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Sociology chapters 10, 11, & 13

Categories Social Class, Social science, Society, Sociology

Essay, Pages 10 (2444 words)

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Essay, Pages 10 (2444 words)

The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person’s sex is
[Gender stratification]
Most sociologists believe behavioral gender differences develop between men and women because gender differences are based on
[Social factors]
Who proposed the concept that women are better prepared biologically for “mothering” than men, which is overlaid in culture
[Alice rossi]
According to sociologists, men and women typically perform different types of work because it is a product of
[Socialization and social control]
Is a classification that sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige
[Minority group]
The practice of what involves burning the living widow with the body of her dead husband
[Suttee]
In Pakistan, Jordan, and kurdidtan, a women who has brought disgrace to her family is killed by a male relative, usually her brother or husband, this practice is called
[Honor killing]
The philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with the regard to justifying gender stratification is known as
[Feminism]
The third wave of the women’s movement focused on the problems of women in the
[Least industrialized nations]
Was the first to propose that we might need affirmative action for men
[Judith kleinfield]
The fact that nearly 80% of engineering degrees are awarded to men while 90% of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates the phenomenon of
[Gender tracking]
Joan and Jim were both hired to do the same work at the Acme Tool Company, although Jim’s title it slightly different from Jonas.

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Jim has received a higher starting salary.

