Socio-cultural Aspects of the Philippine Community


The Philippines, as a tourist destination, is loaded with the attractions travelers dream of: lots of sun gorgeous beaches, world class scenery, adventure opportunity, friendly outgoing locals and most of all, enjoy the rich diversity of Philippine culture through its festivities and other socio-cultural activities.

The Filipinos affection and affinity to leisure, relaxation and fun activities can never be altered. These traits are deeply embedded in the social richness of the Philippines. The values that everyone deserve to indulge in relaxation, leisure and recreation activities are inculcated in every Filipino child through the traditional practices of socio-cultural celebration, such as numerous kinds of festivals and events, parades, cultural entertainments, religious plays, processions and others.

Variety of cultural traits that define ethnicity, historical traditions and others. Iriga City is one of the fastest growing cities in the country, located at the very heart of the Bicol Economic Growth Corridor has also a rich in distinct culture like Tinagba Festival during the month of February, City Pintakasi, Foundation Anniversary and other socio-cultural activities. Republic Act No. 5261, otherwise known as “AN ACT CREATING THE CITY OF IRIGA “; whereas, September 3 of every year, the City of Iriga, celebrates its Charter Anniversary by the virtue of the act.

Since it’s Cityhood, it has been the day to showcase Iriga’s Culture, its development and programs, celebrating, therefore, this event is a milestone that Irigueños can all be proud of because it demonstrates, once again, the exemplary desire, dynamism and capability of the Local Government, which it has demonstrated for many years, its strong and constant commitment to the service of its constituents based on their needs and goals of the Nation.

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And to foster interest to the promotion and conservation of the national culture, like the Tinagba Festival. Republic Act no. 7356, an act creating the national commission for culture and arts establishing national endowment found for culture and arts and for other purposes. The National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), (created through the passage of Republic Act no. 7356) is the overall policy making, coordinating and grants giving agency for preservation, development and promotion of Philippine arts and culture. NCCA is thus responsible for culture and the arts in the Philippines.

All socio-cultural events have effects. Such effects may be positive or beneficial. Indeed, it is the expected benefits of events, whether economic, social, cultural, political or environmental, that is the principal driver underpinning the support for and increasing popularity of them at the local, national and international scale. Of course, the effects of events may also be negative. That is, events almost necessarily incur costs or have negative consequences that, to a lesser or greater extent, serve to reduce their net benefit. Thus, a key task for event managers is to not only identify and, as far as possible, predict the impacts of events, but to manage them in such a way that benefits are optimized and negative impacts are minimized so that, “on balance the overall impact of the event is positive.” To all these means, the researcher meets the challenge through this endeavor and the present study is designed to meet this felt need.

Theoretical Framework

Activity theory formulated by Lev Vygotsky is more of a descriptive meta-theory or framework than a predictive theory. It considers an entire work/activity system (including teams, organizations, etc.) beyond just one actor or user. It accounts for environment, history of the person, culture, role of the artifact, motivations, and complexity of real life activity. One of the strengths of AT is that it bridges the gap between the individual subject and the social reality—it studies both through the mediating activity. The unit of analysis in AT is the concept of object-oriented, collective and culturally mediated human activity, or activity system. This system includes the object (or objective), subject, mediating artifacts (signs and tools), rules, community and division of labor.

The motive for the activity in AT is created through the tensions and contradictions within the elements of the system. According to ethnographer Bonnie Nardi, a leading theorist in AT, activity theory “focuses on practice, which obviates the need to distinguish ‘applied’ from ‘pure’ science—understanding everyday practice in the real world is the very objective of scientific practice. The object of activity theory is to understand the unity of consciousness and activity.” Sometimes called “Cultural-Historical Activity Theory”, this approach is particularly useful for studying a group that exists “largely in virtual form, its communications mediated largely through electronic and printed texts.” [4]

AT is particularly useful as a lens in qualitative research methodologies (e.g., ethnography, case study). AT provides a method of understanding and analyzing a phenomenon, finding patterns and making inferences across interactions, describing phenomena and presenting phenomena through a built-in language and rhetoric. A particular activity is a goal-directed or purposeful interaction of a subject with an object through the use of tools. These tools are exteriorized forms of mental processes manifested in constructs, whether physical or psychological. AT recognizes the internalization and externalization of cognitive processes involved in the use of tools, as well as the transformation or development that results from the interaction. Moreover, Socio-Cultural Activity Theory (Sigalat-Batacan-Infante Theory) is designed to know the effect of Socio-Cutural Activities to Irigueños.

