Southern United States Essay
Southern United States
Introduction: In our communities today, African Americans have moved away from the theory of ensuring all are able and educated to take care of self. What happened along the way? African American slaves were free of mind but bodies were enslaved. Now that our bodies are free but it seems our minds are enslaved. Mary McLeod Bethune, born to former slaves in 1875, is known for her contributions in black communities. Bethune committed her life to educating African American on the right to freedom and education.
She believed through education African Americans could determine their own destiny in an racially equal society. The strength and power she exhibited in the African American community ensured no one would be left behind without a chance in life. Civil right leaders devoted their lives for equality. A number of issues which plague African Americans have their roots dating back to slavery and the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era and are becoming more noticeable in our communities today. There is significant poverty and crime due to lack of education.
Families are being destroyed because we have been oppressed by the Jim Crow laws . In many of the southern states during slavery and after the Civil War, slaves was discouraged by their former masters from becoming educated. Mainly because education was opposite with the institution of slavery and would eventually lead to failure . From the perspective of the slave masters, if African Americans were given access to education, they could possibly start thinking and acting on their own, and an uprising was foreseeable.
Advocates of slavery in the state of Maryland would be required to accept the reality that slaves or freedmen were in fact not incapable or inferior in absorbing education. The slaves desired the exact same freedoms as whites but, the whites were unwilling to accept the facts . In some states such as Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, for example, Blacks were able to educate themselves. If whites were caught teaching African Americans how to read and write, they were subject to fines and possibly imprisoned. If slaves were caught, the punishment was far more harsh. Annotated Bibliography
Primary Sources: Feagin, Joe R. and Sikes, Melvin P. – “Living with Racism: The Black Middle-Class Experience”, Acon Press, 1994 The book provides a thorough examination of common stereotyping of prejudice and discrimination. The author describes in detail the minor acts in which African American are subjected. The book includes a number of social issues such as bitterness and despair in the souls of African Americans. Branch, Taylor – “Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63”, Touchstone Book, 1989 The author provides a thorough examination of America during the time of Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Era. The book reveals a portrait of Dr. King as he was haunted by blackmail, factionalism, and hatred. The book discusses the nonviolent movement as a dramatic force in history. The book provides relevant information relating to my research on racial issues within the African American community. West, Cornel – “Race Matters”, Vintage 1994 Cornel West’s book provides a thorough examination of new Black conservatism and the strained relations in the Black community.
The author addresses a range of issues from the crisis in Black leadership and myths surrounding affirmative action. The book includes a passion grounded in the tradition of the African American church. Ward, Jerry W, Jr, and Graham, Maryemma – “The Cambridge History of African American Literature” Cambridge University Press 2011 The book provides you with four hundred years of black writing and comprehensive overview of the literary traditions, oral and print, of African-descended peoples in the United States.
The contributors, drawn from the United States and beyond, emphasize the dual nature of each text discussed as a work of art created by an individual and as a response to unfolding events in American cultural, political, and social history. Washington, Booker T – “1856-1915 Up from Slavery”, Doubleday, c1901 Booker T. Washington’s book provides a thorough examination of the events in a remarkable life that began in bondage. The author discusses the relevant issues that impacted the Black community. Mr.
Washington demonstrates in his book how he came up from slavery and educated the Black community. Internet: http://mh. sandglass. com/history-african-american-education-montgomery-county-0 Title: History of African-American Education in Montgomery County Description: For nearly a century, schools for black students in Montgomery County (and indeed most of the country) were denied the benefits provided to their entirely separate, but supposedly “equal,” white counterparts. http://www. loc. gov/search/? q=education+in+maryland+1865 Title: By the House of Delegates, February 14, 1865.
Description: Report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to the General Assembly of Maryland, together with a bill entitled “A Uniform System of Public Instruction for the State of Maryland. ” Emancipation Proclamation/ End of the Civil War: President Lincoln, on January 1, 1863, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. The Proclamation, DID NOT immediately abolish slavery it only applied to areas outside Union Control. However, it made emancipation an irrevocable war aim, profoundly changing the character of the Civil War. The lives of African American slaves changed forever.