Sociologists call this form of employment discrimination the

[Testosterone bonus]
The term for discrimination against women who miss the work experience while they care for children at home is the
[Child penalty]
Asthma has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm.she has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive positions, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates the
[Glass ceiling]
Describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation
[Glass ceiling]
The group of men women fear the most as potential rapists are
[Strangers]
The age range of women most likely to be victims of rape is
[16 to 19]
When sociologists say age is …, they mean age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society
[Socially constructed]
Refers to the maximum length of life that is possible for a species
[Life span]
Have the longest life expectancy
[Japanese]
Has the shortest life expectancy
[Afganistan]
The term “ageism” refers to prejudic, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age, and was coined by the physician
[Robert butler]
Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed people against people because of their is is known as
[Ageism]
The social value of the elderly decreased with
[Industrialization]
The gerotranscendece theory, developed by …, describes the transformation of the elderly to feel more at one with the universe and more understanding in their perception of social issues
[Lars tornstan]
In U. S. Society, men with graying hair and wrinkles are seen as mature, while women with the same features are seen as old. This is referred to as
[Gender age]
To qualify as having …, the members of the sample must be born roughly at the same time. Dr. Loomis introductory sociology class is composed entirely of first-year students who are 18 years old. Together, these 55 students, and all other 18 year olds, comprise an
[Age cohort]
Posits the notion that retirement is a mutually beneficial agreement between two parts of society, the old and the young
[Disengagement theory]
Based on the work of … and …, disengagement is a gradual process that begins in middle age and continues over several decades
[Elaine Cummings and William Henry]
Ralph, age 45, has decided to stop putting in overtime at work and stop going to Chamber of Commerce meetings in order to spend more time with his family and friends. According to Elaine Cummings and william Henry, Ralph is in the early stages of
[Disengagement]
Was the physician who started a movement in 1930 to levy a 2 percent national sales tax to support the elderly
[Francis Townsend]
Was to be funded by a national sales tax of 2%
[The Townsend Plan]
Proposed the social security plan that was finally adopted by congress in 1934
[Franklin D. Roosevelt]
Who is credited with describing violence as the ultimate foundation of any political order
[Peter Berger]
Another name for rational-legal authority is
[Bureaucratic authority]
The literal translation of the word charismatic, based on its Greek origin is
[A gift freely and graciously given]
The one thing Joan of arc, Adolph Hitler, and Jesus Christ all had in common is that they were all
[Charismatic leaders]
The peaceful transfer of power in south Africa when president de klerk was replaced by Nelson Mandela was made possible because the nation followed the procedures based on
[Rational-legal authority]
Max Weber used the term … to refer to the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either a rational-legal authority or traditional authority
[Routinization of charisma]
During the middle ages in Europe, the structure that dominated the landscape of a city-state was a
[Castle]
In the United States, we elect candidate’s whom we believe will best represent our interest in state capitals and in Washington D.C. this is example of a
[Representative democracy]
Carl lives in a small new England town where he and other residents attend monthly town meetings. At these meetings, they publicly vote on issues concerning the town. These monthly town meetings are an example of
[Direct democracy]
The American statesman who said, “a little rebellion now and then is a good thing… The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants”. Was …
[Thomas Jefferson]
The specific gift of the U.S. gave to the world that addressed a person’s rights based by birth and residence is the concept of
[Citizenship]
The key factor in a representative democracy is the citizenship of the
[Resident]
The basis of universal citizenship is by birth or naturalization, everyone in the country has the same
[Basic rights]
In kolondahar, a sma group of high ranking military officers make the decisions that determine national policy. This form of government describes an
[Oligarchy]
Another term used for pre-elections in which voters decide which candidate’s will represent their parties in
[Primary]
The political party that garnished 19% of the vote for president in 1992, but dropped to 8% in the 1996 election, and virtually none in subsequent elections is the
[Reform party]
The one thing … and … had in common is they were the most successful third party candidates to ever run for president of the U.S.
[Ross Perot and Theodore Roosevelt]
Marcus has not voted for the last 15 years because he feels that the political system has never done anything positive for him, so his vote really would not affect his life one way or another. Marcus emotional reaction is known as
[Alienation]
In the 2004, presidential election, women appeared to favor voting for John Kerry while men voted for george w Bush, a phenomenon known as
[Political gender gap]
People who think alike on a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political actionable described as special interest groups
[Special-interest group]
People who influence legislation on behalf of their clients are referred to as
[Lobbyists]
Organizations that solicit contributions from many donors and then use the large total to influence legislation are referred to as
[Political action committees (PAC)]
The three branch system which is designed to ensure that power remains distributed in U.S. government so that no one branch dominates is known as
[Checks and balances]
The term … uses to refer to the top one percent of Americans who belong to the super rich and capitalist class is the ruling class
[William domhoff]
Hunting and gathering societies that generate very little surplus food and material property are described by sociologists as
[Subsistence economics]
Was to the agricultural society as … Was to the industrial society
[Plow, steam engine]
Is the term that describes a system that emphasizes hard work, savings,and a concern for salvation. Max Weber term to describe the ideal of a self denying highly moral life accompanied by hard work and frugality is
[Protestant ethnic]
Refers to the linking of the world’s nations by fast communications, trade, and transportation
[Global village]
The eagerness to show wealth by the purchase and visible ownership of goods is called
[Conspicuous consumption]
Suggested the concept of conspicuous consumption in 1912
[Thorstein veblen]
Coined the term postindustrial society in 1973
[Daniel bell]
In the United States, government interventions that restrict a person’s ability to immediately produce and sell a product that he or she has discovered or invented are referred to as
[Market restrains]
Another name for welfare capitalism is
[Capitalism]
In socialism, the … determines what will be produced and what it will cost
[Central committee]
The two nations that serve as the best examples of democratic socialism are
[Denmark and Sweden]
Would define profit as the excess value of a product that is withheld from workers
[Karl Marx]
The theory based on the idea that the two economic systems- capitalism and socialism- will eventually adopt features of one another until there is a hybrid economic system in all societies is
[Convergence theory]
In the globalization of capitalism, the dominant European nation is
[Germany]
Overlapping memberships of the world’s top multinational companies enfold their leaders into a sma circle called a
[Global superclass]
Credential society
When employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a
Randall collins
Was the sociologists who observed that industrialized nations are becoming credential societies
Cultural contradiction
Although cooperation is a core value in Japan, Japanese students are admitted to college only on the basis of intense competition. This is an example of
Russian revolution
Was responsible for the change in the Russian education system in 1917
Manifest function of education
From a functionalist perspective, the teaching of knowledge and skills which reinforces positive consequences in students is considered a
Cultural transmission of values
The process by which schools pass a society’s core values from one generation to the next is known as
Social integration
One of the functions performed by schools is to promote a sense of national identity and stabilize the political system. This function is referred to as
Mainstreaming
Edinbro university of Pennsylvania is one of the largest “wheelchair” universities in the United States providing access of all programs to all students and establishing special wheelchair programs in sports competition. This is an example of
Gatekeeping
Determining which people will enter what occupation is a function of education referred to as
Social placement
The concept that some jobs require few skills and can be performed by people of less intelligence is … Schools determining which people will enter what occupation based on their capabilities is referred to as
Walcott Parsons, Kinsley Davis, and Wilbert Moore
The three functionalist who advocated safekeeping as a means to support people on the basis of merit and advocating social placement were
Ray rist
When … conducted a participant observation study in an African American grade school, he concluded social class was the underlying basis for assigning children to different worktables in kindergarten
Symbolic interactionism
A sociologists who studied face to face interactions in the classroom between teachers and students would be emphasizing the symbolic interactionism
George farkas
Based on the research of sociologists …, girls and Asian Americans were most successful in signaling their teachers they were good students
Robert Merton
Developed the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy that explains why originally false assumptions become true because the outcome was predicted
Mediocrity
Using exceptionally simple questions on an exam and “dummying down” grading scales so everyone passes are examples of a growing problem in education called
Raising standards
At Harvard university 90% of the students graduate with honors. The faculty recommend to counter this honors inflation limiting the percentage of students who could graduate with honors in any one class. This is an example of
Inflated grades
In the United States today nearly half of all entering college freshmen have an overall high school grade-point average of 4.0, twice what it was in 1970. The reason for this increase in students with high grades is teachers have
Symbolic promotion
Renee has difficulty in reading and writing. However, despite her problem with reading and writing, she has been passed into the next grade every year. This is an example of
Grade inflation
Higher grades given for the same work or a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning is known as
national disgrace
In order to recruit a sufficient numbers of teachers in California, the competency level of teachers to be hired was lowered to a tenth grade level. Other states have made similar adjustments. The author of the text describes this change as a
Durkheim
Called the common elements of everyday life the profane
Beliefs, practices, and moral community
The three elements of religion based on the writings of emile Durkheim are
Moral communities
From Durkheim’s perspective, Buddhist bowing before a shrine, Hindus dipping into the Ganges river and Aztecs sacrificing virgins all qualify as
Social control
Incorporating religious teachings into criminal law, such as prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages before noon on Sunday, illustrates religions means of
Religious persecution and war and terrorism
The two dysfunctions of religion addressed in the textbook include
Cosmology
Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believe in one God who, as creator of the universe, is concerned about our actions and will hold us accountable for them. In this sense, Jews, Christians, and Muslims all share the same
Religious experience
The term that refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God is
Jews, Hindus
The star of David is to the … as the cow is to the …
Spirit of capitalism
As proposed by max weber, the … Was a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit
John Calvin
Proposed that God has predestined some people to go to heaven and others to hell at the time of their birth
Charisma
Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess

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Sociology chapters 10, 11, & 13. (2017, Dec 21). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/sociology-chapters-10-11-13-essay

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