Sport Scale Essay
ABSTRACT The primary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess sport fan motivation. Also, the new measure was employed to examine the relationship between sport fan motivation and ethnic identity. One hundred sixty nine college students from two southeastern institutions participated in this study. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Bivariate correlation, t test, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics. The Fan Motivation Scale (FMS), developed in this study, consisted of six components with 22 items.
The number of items under every component range from 5 to 2 items (quality of the game 4 items, escape 5 items, boredom avoidance 5 items, social 3 items, entertainment 3 items, and sport atmosphere 2 items). In addition, two hypotheses were tested in the current study. The first hypothesis was that ethnic identity is positively related to sport fan motivation. The second hypothesis assumed that there was a difference between African Americans and European Americans in their ethnic identity.
The results revealed the FMS is a reliable measure with an overall alpha score of 0.90. Significant differences were found between participants in the total FMS and some of the subscales based on gender and ethnicity. However, the outcomes of the samples examined in this study do not support the first hypothesis. Therefore, no significant relationship was found between sport fan motivation and ethnic identity. Regarding the second hypothesis, a significant difference was found between African Americans and European Americans in their ethnic identity. vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Sports have become an increasingly important part of our society.
Sports fans represent a significant percentage of sport consumers, because 70 percent or more of Americans watch, read, or discuss sports at least once a day (Iso-Ahola & Hatfield, 1986). From 1985 to 1998, attendance has significantly increased at the four major sports in the United States. Major League Baseball (MLB) had the largest increase in the number of people attending games (24. 2 million, a 50% increase), followed by professional basketball (10. 3 million, a 89% increase), professional football (5.7 million, a 40% increase), and professional hockey (5. 6 million, a 49% increase).
The number of people attending college sporting events has also increased during this time period (U. S. Census Bureau, 2000). Additionally, more television programming time is being devoted to sporting events. The ESPN was the fifth highest ranked television network in 2000, in terms of revenue, it was estimated to be $2. 1 billion (McAvoy, 2000). With the increase of interest in sports has become an increased interest of sports fans as consumers.
Sport teams and companies are very interested in attracting as many consumers as possible to purchase game tickets or products. Therefore, sport marketers should acknowledge the factors that drive fans to follow sport by attending, watching on television, or purchasing products. However, understanding the notion of sports fans is not simple because their attitudes and behaviors are not determined by a single motive or factor but rather occur for a variety of reasons (Mashiach, 1980).
Statement of the Problem There has been a growing interest in the study of sport fan motivations in recent years to better understand fan behaviors (Bilyeu & Wann, 2002; Funk, Mahony, Nakazawa, & Hirakawa, 2001; Funk, Mahony & Ridinger, 2002; Funk, Ridinger, & Moorman, 2003; Gantz, 1981; Kahle, Kambara, & Rose, 1996; Lee, 2002; Mahony, Nakazawa, Funk, James, & Gladden, 2002; Pease & Zhang, 2001; Trail & James, 2001; Wann, 1995; Wann, Bilyeu, Brennan, Osborn & Gambouras, 1999; Wann, Brewer, & 1 Royalty, 1999; Wann, Schrader & Wilson, 1999).
Some of these studies have introduced measures of different consumption motives of sport fans. In addition, researchers have examined the relationship between fan motivation and other variables such as team identification, involvement, gender, and race. The measures used in previous studies to assess fan motivations vary in length and number of components. However, some of the components are used in all or most scales such as the entertainment component, the family component, and the friends component.
They also share very similar items with regard to similar components. Items used in most previous scales often begin with the words “I like”, “I enjoy”, or “I feel” which raises a validity issue for the measures because the aforementioned words represent satisfaction and attitude rather than motivation. Fan satisfaction relates to the happiness and pleasure associated with the outcome of a sporting event while fan attitude represents the opinion and feelings an individual has about a sport team or sporting event.
On the other hand, sport fan motivation refers to the reasons that drive individuals to support sport teams, be loyal to them, buy team/sport related products, watch and attend sporting events. The Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess sport fan motives. Also, the new measure was utilized to examine the relationship between fan motivation and ethnic identity. The Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of this study includes the discussion of two concepts.