In the paradigm, Environment forms the basis of the society. Economy is the material network between people and it could be thought that economy is kind of “below us”, creating the foundation for our material wellbeing. The economy extracts resources from the environment and transforms it that way. Culture, on the other hand, is “above us”. It is the invisible network that connects people in a mental level. While people constantly shape the culture, the culture constantly shapes the people and the economy.

Figure 2

Theoretical Paradigm

Conceptual Framework

The System Approach (Input-Process-Output System) is used in describing the Conceptual Framework of the study. The input describes how the research was developed through reviewing and studying the relevant concepts and principles to make the proposed business research. Likewise taken into consideration was the following: Profile of Respondents according to age, gender, civil status and educational attainment. Effect of Socio-Cultural Activities to Irigueños, Socio-Cultural Activities that helps the economic growth of Iriga City, and the Proposed action plan to improve the Socio-Cultural Activities in Iriga City. The process of system approach focuses on Data gathering through distribution of survey questionnaire and observation of the researchers, Presentation of the information gathered, and Interpretation and analysis of respondents profile. The output of the research process is the Action Plan to enhance the Socio-Cultural Activities in Iriga City. A feedback loop is adopted so that the output of this study will provide information and insights to interested parties about the effect of Socio-Cultural Activities to Irigueños so as it will be, enhance or if not maintained.

Figure 2

Conceptual Paradigm

Statement of The Problem

This study aims to know The Effect of Socio-Cultural Activities particularly to the people of Iriga City. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions :

  1. What is the profile of the respondent according to:
    1. Age
    2. Sex/Gender
    3. Civil Status
    4. Educational Attainment
  2. What are the Effects of Socio-Cultural Activities to Irigueños?
  3. How does Socio-Cultural Activities helps the economic condition of Iriga City?
  4. What action plans can be proposed to improve the Socio-Cultural Activities in Iriga City?

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study deals with the perceptions of Irigueños towards the effect of socio-cultural activity in Iriga City Camarines Sur, conducted in the school year 2014-2015. The extent of aftereffect of socio-cultural activity, the extent of attainment of socio-cultural conditionalities and the extent support given by the said activities in the economic condition of Iriga City. This study was limited to the resident of San Francisco in Iriga City. The respondent were 50 teenager between 18-19, 50 adults aging 20-50 in the formentioned place. They are delimited to answer the questions stated at the statement of the problem.

Significance of the Study

The researchers conducted this study to get the perception of the respondents regarding the Effect of the Socio-Cultural Activities to Irigueños. Significant insights derived from this study will be of importance to the Irigueños, however, it will be specifically valuable to the following. Respondents. Will be able to realize how useful and beneficial the socio-cultural activities are. Local Government Unit. Findings of the study will help to improve their programs and events.

School. Cultural Activities help students gain an appreciation of the different people who create their school. Learning about other cultures broaden a students’ life experiences. Community. An awareness of this agenda shall promote and present an appeal for motivation of the public. This would also support the school-community relationship thereby strengthening their cooperation and relation. Future Researchers. This study will serve as a springboard to another research agenda providing the idea, information and facts, for those who conduct studies about Socio-Cultural Activities and its effect.

