Social responsibility Essay
What’s required to implement an organization commitment to social responsibility? What are the main obstacles to implementing socially responsible policies? Name specific actions that can be taken toward increased social responsibility.
In order to implement an organizations commitment to social responsibility it is necessary to identify values held by society, how the organization intends to address, and then develop training programs and policies on what the organization plans to do to successfully fulfill its obligation. Also, clarifying how the policies relate to the organizations strategies, individual functions and goals.
The main obstacles an organization faces when implementing socially responsible policies is pressure from stockholders and business analysis who want steady increase in earnings. Without steady increase in profits, it becomes difficult to reinvest money in these areas. The following actions can be taken toward increased social responsibility:
1. Examine expectations and past responses.
2. Set objectives and prioritize.
3. Plan and implement strategies.
4. Set budgets for resources needed for social action and commit to acquiring them.
5. Monitor accomplishments or progress.
What is departmentalization? Explain departmentalization based on work, products, geography and customers. Provide an example of each.
Departmentalization is the practice in which grouping or combining jobs that are related to form a specialized area that is distinct from other areas in an organization.
Work or functional departmentalization is a method of separating the activities performed within an organization into groups by the nature or function of the work they perform. For example, functional departmentalization would tend to group together staff members that perform a specialized function in an organization, like marketing.
Product departmentalization is the grouping of business activities that are necessary to produce a particular product and/or market a product or service line under the direction of one manager. An example of product departmentalization would be a large multiproduct organization like a pharmaceutical distributor.
Geographic departmentalization is when organizations are physically isolated to geographical regions. An example of geographical departmentalization is a manufacturing company that has locations in Eastern and Western locations that deal with consumers within their region.
Consumer departmentalization is based on division by customers served. A common example is an organization that has one department to handle retail customers and one department to handle wholesale or industrial customers.
What does the acronym SWOT stand for? Describe SWOT analysis and explain it’s purpose?
SWOT stands for Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Internal analysis are conducted so it can identify an organizations strengths and weakness. Threats and opportunities are identified by assessing the external environment. Either in its broad or competitive environment. The most essential result of a SWOT analysis is the ability to draw conclusions about the organizations situation and need for strategic action.
Briefly summarize Simon’s principle of bounded rationality as it applies to satisficing.
Simon’s theory is about the way people actually reason in decision making selecting the first solution that is “good enough” rather than attempting to look at all possible choices available. In the concept of satisficing its selecting the first solution that comes along that satisfies the parameters without optimizing.
The Term “consideration” and “initiating structure” emerged from the Ohio State studies. Explain what these terms mean in relationship to leadership.
Consideration in leadership is concern for the welfare of the members of the group. This is oriented towards interpersonal relationships, mutual trust and friendship. Initiating Structure in which a leader defines leader and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how tasks are to be accomplished by the group. Explain the difference between positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future. Negative reinforcement involves giving a person the opportunity to avoid negative consequences by exhibiting a desired behavior. Define the term (system) as it relates to management. What is the difference between an open and closed system? In an open system an organization is influenced by internal and external environments.
In a closed system there is no interaction with external environments. The systems approach to management provides framework for visualizing internal and external environmental factors as a intergrated whole. FINAL EXAM#06044100 PENN FOSTER STUDENT ID#21877046 In one sentences each, describe the five basic management tasks. Planning- Objectives and actions you must take to meet them. Organizing- Grouping related activities, assigning and giving authority to employee to perform them. Staffing- Selecting how many and the kind of people needed for goals, then proceeding to train. Leading-Providing guidance needed to perform tasks and keeping communication lines open.
Controlling- Measuring performance against objectives, determining the causes of deviations and taking corrective action where necessary. Describe how a manager would use the critical incident appraisal method for assessing and employee. A manager would use the critical incident appraisal to keep track of employees satisfactory and unsatisfactory behavior on the job. What’s the difference between group norms and group cohesiveness? Group Norms are beliefs/standards a group adopts to regulate the behavior of group members. Group Cohesiveness is how well a group holds together or the bond between members. Define the term six sigma.
Six sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. In order to realize the very high level of quality demanded by the six sigma the entire production or service system must be examined and improved. How is the balance of trade related to exports, imports, trade surplus and deficit? The balance of trade refers to the differences in imports and exports. This is one component of a country’s gross domestic product — exports minus imports. If exports are greater than imports, this trade component of GDP is positive and adds to GDP, while if imports are greater international trade subtracts from GDP. The former is a trade surplus, while the latter represents a trade deficit.
In context of communication, what is perception?
It is how a person may receive or respond to a message or shape of the organization. Define the term organizational decentralization.
Delegating a lot of authority to lower level management