First, the Fan Motivation Scale and its content will be introduced. Second, the notion of ethnic identity and why it should be correlated with sport fan motivation will be presented. The prior research (Wann, 1995; Funk, Mahony, Nakazawa, & Hirakawa, 2001; Bilyeu & Wann, 2002) identified various motives that could drive fans to attend sporting events. Some of these motives are related to personal needs (entertainment and financial 2 gain), social needs (bonding with family and group affiliation), and psychological needs (self-esteem and achievement).
In attempt to measure the motives of sport fans, the researchers introduced different scales. These scales comprised different number of motives ranging from 7 motives with 16 items to 18 motives with 54 items. The length of some of the scales was not the only problem. The major concern for previous scales is in the content validity, the extent to which items used in the scale accurately represent fan motives. In fact, all previous scales included items that are more related to attitude and satisfaction then motivation. The reason for this problem is the lack of clear definition of sport fan motivation.
The current study is going to view sport fan motivation as the reasons that drive individuals to support sport teams, be loyal to them, purchase team/sport related products, watch and attend sporting events. In addition, this study will employ a review of related literature and the prior effort made on fan motivation scales to develop valid and reliable measures of sport fan motivation. The proposed Fan Motivation Scale (FMS) will measure six motives: social, entertainment, escape, aesthetic, psychological, and amotivation.
The social motive assesses the extent to which individuals participate in sporting events as spectators because they desire to spend time with their families (Gantz, 1981; Wann, 1995). Also, to some individuals, group affiliation is an important motivation of being a sport fan. Sport spectating provides a fan with opportunities to share time with others who enjoy the same activities. A fan may want to keep contact with a group of fans and seek refuge from a feeling of alienation (Branscombe & Wann, 1991; Smith, 1988; Wann, 1995).
The entertainment motive includes items that represent the desire of some individuals to have a good time and enjoy the excitement associated with sporting events. Some fans might enjoy a sport because of its entertainment value. Sport spectating provides fans with leisure pastime activities similar to watching movies or television. One advantage of sport spectating is that few special skills, if any, are required (Zillmann, Bryant & Sapolsky, 1989; Wann, 1995).
The escape motive of sport fans assesses the desire of sport fans to escape or diverge from their everyday lives. Attending a sporting event gives many people an 3 opportunity to temporarily forget about their troubling, dissatisfying, or boring lives (Smith, 1988; Lever & Wheeler, 1984; Wann, Schrader & Wilson, 1999). The aesthetic motive of sport fans appeals to those that are motivated by the aesthetic value of the sport. Some fans enjoy sports because of the competition between highly skilled athletes. The beauty, grace, and other artistic characteristics make some people enjoy sporting events (Milne & McDonald, 1999; Wann, 1995).
The psychological motive is a factor that motivates sports fans and gives them a feeling of accomplishment and achievement when the fans’ favorite team or player is successful. Sports fans tend to associate themselves with a successful team or player in order to create and sustain a positive self-concept (Branscombe & Wann, 1991; Milne & McDonald, 1999; Sloan, 1989). Amotivation refers to the state of lacking an intention to act. When amotivated, individual’s action lacks intentionality and a sense of personal causation (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Amotivation results from not valuing an activity (Ryan, 1995), not feeling competent to do it (Deci, 1975), or not believing it will yield a desired outcome (Seligman, 1975). Some individuals might go to sport events and watch sport games because they have nothing else to do, bored, and want to kill time. These types of reasons had been neglected in previous studies of sport fan motivation. As mentioned earlier, prior research has examined the relationship between fan motivations and other variables such as sport involvement, team identification, and some demographic factors of selected sport fans.
However, the ethnic identity of sport fans has been ignored in the literature. It might be assumed by some researchers that the race factor is enough representation of an individual’s ethnic background. It is, however, only part of the concept. Ethnic identity is defined as “a process of coming to terms with one’s ethnic-racial membership group as a salient reference group” (Smith, 1991, p. 182). Smith (1991) defined an ethnic group as “a reference group called upon by people who share a common history and culture” (p. 181).
