sociology quiz 1

sociological imagination
As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following “enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society”?

xenophobia
Feeling discomfort about rural chinese society, where many generations of a family sleep in the same bed, is known as:

to explain the sociological imagination
how does the textbook author use dialogue from Pulp Fiction, in which the characters discuss how in Holland people put mayonnaise on their french fries

sociological imagination.
A female manager is attempting to climb her way to the top of the corporate ladder. She works as hard, if not harder, than her male colleagues, but nothing she seems to do helps her advance. She begins to notice that males are being promoted, but females tend to be overlooked for advancements. The realization that many women in her circumstances are experiencing the same discrimination is an example of:

the returns to schooling
sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as:

about $15,000 per year
After doing some sociological math, what is the net difference between the annual earnings of the average high school versus college graduate?

a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education
According to Randalls Collins (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is:

$29.95
According to research used to question credentialism, what might it cost to buy a college diploma online?

credentialism
In today’s society, Randall Collins might suggest that getting a “piece of paper” is more important to many than actually having the knowledge to do a job. He calls the priority placed on formal education:

Families
all of the following are examples of social

a social institution
which of the following is defined as a set of stories embedded within a social network about the standard ways a society meets its needs?

a four-year college
the author of your text states that the most age-segregated social institution in our society is

social institution
a family, as a group living together sharing individual stories, makes up a(n)

social identity
The Phillip Morris Company changed its name to Altira in an attempt to start a new:

is nothing more than a sum of individual stories told between pairs of individuals
the “grand narrative” that constitutes a social identity

young
As a formal field, sociology is relatively ___ discipline, as discussed in Chapter 1

Harriet Martineau
Who was the author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology

based on an assumption of the inferiority of women
in the book How to observe morals and manners, the institution of marriage is criticized as

auguste comte
which of the following sociologists developed the theory of positivism

the idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them
positivity is best defined as:

moral
According to Comte, positivism arose out of a need to make___ sense of the social order in a time of declining religious authority

Emile Durkheim
The person that is often considered to be the founding father of positivism is:

the post-scientific stage
All of the following are known as the three epistemological stages of human society, as explained by Comte, Except:

the metaphysical stage
which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte explain was highlighted by enlightenment thinking such as Rousseau’s, Mills, and Hobbes’s beliefs in biological causes for human behavior

the scientific stage
which of the the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte claim was characterized by the development of social physics to explain human behavior

the theological stage
which of the following epistemological stages did Comte argue would explain human society by consulting the Bible or other religious texts

Durkheim, Marx, and Weber
Which of the following are known as at “the founding fathers of the sociological discipline”?

Karl Marx
Which of the following founders of sociology is known, in part, for having his writings become the basis of Communism?

proletariat
To marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number of workers would divide society. He reffered to this large number of workers as:

there are multiple influences (religion) on how social institutions are created.
Karl Marx would rage that the types of social institutions in a society were the result of the economic makeup of that society. Max Weber, however, argued that:

Max Weber
Who criticized Marx for focusing exclusively on economics and social class as explanations for human behavior, and advocated sociological analyses that allowed for multiple influences?

Max Weber…
Who wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirt of Capitalism

Verstehen
The author of the Protestant Ethic and the Spirt of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as:

Verstehen
Max Weber would say we need to understand, from their perspective, not from our own, why many generations of Chinese sleep together in rural China. He called this:

interpretive sociology
Which of the following is the study of social meaning that emphasizes subjectivity in understanding human behavior?

