009). In this study, the authors set the number of samples that will be used for is as many as 130 respondents. The author used a sample of 130 respondents were also based on the opinion of the Widya Comrey and Lee (2010), which said the number of samples used in the study were 100 = Fair, 200 = Good, 300 = Very Good. The sampling technique used by the author is using convenience sampling, where researchers have the freedom to choose who encountered as a sample, but still restricted to respondents who are consumers of Starbucks Rest Area Km.19 sample questionnaire data collection is done by directly approaching the Rest Area Km.19 Starbuks visitors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Starbucks Rest Area Km.19 Starbucks is a coffee shop network of the United States are known as a place to socialize, especially for the urban community.
Starbucks Coffee Indonesia was first opened in July 2002 and Plaza Indonesia is the first outlet or the mother called the store of Starbucks Indonesia. This presents a Starbucks coffee-flavored beverage that can use compact with a take away cup or cup and use self-service service system. Starbucks positioning is to make the place as a third house for customers after the home and office. Starbucks Km.19 rest area, was established on 15 September 2005. At that time, Mr. Rinden Wish as the store manager is believed to lead Starbucks Km.19 rest area until August of 2009. Changing culture is a store manager at Starbucks.
Therefore, the current rest area Starbucks Km.19 headed by Arif Suwarno as a store manager. Rest area Km.19 chosen as the place founded Starbucks, this is because the rest area is quite crowded visitors KM19 considered in addition to a Rest Area, because the location is quite strategic highway that is located directed towards Tambun, Cikarang, Cibitung, Karachi, Jakarta and Java. Its location is quite strategic highway located directed near the industrial area (cibitung, and cikarang). Therefore, most of the rest area Km.19 Starbucks customers are entrepreneurs who have a business industrial park area. Principle – the principle upheld by Starbucks include: Our coffee; Always and will always give priority to quality. We are always eager to get the coffee beans, roast them properly and improve the lives of farmers who grow it. We are very concerned by all this. Our work is never over.
Our Partners; We are here because we are not just a job, this is the love we shared, we embrace diversity to create a place where we can be ourselves. We always respect and appreciate each other and we wish everyone gave such standards. Our Customers; When we are fully connected, we establish closeness with our customers, laugh together for the sake of enlightening their lives if only for a few moments. Of course this starts from the promise to provide the drinks are made perfectly. But our work is more than that; our work really is about the relationship between the members. Our outlets; When our customers feel have our booth to shelter regardless of the outside. The place to socialize. Our outlets provide comfort amid the rapid rhythm of life is slow and sometimes enjoyable, sometimes sooner.
Always loaded with good relationships. Environment Around Us; Each booth is part of the community, and we really take seriously our responsibilities as good neighbors. We want to be seen wherever we do business. We can be a positive force bringing together partners, customers, and communities to contribute every day. Now we realize that our responsibility and the potential for even greater goodness, the world hoping to Starbucks establish new standards. We will be the leader.
Our Shareholders; We realize that when we achieve success in every area we enjoy our success and also give priority to people who have been holding our shares. We are fully responsible for achieving each element correctly so that Starbucks and every person who come in contact with it can survive and prosper. Our strategy; Understanding of environmental issues and share information with business partners. Creating innovative and flexible solutions in the face of change. Striving to buy, sell and use environmentally friendly products. Understand the responsibility as vital for the environment.
Instilling environmental responsibility as a basic value of the company. Measure and monitor the progress of each project on the impact to the environment. Encourage all partners to participate in the fight for its mission (Barista Learning Journey Guide; 2003 Starbucks Coffee Company, Barista Training Program). Food and Beverage Basically just as the product contained. The main thing is provided by Starbucks Service. Food Foods that are sold include dry food in the form of pastry. Pastry or better known as the food or pastries are divided among the several kinds of sandwiches, cakes, savory, scones, croissants, muffins, cookies and biscuits. Various kinds of food were taken through a vendor called PDF or Pan De Frank, who has long been a Starbucks in the field of food vendors. Starbucks has been working with the vendor in a fairly long period of time.
That is because the products produced by these vendors have a high quality and food during this period produced not a few of the customers who praised the taste pleasantness. Beverage As is well known that Starbucks is synonymous with coffee. Coffee is the main product being sold in this business field. Innovations made by Starbucks is extraordinary, it can be seen from every variation of flavor, and various forms of interest. Products sold include coffee drinks, tea, chocolate, and latte (coffee milk) that can be enjoyed with a dish of hot or cold and blended coffee drinks, blended cream or blended juice tea (frappucinno). Food and beverage is a product sold in Starbucks, which is basically the core service product sold by Starbucks Coffee.
The author says so, because it can be seen the price set by Starbucks every item it sells. Community or prospective customers actually have many other options to get a product that is at least almost the same as those sold by Starbucks. The concept of sales and service provided by any customer who makes this store different from other coffee shops that exist in Indonesia today. Partners (the term for the employee) provided all the scientific knowledge of how to make shoppers into loyal customers. Below are some of the sciences that must be owned by each partner that the author saw in the book “Learning Journing Barista Training Guide” which is a book that must be learned by the partners during the trial period before they were appointed as permanent employees (fulltime) or part-time employees (parttime).