Definition of Terms

For clearer understanding of the study, the following terms are defined either conceptually or operational. Affinity– a sympathy marked by community of interest and an attraction to or liking for something. Dynamism – a theory that all phenomena as matter or motion can be explained as manifestation of force. Endowment – funds or property donated to an institution, individual, or group as a source of income. Ethnicity – the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition. Exemplary – serving as a desirable model representing the best of its kind. Foster – encourage or promote the development of something typically regarded as good. Irigueños – people who lives in Iriga City.

Socio-Cultural – pertaining to, or signifying the combination or interaction of social and cultural elements. Socio-Cultural Activity– is a service creates, coordinates, runs, and evaluates the cultural programmes.

Underpinning – a set of ideas, motives or devices that justify or form the basis for something.


Review of Related Literature and Studies

Literatures and studies have been conducted in the past and these are reviewed by the researchers. With such documentary analysis, it is assured that the foregoing study have significant background that strengthens this research. It is now presented on this segment.

In the survey, the researchers did not find a study that was exactly the same as the present. However, several studies and literature were found to be related to the present study, and these were found relevant, as much they showed light to the present study.

Related Literature


Williams (1981), states that the purpose of cultural analysis is to explore and analyze the recorded culture of a given time and place. In doing so, he seeks to reconstitute the ‘structure of feeling’, or shared values and outlooks of a culture. At the same time, we need always to be aware that cultural records are part of a selectively preserved and interpreted ‘tradition’.Williams insists that culture be understood through the representations and practices of daily life in the context of the material conditions of their production.

This Williams calls culture materialism, and involves ‘the analysis of all forms of signification within the actual means and condition of their production’. Thus, William 1981) suggests that we explore culture in terms of: (1) institutions of artistic and cultural production, e.g. artisanal or market forms. (2) formations or schools, movements and factions of cultural production. (3) modes of production, including the relations between the material means of cultural production and the cultural forms which are made manifest. (4) identifications and forms of culture, including the specificity of cultural products, their aesthetic purpose and the particular forms that generate and express meaning. (5) the reproduction, in time and space, of a selective tradition of meanings and practices involving both social order and social change. (6) the organization of the ‘selective tradition’ in terms of a ‘realized signifying system’.

Such strategy might be applied to contemporary music and its associated images and its practices. For example, Rap, Hip-Hop or Rave can be understood as formations of popular music produced within the institutions of reecord companies and advertising agencies. The mode of production of popular music would include the technical means of studio recording and the capitalist social relations within which such practices are embedded. Clearly, Hip-Hop or Rave are musical forms that involve the specific organization of sounds, words and images with which particular social groups form identifications. Hence, one would analyze the specific organization of sounds and signs as a signifying system.

This could be connected with the way in which Hip-Hop, for example, reproduces and changes aspects of African-American musical forms and the values of its historically developed lived culture, that is what Hip-Hop means to young African-American. Culture as lived experience.In sum, culture for Williams is constituted by: (1) the meanings generated by ordinary men and women. (2) the lived experiences of its participants. (3) the texts and practices engaged in all by people as they conduct their lives. Guttierez,, (2006) Culture is a contested term in research but in a socio-cultural perspective, culture is generally thought of as emerging as people interact and engage in activity together.

It is not simply a product of practice, rather it is a ways of being in practice. The routines, reifications, values and concerns that people make meaning of in an education of work setting are part of culture, and a socio-cultural perspective on pedagogy would direct us to attend to those routines and practices for they give insights into how to support learning and transform identities. Seeing culture, not as fixed, but as something that changes as people, practices, communities and institutions change means that telling issues for pedagogy are not about pedagogical approaches that essentialize non-dominant groups or even about how people adapt to their context or how contexts adapt to people, but rather how transformation happens both in the participants and in the contexts of their participation.

Roggof and Guttierez, (2003) In this sense, the focus of attention is on institutional practices of which individuals are a part, the resources available to them to participate, and relationships that they make and are available to be made, rather than on the identification of individuals as problems. Such a take on culture does not deny the merits of knowing about the valued practices of groups but it does challenge the idea of teaching or mentoring prescriptively according to broad, underexamined generalities about groups and assuming that what is known about a group fits all individuals in that group. Tharp and Gallimore, (1998) A socio-cultural view of motivation focuses on social features of the task and setting as well as cultural-historical factors as they are embedded in both the activities and the social organization of the context.

