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Essay on Sociology

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Cultism and Progress of Nigerian Universities

Background of the study Cultism is defined as the activities or practices of a group of people with one common spiritual, religious or philosophical belief. The group of individuals involved in these practices is known as a cult. In general sociological studies, the term cult has been subjected to a whole lot of controversial and divergent definitions. But most cults are referred to as secret cults. They are called that because their activities and practices are hidden from the public…...

Research Disagreements

A brief transcript from Keddy (1971) was examined by McNamara (1980) about a teacher and two boys when one of them established that the wolf boy went backwards because he was kept in a chicken coop than he asked the teacher:" how do you unlearn?" The answer of the latter was to simply forget. Many assumptions are concluded in this case, one of them might be that the teacher wished to close the conversation because he wanted to keep the…...

Karl Marx Hypothesis of Class Struggle

Karl Marx hypothesis of class struggle impacts me to contemplate the general population that works under other individuals who get rich on account of their laborers. Laborers make items for them which are sold by the proprietors and the primary individuals who buckled down for the item, who contributed their days and evenings on the item didn't reserve any option to talk up. They can't represent the item nor would they be able to request more cash from the proprietor…...

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Urie Brofenbrenner on Influence of Environment

The late Urie Bronfenbrenner was one of the most influential developmental social scientists in the last century. He had an important role in the design of the Head Start program and from the 1970’s until his death a few years ago; he developed the most comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding human development within the broader context of the social environment. Bronfenbrenner’s “bioecological systems” theory combines sociology and developmental psychology, with individuals and environments shaping each other. Children develop within several…...

Conjugal Roles and Marriage Equality

My aim is to find out whether or not conjugal roles are distributed evenly between the sexes in middle class families. I am interested in researching this matter as I am from a middle class background and am surrounded by other middle class families and also the fact that I am forced to participate in housework myself in ms household. Sociologists such as Mary Boulton believe that is mainly the women who apply themselves in households as in her research…...

Psychology on Early Childhood Attachments

With reference to the findings of Psychologists and some Sociologists, it has been argued that early childhood 'Attachments' are of paramount importance, and that a good early attachment is crucial for a child's' long term development. An Attachment, in this sense, can be described as a bond formed by infants and a caregiver; a strong bond of emotion. Many psychologists have studied the topic of attachments. Early research demonstrating the importance of attachments in animals and how they happen was…...

The Factors Affecting Fertility and Mortality

Population is all the inhabitants of one particular place and it is a key issue in the current world because the rise, fall or plateau in a population affects everyone within that place. There are three main components that change the population: fertility, mortality and migration. Births and deaths are labelled as what cause the natural increase or decrease in a population; however, migration is another reason why a population is constantly changing. The population in LEDCs (Less Economically Developed…...

Merton's Theory of Anomie

Anomie is a state of normlessness first coined by Robert K Merton, an American functionalist sociologist borrowed Durkheim s concept of Anomie to form his own theory called Strain Theory Merton argued that the real problem is not created by a sudden social change as Durkheim proposed, but rather by a social structure that holds out the sane goals to all its members without giving them equal means of achieving them. It is the lack of combining between what the…...

Peisistratus was a tyrant

Introduction Peisistratus was a tyrant, yet was almost universally admired by those who knew of him. Did he do more or less than Solon to protect the interests of the ordinary people of Attica? Although in history we think of tyrants as causing trouble and suffering to the people, but tyrants actually do a lot of good before they start to cause trouble. This isn't always the case, but in the case of Peisistratus, it is true and he did…...

Political theory from the Greek city-states

The time of Pericles, Plato, and Aristotle During the time of Pericles, Plato, and Aristotle, Greece was divided into city-states with a wide variety of constitutions, ranging from Sparta's military dictatorship to Athens' direct democracy. Most city-states had about 300,000 people, each divided into one of three classes : citizens, metics, or slaves. The citizens represented a total of one - third the population. The members of this class participated directly with politics in the various institutions, and decisions were…...

Pros and Cons of Viatical Settlements

Introduction For individuals who are hard up on their finances due to the demanding nature of health care services for the terminally ill, people are sorting through their options in order to obtain readily needed money. There are other options to accumulate much-needed money, such as obtaining a bank loan. However, in order widen one’s scope regarding other options; the role of viatical settlements will be discussed thoroughly. A viatical settlement is one option that individuals with terminal illnesses should…...

Public relations

Introduction The success of an organization is heavily determined by the management that is above the scope of the organization. This means that there are a number of controls that might lead to the success while others might lead to the fall of the organization. In this regard then, the public relations cater for those controls in which they can exert some influence to succeed. The public relations center on media relations by keeping in touch with the public; updating…...