According to Gordon (1985), culture influences our social standards, values, cognitions, social perceptions, attributions, feelings, and sources of motivation. Individuals develop their ethnic identity through their social interaction with others. Through their interactions they begin to view themselves as others view them 4 (Stryker, 1980). Ethnic identity is viewed as part of social identity and it was defined by Tajfel (1981) as “that part of an individual’s self-concept which derives from his knowledge of his membership of a social group (or groups) together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership” (p.255).
An ethnic group is composed of a number of individuals who share a sense of group identity based on their unique culture, which include values, morals, and various customs, as well as shared origins. In the larger society, ethnic groups tend to maintain a sense of peoplehood (Dublin, 1996; Kornblum & Janowitz, 1974; Portes, 1996). Forty years ago, Tumin (1964) defined an ethnic group as “a social group which, within a large cultural and social system, claims or is accorded special status in terms of complexity of traits which it exhibits or is believed to exhibit” (p.123).
Distinguishing between ethnic groups is not always simple. Some ethnic minorities, such as African Americans, may have obvious physical differences that set them apart from other ethnic groups within the United States, but many biracial individuals present an ambiguity because they belong to two or more ethnic groups, which makes ethnicity a subjective construct (Root, 1992). Studying ethnic identity is very important because it is the foundation for what an individual believes about himself or herself.
Given the significance of ethnic identity, many researchers have been studying this construct. Phinney (1990) reviewed 70 studies of ethnic identity published between 1972 and 1990. She found that most of the studies have used one of three theoretical frameworks to examine ethnic identity. The first framework is the social identity theory which ethnic identity is considered a component of social identity. Social theory refers to the need for an individual to be a member of a group that provides him or her with a sense of belonging that contributes to a positive self-concept.
The second framework is the acculturation prospective. The concept of acculturation refers to changes in the cultural attitudes, value, and behaviors that result from interactions between two distinct cultures (Berry, Trimble, & Olmedo, 1986). These kinds of changes are normally the concern of a group of individuals, and how it relates to the dominant or host society. Ethnic identity can be an aspect of acculturation in which the focus is on the individuals and how they relate to their own group as a subgroup of the larger society (Phinney, 1990).
The third framework is developmental framework, where ethnic identity is viewed as a process by which people construct their ethnicity. 5 Erikson (1968) indicated that identity is the outcome of a period of exploration and experimentation that normally takes place during adolescence and leads to a decision of commitment in various areas, such as occupation, and religion. This view of ethnic identity suggests age as a factor is strongly related to developing one’s ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). Phinney (1990) mentioned that most studies have focused on certain components of ethnic identity.
These components include self-identification as a group member, a sense of belonging to the group, attitudes about one’s group membership, and ethnic involvement (social participation, cultural practices and attitudes). Self-identification represents the ethnic label that one uses for oneself. The ability of children to label themselves with the right ethnic group was the addressed in a study by Aboud (187). Another issue was the relationship between incorrect labeling and poor self-concept (Cross, 1978). Adults are expected to know their ethnicity but the issue is what label one chooses to use for himself or herself.
However, some ethnic groups have a little choice in what ethnic title they can use for themselves often because of their distinctive skin color or culture (language, dresses, customs, etc. ) which distinguishes them from other groups. Additionally, some individuals have two or more ethnic backgrounds and they identify themselves as members of more than one group. Ethnic self-identification is an important but complex component of ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). The feeling of belonging to one’s own group is an important element of ethnic identity.
Some researchers have tried to assess the sense of belonging by either asking people how strong was their relationship with their groups or how separate they feel from other groups (Driedger, 1976). Members of every ethnic group can have positive or negative attitudes toward their own group. Some of the positive attitudes related were pride in and pleasure, satisfaction, and contentment with one’s group (Phinney, 1990). Negative attitudes include dissatisfaction, displeasure, discontentment, and a desire to hide ones identity (Driedger, 1976).
People who display no positive attitudes or express negative attitudes can be seen as denying their ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). In addition, the involvement in the social life and cultural practices of one’s ethnic group is considered a strong indicator of one’s ethnic identity. The social and cultural practices 6 that represent the involvement component include language, friendship, social organizations, religion, cultural traditions, and politics (Phinney, 1990). Phinney (1992) developed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) with the purpose of assessing ethnic identity among various ethnic groups.