The theoretical underpinnings of this work are found in neo-Vygotskian theories of learning and development. Motivation, like other psychological characteristics in this view, is less a feature of the individual than a property of the interaction of both the individual and the social context in a dynamic interplay (Oldfather& Dahl, 1994;Oldfather, West, White, &Wilmarth, 1999; Rueda &Dembo, 1995; Rueda & Moll, 1994; Sivan, 1986). In general, socio-cultural theorists interested in learning and development emphasizes the role of culturally organized, socially mediated practices in children’s maturational processes.

A key feature of a socio-cultural perspective, then, is the shift of the unit of analysis from the isolated individual to the individual in interaction with and within the larger socio-cultural context. This shift is especially important for students from nontraditional and diverse backgrounds. It may explain the variability in achievement patterns of these students in comparison to norms in the wider society. Moreover, it helps account for the sometimes significant differences in student interest, motivation, and engagement as a function of different activities and settings. Baker-Sennet, Lacasa and Goldsmith (1995) Recent extensions of socio-cultural theory have included the view that learning and development occur in a dynamic process of transformation of participation in a specific socio-cultural community.

That is, learning occurs as one’s level of engagement and participation change over time in accordance with a growing understanding of the task, its meanings, and the beliefs and values embedded in them. Further, participation in any socio-cultural activity, including reading and literacy, occurs on many planes or levels. Rogoff’s framework proposes that a complete account of learning and development must take into account three levels:(1) the personal plane involves individual cognition, emotion, behavior, values, and beliefs. In educational research, this might correspond to studies of individual student or teacher actions, psychological characteristics, or competence.

(2) heinterpersonal or social plane includes communication, role performances, dialogue, cooperation, conflict, assistance, and assessment. In educational research, this is often addressed in studies of teaching/learning interactions, such as a study of cooperative learning groups. (3)The community or institutional plane involves shared history, languages, rules, values, beliefs, and identities. This is sometimes addressed in studies of entire schools, districts, professions, neighborhoods, tribes, or cultures, and the ways that these “common socio-cultural inheritances” interact with other levels of development. Event and Relative Event area.Today, the event industry is a nearly $400 billion annual business (EventSolution, 2002). As an event has grown, this huge industry has become the essential partof the market, such as marketing, human resources, trade, public relationships, etc. Goldblatt, (2002).

Event sub-fields are not scientifically categorized, as there are manylinkages. However, event is divided into many sub-fields by researchers; tourism, civicevents, hallmark events, expositions, fairs and festivals, meetings and conferences,hospitality, retail events, sports events, and social life-cycle events (Goldblatt, 2002);mega events, hallmark events, major events (Allen, McDonnell, O’Toole, 1999). The diversity of sub-categories shows how event industries have developed. The number of event associations, event training courses, and event educations prove the growth of event industries (Harris & Griffin, 1997). This is also true for mega events.

Mega-events are short-term occurrences with long-term consequences for the host city (Mossberg, L, 1997). According to the mega-event conference in Sweden (1998), a mega-event has an immediate impact and also, importantly, long term issues and effects (Fayos-Sola, 1998). Short-term impacts show as an economic impact, and long-term impacts show as a socioeconomic and environmental impact. Now the attention to events is due to the tremendous economic profits to the business sector. However, an event means not only profit to the business sector but also a body of literature, expertise and a policy for local development. Kelly states that leisure develops inter-activity. People can identifythemselves in a society, others identify them in those roles and they have certain expectations as to how they will act (1996). Events give opportunities for meeting people in a celebrative playground.