The end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery raised complicated issues and dilemmas for African American and white Americans. In 1865, the Civil War ended and slaves were now free. Many slaves waited the day of being free. Nearly 4 million slaves were freed. For many of the slaves, the future was uncertain. However, for the slaves, it meant families would remain together, and their women would no longer be subject to rape and used as “bed warmers”. The newly freed slaves were given opportunities to develop their own communities. Many of the slaves were quick to inform the white slave master they were free.
Freed slaves were faced with poverty, homelessness and a severe lack of education. Reconstruction: In 1865 Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, to assist with the transition of freedmen for newly freed slaves. The bureau was given massive responsibilities in helping freedmen by providing property, education, and how to negotiate on labor contracts with white planters. Also the Bureau aid in settling criminal disputes involving blacks and whites. Newly freed slaves did not trust the Bureau slavery remain present in the freedmen minds.
The former slaves suffered a tremendous amount of injustices at the hands of whites. The bureau was not designed to be a permanent institution but the goal was to encourage the newly freed slave to become self-reliant as soon as possible. The freedman’s Bureau was put in place for one year. Many white Southerners desire was to eliminate former slave’s new found freedom. The renowned African American scholar and activist W. E. B Du Bois assisted in the path of reconstruction. W. E. B. DuBois begins his social analysis of the black conditions in Philadelphia.
Published in 1899, The Philadelphia He was also considered the most powerful black educator of the 19th and 20th centuries in so far as he controlled the flow of funds to black schools and colleges. Up from slavery, born a slave on a small farm in the Virginia backcountry, he worked in the salt furnaces and coal mines of West Virginia as a child. e He was determined to get an education he would travel hundreds of miles under great stress until he arrived At Hampton Institute. The 15th Amendment is passed permitting black men the right to vote. Joseph H.
Rainey of South Carolina is the first black to be seated in the House. In all, twenty-two blacks are elected to Congress during Reconstruction . There were seven lawyers, three ministers, one banker, one publisher, two school teachers, and three college presidents. Hampton Normal Agricultural Institute is founded by Samuel Chapman Armstrong and chartered as one of the first colleges for blacks. It is also a pioneer in educating American Indians. Booker T. Washington is among its early graduates. Pennsylvania, the home of the oldest and largest northern free black community.
Dr. Carter G. Woodson’s innate brilliance and capacity for critical thought allowed him to envision the impossible as possible. He was one of the first African American to receive a doctorate in the United States, and the second to be awarded a doctorate in history from Harvard University; he almost single-handedly pulled African American history from the margins of obscurity. Dr. Woodson was particularly concerned with social and economic history focusing his lens on the fundamental virtue of African Americans, both as individuals and as an ethnic group.
Building on traditions informed by the scholarship of black historians such as William Bell Brown and George Washington Williams, he inspired an entire generation of African American cultural historians including noted Pan-Africans Rayford W. Logan, and political and social activist Luther Porter Jackson, among others. His extensive body of work and astute analysis of Negro history and its African origins prompted the intellectual life represented in the Harlem Renaissance, ushered in the era of black studies and also influenced the civil rights, black power and black arts movements.
Sixty years after his death on April 3, 1950, his legacy as the Father of Black History still lives on. Education Two of the world’s greatest black’s leaders within the African American community. W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington had very distinctive views on education in the African American community. They both disagreed on strategies that largely affected the future of African Americans social and economic development. The philosophies of Du Bois and Washington on how to overcome racial injustice. Booker T.
Washington was an educator and influential black leader. Washington spoke from philosophy point of view on self-help, racial and accommodations. He suggested that African Americans should accept racial discrimination for now. But, instead focus on elevating via hard work. Washington believed in education he urged blacks to accept discrimination for the time being and concentrate on elevating themselves through hard work, training and material prosperity. He believed the former African Americans slaves should focus their time in learning skills in farming and industrial.