The scale was designed to measure three components of ethnic identity: affirmation and belonging, ethnic identity achievement, and ethnic behaviors. Roberts, Phinney, Masse, Chen, Roberts, and Romero (1999) examined the validity of the MEIM and conducted factor analysis with a large sample. The outcomes suggest that the scale measures two components of ethnic identity: ethnic identity search and affirmation, belonging, and commitment. Ethnic identity search refers to a developmental and cognitive component. Affirmation, belonging, and commitment represent the affective component.
However, the scale has been proven to be a valid and reliable measurement and it will be used in the context of this study. More discussion of the scale is provided in the method section. Researchers have indicated that positive relationships do exist between ethnic identity and self-esteem, self-concept, psychological well-being, achievement, and satisfaction (Phinney, 1992; Roberts et al. , 1999; Delworth, 1989). However, it is the purpose of this study to examine the relationship between ethnic identity and motivations of sport fans.
According to Phinney (1990) some studies have used sport as a cultural item to measure ethnic identity. Pons, Laroche, Nyeck, and Perreault (2001) indicated that the choice of a particular sporting event represents a strong cultural meaning for the individual. Some ethnic groups tend to identify with a specific sport, for example, soccer in the Italian community and hockey among the French Canadian. Pons et al. , (2001) stated “ethnic groups do not all react to sporting events in the same way; they differ in the means and the pace of their integration into the host culture” (p.238).
African American consumers tend to attend historically Black college/university sports more frequently than they did any other sport. The level of ethnic identification of African American fans has significant affect on their attendance frequency to historically Black college/university sports (Armstrong, 2002). Moreover, previous studies showed differences in motivation between African American and European American sport fans based on ethnicity (Wann, Bilyeu, Brennan, Osborn, & Gambouras, 1999; Bilyeu & Wann, 2002; Armstrong, 2002). 7ю
Therefore, it is expected that there is a relationship between sport fans’ motivation and ethnic identity. Research Hypotheses H1: Ethnic identity is positively related to sport fan motivations. H2: There is a difference between African American and European American in their ethnic identity. Operational Definitions Ethnic Identity: “part of an individual’s self-concept that derives from his or her knowledge of membership in a social group (or groups) together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership” (Phinney, 1992, p.156).
Sport fan: refers to someone who is enthusiastic about a particular sport team or athlete (Wann, 1995). Sport fan motivation: refers to the reasons that drive individuals to support sport teams, be loyal to them, buy team/sport related products, watch and attend sporting events. Delimitations This study is delimitated to: 1. Investigate the ethnic identity and motivations of sport fans in general. For that reason, no specific group of fans (i. e. , basketball fans, football fans) was examined. 2.
The student at Florida State University (FSU) and Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University (FAMU), therefore, the findings cannot be generalized to populations other than the population from which the sample was drawn. 8 Limitations This study is limited to the following: 1. The outcome of this study depends on the participants’ honesty and cooperation in answering the questions. 2. Due to the nature of this study as self-administrated surveys, the researcher’s access is limited to the classes gained via permission to attend and meet. Assumptions This study is based on the following assumptions: 1.
The surveys used in this study are clear and understandable for the participants. 2. The participants will answer the questions honestly and accurately. 3. The surveys are valid and reliable. Significance of the Study The sport marketers are in a high competition within the sport industry and also with outside competitors. Young generations are attracted through technology to new types of entertainment such as computer/video games and the X-Games. “These new entertainment options have already attracted a significant amount of attention from the so -called X-generation” (Kwon & Trail, 2003, p. 1).
Therefore, sport marketers should be concern about the future of the sport industry. In order for sport marketers to maintain their consumer base and to attract young generation, they should explore and examine the consuming behavior of sport fans and the factors that might influence their behavior. According to Gramann and Allison (1999), “the increase in the ethnic diversity of North America is one of the most powerful demographic forces shaping U. S. and Canadian society” (p. 283). Therefore, studying ethnic identity as an important social characteristic of sport fans is important to sport marketers.
The importance of studying ethnic groups among sport fans is reflected by the increasing percentage of minority participation in professional sport, especially African American. African American athletes represent 25 to 75 percent of athletes on the rosters for the three popular sports (baseball, basketball, football) (Gano-Overway & Duda, 2001). 9 The goal of this study was to introduce a new measure of fan motivation which will assist practitioners in the sport industry to understanding the driving factors for sport fans to attend sporting events, support sport teams, or buy team/sport related products.