Getz suggested that basic needs which are met by festivalscan be classified into three categories: (1) physical (2) interpersonal or social, (3) personal(1991), although many results have shown that tourists’ motivation for events are likely to be multiple (Crompton & McKay, 1997). Robertson and Guerrier stated how Spain used three major international events to help remodel the national tourism products (1998).The Government of Guam used an event named “Sandy Castle Magic Show” to change Guam’s limited image from a rest area to a multi-eventful tourism destination (Cho, 1999). Events and Tourism.Events themselves do not have to attract tourists to the area to play an importantrole in a tourism development (Getz, 1991). However, there is a reason why tourists need something to do in their free time.

They will be looking for attractions or events in atourism destination, and expect what atourism destination offers. Events can contributeto a perception that a place is a nice area to visit during travel. Events will heightenvisitors’ experience and make tourists’ stay longer and encourage them to spend moretime in tourism destinations (Getz, 1991). An event provides newness, freshness and changes, which sustain local interest in a destination and enhance its appeals to visitors.Tourist attractions and theme parks incorporate events as a key element in their marketing programs. Getz notes that the policy needs to consider an event as a closely related field with tourism (1991). A tourist expects events with a wide variety of tourismattractions to animate and interpret their products (Getz, 1997). Richards, (1996) A Festival is one of the sub-fields in an event.

Many event assemblies forcommercial, religious, or businesses developed today’s festivals, fairs, and public events. A festival comprises performances, arts, and crafts demonstrations, and other interaction between the festival and participants. European Center for Traditional and Regional Cultures (ECTARC) considered events and festivals to be one of the attractions of cultural tourism because of these characteristics of events and festivals. Goldblatt,( 2002) Many small towns host festivals for profit, and some communities usefestivals as a boost to tourism for the off-season. The uniqueattractions of communities meet tourists’ satisfaction, a festival simultaneously gets themost effective profit from the festival itself as well as tourists. A festival gives residents experiences of a local culture, and at the same time, gives tourists a chance to experiencedifferent cultures between themselves and a tourism destination (University of Minnesota, 1998). San Francisco has its “Chinese New Year Festival” in February. This festival is a celebration for Chinese.

However, San Francisco Convention Tourists Bureau (CVB) advertises this festival to tourists as a local-color festival. al. (2000)The Change of Tourists’ Choice to Cultural Tourism (new trend)In the past, natural scenery was the most attractive to tourists. By reason of thetourists’ preference, sightseeing had the same meaning as travel. Travel agencies would have very similar package programs for typical tourists in the past. However, now, a tourist is changing. Today’s traveler is generally well-educated, informed, and in search of new ideas and fulfilling adventures. Cultural tourism is travel, which includes knowledge-based experiences, exploring the unique history and character of a place; discovering what makes an event or location unique, and personal discovery via the arts and humanities (Cultural Tourism, 2002).

Tourists want to travel for experience, which is something special in the tourismdestination. Axel Dessau, former director of the Danish National Tourists Office, is credited with this concept of “life-seeing tourism”(Goeldner, Mcintosh, and Ritchie, 2000). Tourists want more activities and local culture. Japanese travel agencies have “semi-order” package programs available.

Half of a schedule is developed by a travel agency, and the other half by a schedule selected by the customer. Dakana Ichiro, a director of the Japanese National Tourism Organization (JNTO) mentioned that this is a travel trend in Japan, and tourism agencies can developed a semi-order to satisfy the cultural curiosity (Yoon, 1998). World Tourism Organization (WTO) announced that the demand for cultural and art tourism continued to increase rapidly in1985. Now about 40% of tourists participate in cultural tourism, such as heritage, arts, culture, etc. Especially, tourists involved with films, music, arts have the propensity for higher consumerism (WorldcupMunhwa-Jinhung, 2001). Ryan (1996) Cultural Event tourism, Industry, and Community (impact on event) Economic Impact on a Community.Today, events have been rapidly researched in academic and industrial fieldsbecause of their tremendous economic impact.