It would gain the respects of whites and that would lead in to becoming accepted as American citizens. W. E. B. Du Bois, is considered a scholar and political thinker. He was against Washington’s strategy to accept racial discrimination that would serve only to preserve white oppression. Du Bois was an advocate for political action and for the civil rights of former African American Slaves. He helped found the NAACP. He believed that social change can be accomplished by developing the small group of educated blacks he called the Talented Tenth. Du Bois has a more realist view in reference to education.
Lack of education puts you at disadvantage in competing with whites for higher paying jobs. Ignoring racial discrimination will cause the people to become oppress. If you educated the people they can become more self-reliant from economic prospective. Education in Maryland: In Maryland 1865 “one high school per county”, the law was passed to opened the door for African-American children to receive a free education. There were some guides that first must be followed taxes collected from African American in the state of Maryland were sufficient to cover the expenses of building schools.
The Emancipation Proclamation stated that African Americans were freed in 1863, segregation became the standard. African American teachers were not allowed teach in the state of Maryland without a three year certificate that was issued by the state superintendent, or by the president of the county board. The requirements for Maryland teachers in the 1860s-Caucasian or African-American-were the same. The teachers in Maryland were required to be single; to attend to the students from 9 -4 p. m. , Maryland counties were under no obligation to educated or supply public intuition for African American students.
Many of the African American students were taught in very small quarters at home the teachings were informal. However a state law was passed in 1872 to create separate education of white and black students. The school board in Montgomery County refused to maintain the construction and maintenance of black schools. The county promised new schools will be built. MC refused to repairs previous burned and damaged schools from riots’ and cross burnings, Discard books were given to the black schools they never received new books. Most of the time the books were out dated and discarded by whites.
The African American teaches salaries were withheld and classes halted with no formal notice. The African American school year was shorter compared to the white’s schools. However, African American teachers were more qualified than their white peers. The pay of African American teacher was much lower. In spite of the white schools, and although many African American teachers were better qualified than their white peers, their official wage scale was much lower. Nevertheless, teachers and parents were devoted to providing the finest education they could, despite these adverse circumstances.
In spite of such laws, in African American established a colored school for students and employed black teachers. In a few cases, slave masters taught their slaves or the children of slave masters. However, for the large majority of enslaved African Americans, there were really no formal recognized educational institutions. Therefore, African Americans depended on private instruction to educate themselves. Bowie State University is the oldest historically African American University. It was founded in 1865, in Baltimore, Maryland.
It was considered an African American institution of higher education in the State of Maryland for people of color primarily for teachers. Some of the classes were held in Baptist churches. The freedmen’s Bureau the school relocated to a building purchased from the Society of Friends at Courtland and Saratoga Streets. The institution reorganized solely as a normal school to train black teachers in 1893. Conclusion: Globalization is the process in which the black community in the United States must continue to grow in becoming connected and intergraded into the modern world, by building businesses and generating economic growth.
The black community should become more engaged in the cultural and political education of the community and respond together and address any global problems that could possibly affect the growth of the community. The problems which plaque African Americans during slavery are becoming more noticeable in our communities today. There is significant poverty among African Americans and crime due to lack of education. Families are being destroyed because we have been oppressed. Booker T. Washington was considered the most powerful black educator of the 19th and 20th centuries, he forward large some of his funds black schools and colleges.
He was determined to educate himself. A segment of the African American people has moved away from the theory of ensuring all are able and educated to take care of self. During slavery the minds of the African American minds were free and bodies enslaved. Now that our bodies are free but our minds are enslaved. The global and social issues are affecting many parts of the African Americans community across the country. Some of the problems are so complex, that most people steer clear of addressing global and social issues.