The Puritan movement

Introduction In discussing Puritanism in this period we are immediately faced with the problem of definition. 'Puritan' was initially a term of abuse for the militant Protestants who sought further reform within the church. Initially the reformers were strongly influenced by Calvinist doctrines and they called for increased attention to preaching, the study and interpretation of the Bible and the simplification of elaborate rights. The Puritan movement seemed to be one of degrees rather than of type. Within the movement,…...

The Range of Social Scientific Methods

Introduction Sociology is the ordered, logical study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from…...

Situational factors

Introduction When we fail this is not expected and therefore we are more likely to look for causes outside ourselves. However, this explanation is refuted by a the results of a study by Miller (1976) who gave Pps a test of social perceptiveness and then randomly told them that they had either passed or failed. Half were told it was a well standardised and valid assessment and half were told it was a poor assessment. This meant that for those…...

Social divisions

Introduction Social divisions are not the same as social differences. Social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Normally we don't choose to belong to our community. People around us are male or female, they are tall and short, have different kinds of complexions, or have different physical abilities, disabilities but every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people. People belonging to different…...

Social norms

Introduction The second of the four definitions is deviation from social norms. This definition is reliant on the set of behaviours and moral standards of a certain culture. These rules can either be part of the law (e. g. not stealing, not vandalising) or can be implicit and conventional of a certain culture (e. g. in Britain not choosing to sit next to a stranger on an otherwise empty bus, not greeting people by kissing both cheeks). If a person…...

Social Support

Although women have quite a number of reasons that they give as being the reasons why they do not engage in regular exercise some of them do not really justify it. They sound like excuses and a lot can be done to rectify these so that they can attain a healthy existence. For those who say they do not have time yet they actually have time to sit in front of a television and watch, it would be best if…...

Social traps and dilemmas

Introduction Such individualism is not unique to the individualistic culture of America. Edney's findings are supported in other cross cultural studies. In Japan, a collectivistic culture, Kaori Sato (1987)vii gave participants opportunities to plant and harvest trees from a simulated forest for money. When the students shared the costs of planting the trees, the result was much like those in Western (individualistic) cultures: trees (the stock) were prematurely harvested before they had grown to their most profitable size. The lack…...

Socio-Political Costs and Benefits

Introduction There are countries which have existing concrete immigration policies. The United States, Canada and Australia are examples of traditional countries of immigration which categorize immigrants by place of birth allowing opportunity of comparing some aspects qualitatively and quantitatively. These countries together with Sweden and Israel, welcome immigrants with laws and measures facilitating a long term and permanent settlement though in case of Israel, they choose immigrants based on religion and culture. Human migration has taken a major participation in…...

Special purpose

An appointment could be defined as an agreement between two or more parties to meet at an agreed time and at a specified place for a special purpose. Based on this definition it is observable that parties that have entered into an agreement have the obligation of ensuring that they keep their different sides of the bargain. This position is further strengthened when it is considered that the parties were fully aware of what the implications would be prior to…...

Spiral of silence

Introduction This is a study based on the communicating theory “Spiral of Silence '' and the purpose of the study is to look into the theory more into item, to formalize it and to see how it applies to our society, chiefly in the I.T industry. The study outlines the determination that I have researched and complied with the aid of books, information bases, diaries and external beginnings. Based on the theory, Elizabeth Noelle Neumann stated that if persons believed…...

Supporting and Safeguarding Adults

Introduction ‘All care homes should have CCTV’, says woman who used E120 covert camera to capture shocking footage showing nurse abusing and taunting her 92-year-old mother-in-law’ An elderly lady living in a dementia care home, Bridie Rees was shouted at and abused by a nurse she knew and trusted called Faderera Bello. Her family noticed bruises on body after a visit and set up a camera in her room, this caught on camera that Bello had been abusing Bridie. She…...

Olinka Tribe

Introduction The Olinka do not believe girls should be educated. When I asked a mother why she thought this she said: "A girl is nothing to herself; only to her husband can she become something. " "What can she become? " I asked. "Why," she said, "the mother of his children. " (162) Much like many women in the United States in the early 20th century, women in the Olinka tribe were uneducated. Many were illiterate. These African women, like…...

The concept of ethnocentrism

Introduction Chinese philosopher Confucius stated that "All people are the same; its only their habits that are different". People within the western world are lucky to hold a privileged position within the worlds social system. Everything done by these people stems from the fact that they were brought up in a certain type of society that offers opportunities. "Sociology is - the systematic, sceptical study of human society", (Ken Plummer). So as sociologists it should be remembered that our perspective…...