According to research, more than 54% of all responding event companies reported a moderate increase in 2000, and 26% reported a significant increase over 1999 in gross revenues (Event Solution, 2002). Special events, particularly hallmark events and mega-events, contribute to host communities’ and countries’ economies. Allen, McDonell, and O‘Toole, (1999).The strong growth of special event sectors in Australia is the part of a general economic trend away from an industrial products base to a more service-based economy. Although a community invests money in an event, they expect to earn more than they spend. If a city has the NFL(National Football League), this city offers services from limousines and free stadium rental, to concessions, and parking control.

It costs over $2 million, but this is not a big investment. The economic impact of the NFL is over $100 million. Economic impact affects a community not only through a mega-event but also a small- scale event. Even a one night concert economically impacts a community. Michael Jackson’s Victory tour contributed to the fund from the security to souvenirs in acommunity (Catherwood& Van Kirk, 1992). Jafari stated festivals and other events can be used to meet an economic and alsocommunity development(2000). Tribeca Film Festival was created to boost theeconomy of New York. Actor Robert De Niro mentioned that he created the festival to encourage new filmmakers and boost the economy of Tribeca in New York (LeaderTelegram, 4B, May 14,2002).

Events can help with a fund raising, to change a city’simage, to expand its trade, to stimulate its economy, and help companies to market andintroduce their products (Catherwood& Van Kirk, 1992). One of the great advantages ofcommunity festivals and many other special events are to improve independence fromcapital-intensive development projects (Getz, 1991). The importance of event tourism for less developed nations is especially clear. This is a major new source for a job in developing nations, because of their labor intensiveness of events (Garrison,1989).Events contribute to income and employment through the event itself as well as hotels, restaurants, transportation, and even small souvenir shops. An event needs manyresidents as volunteers. Larry Simonson mentioned that the quality of an event depends on how event managers educate volunteers. It shows the event involves residents as an important role (University of Minnesota, 1989).

During an event, a community can use publishers and media as a non-pay advertisement. An event can relatively reduce their budget for marketing by using free advertising expense. This destination-orientedpromotion can promote an interest in a community and increase tourists’ visits(University of Minnesota, 1989). On the other hand, there is a negative impact of an event on a community, such as a community resistance to tourism, loss of authenticity, damage to reputation, inflated prices, etc. In many undeveloped countries, Trinidad and Tobago as an example, 60 percent of consumer goods supplied to the event and tourism are imported. The impact of expenditure for leakage is usually large (Ali & Wall, 1977).However, studies of economic impact have been researched often, but these are very difficult to estimate with one formula. Economic impact does not mean just financial costs and revenues. Profit/loss assessment and return on investment (ROI) are approaches to deal with the financial numbers.

Many methods are overlooked, such as social, cultural, and environmental measures (Carlsen, Getz and Soutar, 2001).Researchers need to consider recognition of intangible costs and benefits as well as tangible costs and benefits. Intangible benefits are long-term promotional benefits, induced developments and construction expenditures, additional trade and business development and increased property values. Mules et. al (2001) Intangible economic costs are residentexodus, interruption of normal businesses, and underutilized infrastructure. Cost-benefit Analysis is the closest form to a methodwhich estimates the true value of an event because this method includes not only profits,income, and job creation but also social, cultural, and environmental effects(Mehmetoglu, 2002).

Furthermore, a researcher dealt with who will be included in a category of direct expenditure. Getz suggested to mention the following points: (1) none of the expenditure of area residents should be included, (2) only the spending of nonresidents visitors who come to the area especially to see the event should be included, (3) grants and sponsorship should not be included, (4) leakage associated with expenditure must be noted (1994). Michael Killoren mentioned the economic impact is too difficult to estimate, but an event itself absolutely adds to the economy in a community (Personal Communication, March 25 to April 4, 2002).