Also, the relationship between motivations and ethnic identity of sport fans was examined. The outcome of the study should provide practitioners with valuable information to assist them in understanding the various motives of sport fans based on their ethnic identity. Therefore, sport marketers should be able to improve their plans and strategies to maintain their fan base and fulfill the desires for their target market. 10 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on ethnic identity and motivation of sport fans.
It should be noted that to date, no research has combined and analyzed the interaction of the two identified variables. As such, the first section of this chapter focuses on the research that has been done on the ethnic identity of sport fans. The second section discusses motives of sport fans as well as scales that have been used to assess these motives. Ethnic Identity and Sport Fans Ethnicity as social and cultural characteristic of sport fans has been ignored in the literature although the race factor, which is the physical aspect of ethnicity, has been utilized for comparison between ethnic groups.
However, Armstrong (2002) examined the influence of ethnic identification on Black consumers’ attendance at historically Black college/university (HBCU) sports. To assess ethnic identification, Armstrong used a self-report measure in which participants were asked to identify their ethnic group based on ethnic categories (Black/African American, Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and “other”) and to rate the intensity of their identification with their ethnic group on a scale from 1 (weak) to 5 (very strong).
The hypothesis was that the identification of Black consumers with their ethnic group would have a significant influence on their attendance frequency at HBCU sport events. The findings offered support for the hypothesis indicating a positive relationship between ethnic identification and attendance frequency. In another study, Armstrong (2000) examined the influence of ethnic identification on African American students’ processing of persuasive sport communications (i. e. , advertisement, promotional messages, developmental campaigns, and announcements).
The ethnic identification of the respondents was measured using a 13-item scale developed by Whittler, Calatone, and Young (1991). The scale assesses two major factors of ethnic identification (cross-race attraction and political and social 11 relations among Blacks). The outcome of the study revealed that ethnic identification has an effect on participants’ reaction to racial heuristics in the communication. African American consumers are more likely to have a positive reaction to a persuasive communication if the message were culturally relevant and delivered by a Black spokesperson. Pons et al.
(2001) looked at the impact ethnic identity could have on the consumption behavior and orientation of sport consumers. They measured language (3 items), religion (3 items), and social participation with one’s own ethnic group (6 items) as three dimensions of ethnic identity. The orientation of sport consumers has three dimensions. The first dimension refers to sporting events as a provider of sensations in which consumers have an emotional attachment to the event or the product. The second dimension represents individuals’ need to understand the sporting event, which lead to better appreciation for the event.
The third dimension of orientation toward sporting event refers to the socialization opportunities presented for sport consumers. The consumption behaviors include purchase of sporting good, tickets, and time devoted to sporting events. The results offered support for the idea that ethnic identity has a positive impact on the consumption and orientation of sport consumers. In regard to the race of sport consumers as part of their ethnicity, researchers have found a difference between Blacks and Whites concerning their sport involvement (Spreitzer & Snyder, 1990).
Sport involvement included seven dimensions “watching sports on television, listening to sport on the radio, reading the sport pages of the newspaper, watching/listening to sports news on radio/television, reading sports books, reading sports magazines, and talking about sports with friends” (Spreitzer & Snyder, 1990, p. 51). The findings revealed significant effect of race on sport involvement regardless of respondents’ social background characteristics (i. e. , age, sex, education, income, town size).
Blacks tend to be more involved in sport than Whites. The authors argued that the findings reflect a distinctive subculture within the black community. Rudman (1986) examined the relationship between race, social structure, and sport orientations. The main goal of the study was to see whether factors that affect sport orientations are race-dependant. The results showed Blacks to be more likely than Whites to become vicariously involved in sport outcomes and to incorporate sport into their daily 12 lives.
Based on the overall analyses, the author argued that social and economic conditions provide a better explanation of differences in sport orientations. He used the term “culture of poverty” to indicate that socioeconomic positions are more likely to make boor blacks and boor whites see sport as an opportunity to enhance social prestige and economic position. At the college level, Armstrong (2001) examined ethnic minority students’ consumption of college sport events. The ethnic minorities included African Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and “Others”.