Emile Durkheim
The Division of labor in society was the first of many sociological contributions from:

the way social cohesion among individuals is maintained
According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in society helps to determine

Emile Durkeim
Which of the following sociologists wrote Suicide in 1897

anomie
According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called:

University of Chicago
American sociology in the United States began at which of the following universities

social ecology
The basic premise of the chicago school was that human behaviors and personalities are shaped by social and physical environments. This is known as:

Louis Wirth
Which early U.S. sociologist told other sociologist in the Chicago School to “go out and get the seats of (their) pants dirty in real research

the city of chicago itself
The chicago schools main laboratory for sociological research was:

cultural sociology
According to your textbook’s author, Chicago school researcher Louis Wirths essay, “Urbanism as a way of life” might be classified as which of the following today

W. I. Thomas
If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences is the theory of which of the following Chicago school theorists

The population was rapidly growing due to foreign immigration and the influx of african americans from the rural south
The chicago school was a good place to study community-based social ecology. Why?

the looking glass self
Charles H. ooley argued that the “self” emerges from how an individual interacts with others and then interprets those interactions. He calls this:

the generalized other
George H. Mead described how the “self” internalizes the views of society as a whole, transcending the individual and particular situations. He calls this larger society:

The Hull House
The Chicago school’s Jane Addams founded the first American settlement house, an institution to help the poor by offering aid, educational services, and more. this house is mown as:

W. E. B. Du Bois
Which of the following was the first African American to receive a Ph. D. from Harvard University?

W.E.B. Du Bois
Which of the following applied Durkheim’s theory of anomie to explain crime rates among African Americans after the abolition of slavary in the United States

double consciousness
A white person goes into an upscale shop to look at clothes. (S)he is excited to see that there is a sale and gathers a huge pile of clothes to take into the dressing room. An African American goes into the store and is excited about the sale, but hesitates to take many clothes into the dressing room, afraid that staff will think he or she might shoplift. W. E. B. Du Bois would say that the African American has:

functionalism
Which of the following modern sociologists theories states that the best way to analyze society is to identify the purpose that different aspects or phenomena play in the overall structure of society

Latent
The intended purpose of desegregation of schools in the 1950s was to make education equal for everyone. What was not intended was that many racial minority teachers and principals lost their jobs. This unintended purpose was called a(n) ____________ function by functionalist theorist Talcott Parsons.

conflict theory
In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s beliefs that competition, not consensus is the essential cause of social change?

supporting the dominant class structure and the inequalities associated with it
The functionalist paradigm went largely unchallenged in the United States until around he 1950’s. C. Write Mills criticized Talcott Parsons for:

a competition versus consensus
the two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are

Ann Oakley
Which feminist sociologist wrote Sex, Gender, and Society (1972), in which she or he argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can actually be traced to learned behaviors and socialization?

feminism
Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced not he basis of gender differences

symbolic interactionism
Which modern sociological theory explains behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals

shared meaning
What do symbol interactions study

dramaturgical theory
Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as

postmodernism
which of the following modern sociological theories argue that there are no shared, objective meanings?

social constructs
Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all “facts” are really:

deconstructing
Some postmodern sociologists work to show us how all social phenomena are created arbitrarily by people with varying degrees of power. This is known as:

postmodernism
Native Americans may see the history of the United States differently than white Europeans. Which theory is concerned with the fact that history may be interpreted differently by these dissimilar groups?

midrange theory
Robert Merton’s modern sociological theory focused on attempting to predict how certain social institutions function between microsociology and macrosociology. This is known as:

“great man” theories
In the discipline of history, focusing on historical figures such as Adolf Hitler is known as:

the nomothetic approach
Explaining unique cases is the focus of most historians, whereas the comparative method is the staple of the sociologist. This comparative method is also known as:

cultural anthropology
which area within the discipline of anthropology is most similar to sociology

supre-individual
In sociology’s cousin, psychology, the focus is on the individual. In sociology, the focus is above or beyond the individual, on group-level dynamics and social structures. this is known as

economics
The examination of human behavior within a rational actor model is the focus of which of the following “cousins” of sociology?

group-level dynamics and social structures
sociology is the study of

commonalities
While historians are more likely to focus on the unique case, sociologists would more likely focus on:

rational actors; emotional motivations
Economists tend to see humans as ____________, but sociologists would tend to include ____________:

microsociology
Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?

macrosociology
Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?

interpretive and positivist sociology
Perhaps the largest division within the discipline of sociology exists between which of the following?