Gessel(2000) Social/Socio-cultural Impact on a community.Some researchers included a social impact as well as a general economic impact.On the other point of view, a positive social impact itself can induce a positive economic impact. Successful events change the image of the region that held that event. Cities that have held mega-events are becoming ‘products’ or‘brands’. After the Barcelona Olympics Games in 1992, this city was internationally more visible. In the international ranking, Barcelona moved from 18th to 7th position as an important convention city (Park, 2002).According to the NTB (The Netherlands Board of Tourism), major eventsstrengthened the image of Holland, and increased tourism. Events yielded extra 5% offoreign visitors per year. Furthermore, they affected domestic tourism.

Finally, a raised regional image makes other industries effective. Especially, an event has a close relationship with tourism. (Getz, 1991)The event itself increases the number of tourists.A city uses an event as an alternative tourism. An inflow ofnonresidents/tourists during an event affects a region socially. Although researches of event tourism deal with visitors and residents, the image of visitors as to a socio-cultural impact is mostly expressed as a destroyer or predator even though these visitors generate a huge economic impact. Furthermore, one research described the relationship between a city without a cultural background can develop as a cultural festival city.

In 1970, Yufuin-Machi’s economy declined. Residents tried to find a way to increase their economy. They rented a town hall for screening movies and held film conferences. A catch phrase was “a town without cinemas, but there are films”. Now, Yuhuin-Machi has 120 accommodations thatcan receive 5000 persons per day. Three million tourists visit thi city per year and 1 million amongthem stay over 1 day (World Cup Munhwa Jin-Hung, 2002). Tanglewood has the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) festival in summer. This city is crowded with tourists from all around the world. MicheleneMcClennen, department of marketing and sales in BSO, residents and visitors as an invasion (Matthews, 1977).

Kim & Yoon, (1998) Visitors could damage cultural facilities and affect residents’ sense of values.In the view of visitors, cultural event tourism can affirmatively contribute to tourists’ development of a quality of life and a sturdy sense of values. Korean classic music academy has under consideration a harmony between conservation of culture and popularization for diffusing Korean classical music. These factors are difficult to develop together. However, Michael Killorenmentioned what’s good for the resident is good for the visitor. Since the cultural event tourist is better educated and looking for authentic experiences, the more residents know about and are aware of their treasures, the better they might keep them (March 25 to April 4, 2002). Cultural Event Tourism Products.Korean Tourism depends greatly on Japanese tourists. In April, 2002, 41.6% offoreign tourists were Japanese (KNTO, 2002). The Korean National Tourist Organization (KNTO) suggests cultural event tourism as an alternative plan to induceEuropean, American and Chinese tourists to visit, because their interest in cultural tourism is relatively higher than the Japanese.Cultural event tourism has already been proven to play an important part in tourism.

Many countries have used their cultural resources in communities, and developed culturally characterless regions into world tourism cities During two weeks in 1997, October Festivalin Munich, Germany, the festival employees numbered 12,000, visitors 6,000,000. The 1,300,000Munich residents and visitors consumed 5 million liters of beer, 40 thousand sausages, and 6 thousand chickens (WorldcupMunwha Jin-Hung, 2001). Japan was called a country of festivals because of many yearly festivals. The Japan Tourism Organization (JNTO) collected statistics showing that the number of annual events and festivals is 8,225 (JNTO, 2002). The government helps some festivals that do not have a selfsupportingeconomy. Sapporo is a city famous for snow and beautiful winter scenery.

The Sapporo Snow Festival in 1997 announced that the total ripple effect of a festival is $2,457,912,576 ($1=Yen 118.8). Festival visitors were 1,856,000: residents were 951,000 and nonresidents were 905,000. The purpose of the festival was to encourage residents to attend, and for social exchanges between residents and Japanese from other cities, and foreigners. A festival committee invited residents to join the snow festival, prepared a recreation area and collected ideas about the snow festival’s theme. These efforts involving residents definitely increased participation of residents (Korean Travel Journal, July,1998). Yufuin-Machi is an example of how mentioned that they promote BSO at tourism promotion markets because culture is one part of a tourism product. If atourism agency want to plan a tourism package involved with BSO, they offer a sale price to anagency and tourist (Kim, 1998).