What is service at Starbucks? Service at Starbucks are service behavior that makes a positive (lasting impression on your customer), can create meaningful experiences, invites the customers to participate, creates compelling (positive experienced that are told by word-of-mouth from customer to customer), injects personality into a business transaction, builds relationship with the customers, creates a tone or felling of the service experience that is pleasant and inviting. We can provide service at Starbucks with learn customer’s name and/or drink preferences as culturally appropriate, recognize and acknowledge repeat customers, when maintaining the cafe area we have a personal interaction with a customers, have a customer participate in a coffee tasting, assist customers like be aware of their needs, demonstrate knowledge of Starbucks products, and accurately fill customer orders.
Providing Service at Starbucks How can you provide service at Starbucks? There are some possible examples; learns customer’s name and drink preference as culturally appropriate, recognize and acknowledge repeat customers, when maintaining the cafe area you should have personal interaction with a customers, have a customer participate in coffee tasting, assist customers like be aware of their needs, demonstrate knowledge of starbucks product, and accurately fill customers orders. Service Deployment Deployment is an important piece of delivering service at starbucks. By definition, the term deploys means to spread out. Deployment at starbucks is partner working as a team assigned to various positions to create the starbucks experience. Deployment was developed as a tool to help you determine how to be in the right place at the right time.
When the entire team understands and practices the deployment standards, customers will be helped efficiently, productivity will increase and partners will know where to go and what to do at all time. Use FOH or Front of the House and BOH or Back of the House as your manuals and you should share with customers for FOH and partner with BOH. Star Skills Our mission statement communication that it is Starbucks goal to be the premier purveyor of the finest coffee in the world while maintaining our uncompromising principles as we grow. Star skills are the communication tools which help us create an environment that is enjoyable for partners and customers. To create this environment we treat each other and our customers with respect and dignity by using star skills; maintain and enhance self esteem, listen and acknowledge and ask for help.
Enhance and self esteem Self esteem is the feeling of being okay, of being accepted and acceptable. When people feel valued by themselves and others, they are more likely to work effectively as a team. Positive self esteem contributes to our ability to think clearly when interacting with others. Listen and acknowledge Listening can be our most powerful communication tool. When we listen to other people, we let them know we care about their point of view. By acknowledge their feelings and/or situation, we not only enhance their self esteem, we also are able to ensure we understand and have heard what they are saying. Ask for help It takes self-confidence to open up and ask for help and to admit you don’t know everything. The wisest people are those who ask others for their ideas or help when completing a task or ask for clarification. Part of being on a team means to provide help when you see others need you assistance.
Lets your partner know when you need help. Some knowledge of the above is a small part that must be learned by each partner who works. (Barista Learning Journey Guide; 2003 Starbucks Coffee Company, Barista Training Program). Things to always remember is “Creating experiences that make people able to come back, depending on the precise combination of three things: our products, our places and our people. They came remedy drink coffee, take a break to enjoy the warmth and returned to build a very human relationship. Now get on, welcome the following new customers who will be your regular customers “. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS In this study, a questionnaire distributed to 130 respondents who are consumers of Starbucks Rest Km.19 Area.
The image of the sample respondents in this study are categorized based on its characteristics, namely employment status, gender, age, and number of visits to Starbucks in the last three months will be illustrated in Table 4.1. The table provides information on responses from 130 respondents to the variable dimensions of the functional results have been obtained as 60 respondents who responded agree to produce a mean of 3.92, no different from the revelation of the second to the seventh statement that among the respondents gave a good response that is of 60 respondents agreed to produce a mean of 3.65 for the second statement, agreed by 65 respondents so as to produce a mean of 3.64 for the third statement, a total of 61 respondents agreed to produce a mean of 3.69 for the fourth statement, a total of 61 respondents agreed to produce a mean of 3:58 for the statement the fifth. Table 2: Respondent Characteristic: Characteristics Customer Status Student Worker College Sex Man Woman Age 15-20 21-25 26-30 >30 3 Month Last visit 1-3 Times 4-6 Times >7 Times Frequency 5 58 66 71 58 32 72 23 3 31 29 70 Percentage (%) 3.8% 44.6% 50.8% 54.6% 44.6% 24.6% 55.4% 17.7% 2.3% 23.8% 22.3% 53.8%
Source: Analyzed primary data In the sixth statement, and seventh are not much different result where the respondent agreed to respond as much as 56 so as to produce mean 3:38 in the sixth statement and generate as much as 49 mean 3:39 in the seventh statement. Each item listed above statement is a component associated with the delivery of a service quality manner. On the functional quality associated with processes in the achievement of a service that can give satisfaction to customers. Can be seen from the results that have been listed in Table 3 which illustrates that the respondents gave a favorable response to any statement which represents the functional quality. Table 3 is a table that has provided information on responses from 130 respondents to the revelation about customer’s satisfaction.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 28 September 2016
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