A group of people who were dehumanized and strip of their original identity are in search of equality that will better prepare children of the future. Mary McLeod Bethune, born to former slave’s in1875 after the Civil war, is known for her contributions in the black communities. In the 21st century around the world constant debates are taking place concerning the impact of globalization in education in the African American community. Economy and education it’s amazing that the African American community is roughly defined or mildly represented in education.
The actually perspective in developing a larger spectrum, cross disciplinary, and cross-boundaries approach would be necessary to examine educational challenges. The collective behavior of the educational system has influence mass behavior of educational system in the black community. Social issues in the black community may cause declined moving to the next century due to the lack of education. The can and will have a global affect across all minority culture. Black children are being placed in special education.
As the country move forward in modern technology and higher education the large number of children of color will be left behind. Some of the children that are placed in the venues called class rooms were they are only taught the basic. They not are being prepared for the future. It’s appalling the social, health, economic and criminal justice are markers that predicts downward sparrow in future proportions in the near future for our community. The collective behavior of the African American communities is not reaching out to address these impending issues.
Without positive changes, practical well thought out plans the mobilization; the segment of the African American community will not be able to move forward in the new global information or advanced technological skills. Education must become a priority. We must develop a social culture of literacy and education. The Black community must encourage the children to want to learn and move to higher level of education. The parents must be engaged in the educational process. The affects of slavery completely disrupted the notion of the black family because family members could be sold away from one another at any time.
Mothers could be torn away from their infants; husbands could be sold away from their families without notice. Slavery made African Americans into work animals, or beasts of burden, who were expected to work from sun up to sundown without stopping, and who were sometimes actually bred like cattle or horses to make better, stronger slaves. Slavery also made black men, women and children extremely helpless to brutal violence, the means of which we cannot even imagine today: rape, murder, torture, lynching’s, tar and feathering, whipping, etc.
Slavery also caused severe emotional and psychological trauma, which resulted in oftentimes in self-hatred because blacks were taught that everything black was bad and everything white was good because the lack of education and dehumanized put the African American community at disadvantaged. Some blacks learned to hate the color of their skin, their physical features, and the texture of their hair because they were told over and over that they were ugly because they weren’t European. Slavery has a negative effect on the Black community in America. When slavery was abolish some slaves was taken back to varies parts of Africa.
The slaves that remained in America life was an uphill constant battle fighting for equal opportunities as whites. Slavery kept blacks from being educated in large numbers because it was illegal for slaves to learn to read and write. Slave-owners were afraid that educated slaves would find a way to organize themselves and begin a revolution that would end. The 21 century has created an environment that suppresses many healthy discussions in order to remain politically correct. However, as African Americans, we have a strong heritage of lively debate and facing the hard issues to ensure the welfare of our citizens.
Many Blacks feels oppressed and angry. Not surprisingly, most discussions today are taking place within the Black community, although electing our first Black President has broadened the commentary on the issue. Does slavery continue to affect our community today? Slavery ended in 1865, followed by reconstruction, which ended in 1877. Freed slaves, who had spent their lives being told what to do and were conditioned to react rather than initiate thought, were left to their own devices to face “freedom “The effect of slavery continues to exert its brutal influence in the untold sufferings of millions of everyday people.
In conclusion: Globalization has positive and negative affect on the African American community positive affect moving from slavery to equality and negative many are left behind due to not forming to globalization. In 1865 School Superintend of Maryland wrote excluding African Americans students. 1st. Education ought to be Universal. 2nd. Education ought to be Free, and therefore, 3rd. The property of the whole State is responsible For such education of every child in the State as will prepare him to perform the duties of a man and a citizen, in obedience to the laws of God and the laws of the Commonwealth.
In the first Article of the Declaration of Rights, the people of Maryland say, “That we hold it to be self- evident that all men are created equally free ; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the proceeds of their own labor and the pursuit of happiness. ” If this be our Faith, then our works ought to be mani- fest. Our children must be carefully taught without any distinction of person, the principles by which life may be preserved and made productive of good to its possessors and those whom they may influence.
Subject: Jim Crow laws,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 19 December 2016
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