The consequences of Modernity

The terms post-modernity, post-modernism and post-modern have been extremely well documented in the fields of sociology and philosophy. My main aim in this essay is to assess whether or not these concepts are useful in sociological analysis. I also wish to give examples of them and show whether or not there has been any real historical change between the periods of modernity and post-modernity. In order to do this, I will draw upon the works of sociologists such as Stuart…...

The Deindividuation perspective

Introduction Also Premenstrual syndrome has been cited in criminal trials as a reason for aggressive behaviour. These together with other biological explanations cast doubt on aggression being purely a learned behaviour. The social learning theory itself relies heavily on experimental evidence and field studies in which there are some mythological flaws. For example low ecological validity, after all the Bobo doll was not a living person. Johnson et al found in a similar study that the children who acted more…...

Monarchy Exam Handmaid's Tale

Religion and politics went hand in hand In the olden days, religion and politics went hand in hand. The church either ran the land or had a strangle hold on the people. If the church thought there was one way to do something, one had to do as the church requested or suffer great penalty. To go against the church was to go against God, and that meant death. The king was supposed to be chosen by God to rule…...

The Indecisive Person

Shakespear's most tragic hero Hamlet questioned, “ To be or not to be”. So often we are unable to decide on choices we face in life, much like Hamlet. This is normal. The problem starts when the inability to make a decision becomes extreme. When this occurs, it has been proven to be disastrous unless fixed,(Pelusi,2009). The outcome for the chronic indecisive person is often a life filled with unhappiness, low self esteem, loss of time and money, and sometimes…...

The Iron Cage

Introduction The Iron Cage theory also rises out of the ever increasing rationalization of modern society. Weber defined 'power' as the "ability to realize one's will despite and against the resistance of others. During Weber's time, he saw an increasing power shift towards the ever growing bureaucracies, these formally rational, complex organizations. Bureaucracies are by nature highly formally rational. They are there for the purpose of organizing what would otherwise be very large or complex organizational tasks which wouldn't be…...

The Living Old

With the population of adults 65 and over steadily climbing, medical professionals and the healthcare system are struggling to keep up. One major issue concerning the healthcare system is that it is not set up properly provide care for these older adults. The physicians today, who regularly see patients, focus mainly has been; diagnose—usually in a 15-20 minute office visit, treat, and cure. Many of these senior citizens have multiple chronic illnesses or diseases, which require time to manage and…...

The Nurturer’s Qualities

Although at first it may seem that because of her caring nature, generous spirit, and self-sacrificing attitude, the nurturer character archetype would be a female; this archetype can apply to men as well. Men become excellent romantic leads in a story when they display the nurturer qualities. The Nurturer’s Positive Qualities: The nurturer is the person people turn to when they need a listening ear, a warm heart, and good advice. She is optimistic and seems able to find the…...

Youth Gang

Introduction Youth Gang is defined as a group that has been acknowledged by its members and by the society; it belongs to as a group involved in criminal acts. In this study, youth gang refers to the groups at which participants want to belong to are already members of that group. Youth refers to the subject of the study which can be any male or female whose age falls between 12-16 years old. In this study, the youth refers to…...

Social Learning Theory

Introduction This paper introduces one of the many theoretical orientations, “Social Learning Theory. ” This theory is known as the most influential learning theories and was formulated by Albert Bandura. This paper discusses cognitive learning and various theories on career counseling. In addition, how social learning theory is applied in career guidance; describing how individuals are influenced by many factors contextual, learning, and genetic endowments. Concentrating on how learning experiences can expand on the range of individual’s occupations choices. Based…...

The theory of Relative deprivation

All three are similar in terms of the fact that they all illustrate a discrepancy between value expectations and value capabilities. According to Gurr and Robert, decrimental deprivation occurs when value expectations remain constant whilst the institutional capacity to meet the values declines (Gurr and Robert, 1971:47). On the other hand, aspirational deprivation is the opposite movement and involves an increase in value expectations at the expense of institutional capabilities, which remain constant (Gurr and Robert 1971:51). This sort of…...

Different concepts of freedom

Introduction Freedom means different things to different people and it is a concept that has been debated by great thinkers, politicians and writers throughout history. It is hard to pinpoint an exact value of the word "freedom" simply because the concept relies ultimately on your stance and outlook. To me, freedom is a utopian ideal of a perfect state of being where one is free from coercion and restraint and everyone can do as they please so long as they…...


First thing we have to suppose in order to be able to talk about moral is that we are not determined or more precise that we are not hard-determinist. Because if we would be determined, it would mean we would have no free will and as we do not have free will, we are unable to make our own choices. So a basic condition to talk about morality is that we have a free will. In every day life we…...

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