She looked at the degree of ethnic minority students’ interest in sport spectating, the frequency in which they attend university sponsored sport events, and the factors that influence their decision to attend campus sport events. Eight factors were tested to see their influence on the students’ attendance. The factors are the price of the tickets, academic commitment, significant others, friends, watching the event on television, the option to spend money on other things, not knowing when tickets are available, the quality of the opponent.
The factors identified had no significant influence on students’ attendance. The findings indicate that ethnic minority students generally had a favorable attitude towards sport spectating. However, about 44% of the student stated that they never attend a campus sport event, 41% stated that they seldom attended, and 15% have attended often. The author contended that minority students had a favorable attitude toward sport spectating but they never or seldom attend sport events on campus because they view these events as directed to a specific group (i.e. , dominant ethnic group).
For minority students to be motivated to attend, the sport event has to be socially and culturally relevant to the students’ ethnic background. In professional sport, Zhang, Pease, Hui, & Michaud (1995) and Zhang, Pease, Smith, Lee, Lam, & Jambor (1997) indicated that factors such as game promotions, amenities, and schedule convenience influenced ethnic minorities’ attendance differently and more significantly than they did Whites’.
Therefore, sport marketers should emphasize the sociocultural factors (i. e., offering different ethnic foods at the concession stands, playing different ethnic music, making announcement in different languages) in promoting sport consumption of ethnic minority consumers (Armstrong, 2001; Hofacre & Burman, 1992; McCarthy & Stillman, 1998). 13 In a direct connection to the current investigation, previous studies have found differences on the motivations of sport fans based on ethnicity. Wann, Bilyeu, Brennan, Osborn, & Gambouras (1999) investigated the relationship between sport fans’ motivation and race. A sample of 65 Euro-Americans and 32 African Americans completed the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS).
The SFMS, developed by Wann (1995), includes eight motivational factors (eustress, self-esteem benefit, diversion from everyday life, entertainment value, economic value, aesthetic value, need for affiliation, and family needs). The findings indicated that Euro-Americans reported higher motivation than African Americans. The authors argued that certain motives might be applicable to only a subset of races. In a recent study, Bilyeu and Wann (2002) examined the racial differences in sport fan motivation between African Americans and European Americans.
First, 50 African American participants completed a demographic questionnaire and an interview with the researcher to discuss their motives for being a sport fan. Second, the motives discovered from the interviews were sent to African American psychologists and sociologists for validation. Third, the new motives were added to the SFMS, then the African American and European American participants were asked to complete the SFMS.
The findings suggested that three new factors be added to the SFMS: “representation (e. g. , people of the same background), similarity (e. g., people they have things in common with), and support/perceived greater equality (e. g. , people they want to succeed)” (Bilyeu & Wann, 2002, p. 93). Armstrong (2002) indicated that previous investigations of motivation for sport consumption were not applicable to Black consumers because the samples used in these investigations were predominantly White. Therefore, she added a cultural affiliation motive to the SFMS, developed by Wann (1995), and administered it to a sample of only Black consumers of sport. The findings supported the hypotheses that cultural affiliation is a viable motive for Black’s sport consumption.
In addition, the factor structure of the SFMS with the inclusion of the cultural affiliation motive differed from previous studies (Wann, 1995; Wann, Schrader, & Wilson, 1999). Therefore, the Black Consumer’ Sport Motivation Scale (BCSMS) was introduced including the following factors: eustress, group recreation, aesthetics, cultural affiliation, group entertainment, escape, and 14 personal (economic/psychological) investment. At the conclusion of the study, the author stated, “behaviors and motives related to sport consumption may also be influenced by the social and psychological manifestations of culture” (Armstrong, 2002, p.329).
In summary, although research on ethnic identity for sport fans is very limited, a strong relationship was found between sport consumers’ ethnic identity and sport consumption and orientation. Also, the differences found on the motivations for sport fans based on ethnicity, should indicate a strong relationship between sport fans’ motivation and ethnic identity. However, it is the goal of this investigation to examine this relationship.
Subject: Ethnic group,
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 26 December 2016
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