Related Literature


Dinglasan et. al (2014) Today, festivals are considered to contribute significantly to the cultural and economic development. The festivals have major impact on the development of cultural image in the host communities. The festival organizers are now using the historical and cultural themes to develop to annual events to attract visitors and create cultural image in the host cities by holding festivals in the community settings. The desire for festivals and events is not specifically designed to address the needs for any one particular group. The hosting of events are often developed because of the tourism and economic opportunities’ addition to social and cultural benefits. Many researchers have contested that local communities play vital role in the development of tourism through festivals. Magpantay et. al (2014) Events have the potential to generate a vast amount of tourism when they cater to visitors, grants, or sponsorships of direct or indirect intent.

The government now support and promote event as a part of their strategies for economic development, nation building and cultural tourism. The events in turn are seen as important tool for attracting visitors and building image within different communities. Lucio (2008) the roles and responsibilities of governments as well as private sector and society in general have significantly changed over the last decade. The situation have been changed where the state had the key responsibility for tourism development and promotion to a world where the public sector is ibliged to reinvent itself by relinquishing its traditional responsibilities and activities in favor of both provincial/state and local authorities.

Related Studies


Paul Brunt (1999) states that this study investigates community perceptions of the socio-cultural impacts of tourism and examines the extent to which they coincide with their classifications made by academic writers. A literature review revealed a range of socio-cultural impacts related to tourism development, the tourist-host interaction, and resulting influences. A resident survey was undertaken which showed that perceived impacts reported by informants coincided with the majority of those identified in the literature. This suggested that the general analyses of the socio-cultural impacts of tourism could be applied to the perceptions of residents of a small British coastal tourist resort. Tommy Anderson (2010) states that Festivals are one of the fastest growing tourism attractions today. Among the reasons for this are approach changes to urban management and economic production, the use of culture to restructure wealth and job creation, civic re-positioning, and tourism development by cities and governments. Consequently, there is a parallel increase in researchers’ interest toward evaluating the impacts that festivals have on communities.

However, until very recently, researchers have been concentrated predominantly on measuring the economic impacts, whereas less attention has been given to socio-cultural and environmental issues. The main purpose of this study is to examine the Way Out West festivals’ social consequences experienced by the residents of Goteborg from the point of view of the Social Exchange Theory adapted by Ap (1992). The study identifies the underlying dimensions of the social impacts and how certain socio-demographic characteristics of the residents relate to their perceptions of these impacts. The findings of the study contribute to deeper understanding of resident attitudes toward the social impacts of community festivals and can be utilized by the organizers to increase the social benefits generated by the festival and reduce its negative social impacts.

Related Studies


Michael Tomeldan (2008) states that this study looked into how three popular tourism island destinations in the Philippines respond to the challenge posed by the changing nature of tourists. The paper proposes a knowledge representation model to illustrate and explain the complex process between the tourists’ consumption of a place and how the influences emanating from it manifest in the local contexts of culture and the environment of the island destinations. Following the pattern set by the model, the case study identifies manifestation of effects both in the physical and non-physical aspects of the local cultural landscape and the spatial character of the environment of the islands. It recommends further probe on this subject. Joevel H. Magpantay et al (2014) states that this study aimed to determine the socio-cultural effects of festivals in the province of Batangas as part of the cultural tourism industry.

Specifically, it described the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, civil status, religion, income educational attainment; assess the perceived socio-cultural and economic effects of festivals in the province of Batangas; to test the significant difference between perceived socio-cultural and economic effects when grouped according to their profile variables; and to propose a plan of action to enhance and promote the cultural tourism industry of Batangas Province. Majority of the residents were 60 years and above, female, married and Roman Catholic with monthly income of 5,001 – 9,999.99 and elementary graduate. The respondents strongly agreed that one of the socio cultural effects of festivals is it provide unity in the community and in terms of economic effects, hosting a festival is expensive.

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Socio-cultural Aspects of the Philippine Community. (2016, Jun 01). Retrieved from

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