Social sciences Essay
As the worldly wisdom suggests always think twice and try to ascertain if you are right. The replication of scientific results makes them reliable, if it weren’t so, we couldn’t rely on any results, because then lots of errors would have occurred and no perception which results are right would be found. People are in need of generalizations, they imply that it is easier to live when everything is orderly put into drawers, so they are trying to divide everything in groups and decide, whether the information is reliable or not and the more replications are done the bigger reliability of results is. However, can we always do the replication and why do the results differ?
In natural sciences experiments are made frequently, the science is more or less based on the results of experiments and whether the hypothesis is proved or not and it is not so hard to repeat the experiment once more, however the identical results hardly occur, just the trend of the results. For example, biologist investigates whether the temperature has the effect of the rate of cell respiration. After he had replicated his experiment three times, his results showed that the temperature fasters the cell respiration, but he actually didn’t received exactly the same numbers in every retry. Nothing happens identically, however the tendency how will something happen is found and then further deductions uses this conception.
Assume that at the same time other person did the same investigation and safely reached kind of the same results. So, the results depend just on the experiment itself, not on who holds it and if the person would keep exactly on instructions in this investigation he will draw a conclusion that cell respiration depends on the temperature. Furthermore, the more experiments are made the more accurate amplitude, how can results vary, can be made, however the scientists are not determined, because of the lack of time and widely spread competition feeling, to repeat their experiments lots of times and test it in various ways.
Meanwhile the situation of replication in humans sciences soundly differs, the human scientists can’t ensure that the conditions of the experiment while repeating it won’t change as the natural sciences does. The research when changing the objects and the environment might bring totally different results. Furthermore when humans’ emotions or perceptions are investigated, they claims aren’t fully reliable as they can change their opinion extremely sharply.
In addition, the human’s perception of the world and things which are happening depends on his own experiences, personal beliefs and the environment, he has grown up, and so to generalize people’s ideas is a harsh task. It perfectly mirrors an example from psychology: asking Lithuanian and Chinese boy if it is justifiable to bite a women, you will receive different answers, and that is because they have grown up in different countries, where attitudes, implanted values differs, the religion, the family relations are other and the list of the reasons never ends, nonetheless in order to sum up it can be said just in few words: the social background is not the same.
Also, it is hard to measure the fear, the love, the anger and other emotions or feelings of the person during the researches. One person can reduce and the other can accelerate the amount of for example, darkness fear, and it is extremely hard to compare how they feel. No matter how the psychologists or other representatives of social sciences wanted it is impossible to guarantee that an repeated experiment will give such and such results, they just can predict but results may be opposing to their predictions.
The other Area of knowledge – mathematics is the space where results might be replicated millions of times and they mostly don’t change. For instance, no one disagrees if the Pascal’s theorem is right, while all people can prove it themselves. However, still different mathematical systems can be used and different systems run different rules, where Pascal’s theorem can be incorrect and all other perceptions about mathematics stop operating and become useless. While replicating results in one way is to easy task for math scientists, they are searching other ways how to prove the same theorems and get the same results.
History, another area of knowledge, is a subject based on facts and different interpretations of them. No historical events could be identically replicated, because the circumstances are changing extremely rapidly. For example, if we assumed that one more world war would appear, it would be largely unsimilar to the previous two ones, because of the huge sum of reasons such as changed weapons, people’s mentality, political situation, countries involved, appearance of nuclear bombs. Still some people believe that the history goes round the cycle and replicates what was done in the past, however this opinion doesn’t seem to be correct, while the situation is changing in our eyes and nothing identical can happen. On the other hand, the replication of most historical events mostly doesn’t look to be an attractive idea, while lots of misfortunes have happened and people finally have learnt something from their mistakes and don’t want to repeat them ever again.
Arts reflects the author’s attitudes, emotions, beliefs, ideas and the good oeuvre always tries to say something to others, to stimulate their emotions and inspire to think more widely. So to replicate the art, is almost the same as to replicate the ideas, thoughts, feelings of the author when doing that oeuvre. And it is perfectly known that no one can think, feel in the same way, we are unique, so no one can paint an exactly the same painting or compose the same suite. Still lots of people are working on copying of masterpieces, such as Pablo Picasso “Boy with a pipe”, but it is not a replication, it is just a worthless copy, while it doesn’t contain the ideas, the warm and the strength, which author tried to produce. I’ve seen both an original Leonardo da Vinci ” Mona Lisa” and lots of reproductions and I can honestly claim that the feelings and thoughts when you see the original and when you see the reproduction are totally different, the reproduction doesn’t contain the value of the painting, it doesn’t have the spirit inside.
All in all, because people adore generalizations we will try to sum up. It is often possible to replicate the experiment, when the conditions are kept the same, except when the life is involved. Humans are the individuals whose ideas, emotion, perceptions can not be repeated and that’s why social sciences, history gets into mess. There can not be any always correct generalization detected, no matter how would scientists desire it to make or how would people wish it to know. So, therein lies, that from natural sciences gained knowledge is much more reliable than from the social sciences.
In social sciences you have to think for yourself and reach your own conclusions whereas natural sciences serve everything on a plate and provide you with answers. Thus, mathematics encourages us to find new methods to prove the same theorem and reach the same results and arts – to express our feelings, ideas and emotions in different ways. Every area of knowledge provides us with information which makes us well-matured people, encourages us to think and lets us become more and more intelligent and the perceptions which can not be guaranteed makes our life more interesting and exciting.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 5 September 2017
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