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Smart Monitoring of Agricultural Field

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 11 (2510 words)
Downloads: 30
Views: 9

Smart Monitoring of Agricultural Field and Controlling of Water Pump Using Internet of Things

In Today’s world , automation is preferred in every sector .Automated systems being more flexible to use, offers high accuracy and reliability in long term operations as compared to manual operated systems.

The Problems faced by farmers in the agricultural system are of great concern these days. Our work is an attempt to implement automation for control of electrical motor or pump used in agriculture domain. The agriculture work by its nature is a field job , hence devices used are sparsely distributed.

This makes it so difficult for farmers to control and operate these devices in real time.In the emerging technologies, we have seen the advent of many wireless communication techniques, having lower operating cost along with interactive protocols. The systems operational range is scaled up the use of the GSM communication system.

This work suggested a method which utilizes the potential of low power, high speed microcontrollers by using widely accepted open source Android platform.

Our proposed model enables us to control the field devices over a wireless link which is GSM based and can read signals from sensors connected in the field and can send the sensed electrical parameters of the motor or pump to an Android device.

A GUI which is abbreviated as Graphical User Interface is developed for Android device and successfully performed testing for switching ON and OFF of the motor or pump remotely. In addition to that provided a simple display of availability of power at remote locations.

Keywords: GSM; pump; motor; SMS ;database ; mobile.


Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects that is said to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. IOT is defined as connecting any device to the Internet and to other connected devices.

The IoT is a giant network of connected things and people  all of which collect and share data about the way they are used and about the environment around them. Internet of Things is said to be the concept of connecting any device to the Internet and to other connected devices. The IoT one of the giant network of connected things and people all of which collect and share data about the way they are used and about the environment around them.

The IoT is needed by us so that to connect all potential objects to interact each other on the internet to provide secure, comfort life for human beings. Nowadays we almost have internet infrastructure in such a way it is designed in such a manner like wherever and we can use it whenever.

Embedded computing devices would be exposed to internet influence. Some of the Common instances for embedded computing devices are listed such as MP3 players, MRI, traffic lights, microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers, GPS even heart monitoring implants or biochip and etc.

Iot is said to be used as in our project for reducing the work of human in the field of agriculture.Here we are said to introducing the technique of which the motor which showers the water in to the field is said to be automatically controlled by fixing a moisture level in the sensor by feeding some code in to it and based on the moisture level fixed as it reaches to that level the motor is said to be switched off automatically and also the message is said to be intimated to the user in his mobile.

Literature review

The decision support system is based on the combination of the wireless sensor and actuation of the network technology using fuzzy logic theory is used here to support the irrigation management in agriculture. The farmers’ experience and the irrigation best practices are modeled through fuzzy rule sets, and the outputs of numerical soil and crop models are used to provide a context-aware and optimized irrigation schedule.

Some of the suggested actions which are followed to get devoted to reduce the waste of water and to maximize the crop yield according to the weather conditions and the real water needs. This methodology is embedded in the network gateway making the system, a truly smart and autonomous wireless decision support system.

Some of the notable numerical validation and the experiments performed in a vineyard in the north of Italy point out a considerable water saving respect to other state-of-the-art methods which are based on parameters threshold an improved exploitation of the irrigated water thanks to the reduction of the percolation phenomenon without affecting the quality of the crops.[1]

The coordinator is said to be one where of its sensor nodes available energy and such feature enables estimating the remaining lifetime of each sensor node.

The so-called Sensor nodes system for data acquisition of Long range (SOUL) is the conceptual model for a sensor node hardware and software system design, concerning energy management and messages grouping, improving both sensor nodes and network lifetime. Sensor nodes are used to monitor soil moisture and thus the SOUL computer system model was implemented in field conditions. Sensor nodes lifetime was increased by 5.7 times when compared with a conventional use.[2]

IOT is said to play a crucial role in smart agriculture. Smart farming technique is an emerging concept, because IoT sensors capable of providing information about their agriculture fields. The paper aims making use of evolving technology i.e. IoT and smart agriculture using automation.

Monitoring environmental factors is said to be the major factor to improve the yield of the efficient crops. The main feature of the paper includes monitoring temperature and humidity in agricultural field through sensors using CC3200 single chip. A Camera is been interfaced with CC3200 to capture images and send that pictures through MMS to farmers mobile using Wi-Fi.[3]

The Traditional agriculture is said to transform into smart agriculture due to the prominence of the Internet of Things . The Cost Efficiency and low power consumption are the key factors to make any IoT network useful and acceptable to the farmers. In This paper, we are said to have proposed a low-power, low-cost IoT network for smart agriculture system .

To monitor the soil moisture content, we have used an in-house developed sensor. In this network, the IITH mote is used as a sink and sensor node which provides low-power communication. The Power and cost are two metrics which are used to evaluate these networks. The Results show that the proposed network consumes less power and has on average 83% prolonged lifetime at lower cost compared to previously proposed network in the agriculture field.[4]

In this paper , precision agriculture is used to provide higher productivity and better use of resources when compared to traditional methods and this will result in lower costs with higher yields. One of the crucial activity in crop farming is water irrigation while for livestock farming it is the monitoring of animal health. This paper says about two feasibility studies on IoT solutions for automated irrigation and one study for automated animal monitoring. Each of the concepts are verified to operate under normal field conditions with valid proof.[5]

Existing system

Android based smart phone It is the remote smart phone, which communicates with the microcontroller via a wireless GSM link. The farmer can control the motor and get the parameters on this phone. An App called the GSM Control App is running on this smart phone, which is developed to send a particular message to the GSM module and depending on the message the remote devices can be controlled.

SIM900 GSM module GSM module is the interface between the smart phone and Arduino microcontroller . It provides the smart phone to communicate with microcontroller wirelessly using GSM technology. The SIM900 GSM Module make/receive voice calls and send/receive SMS messages through an Arduino board.

AT commands provides a means to communicate with the board. These commands are helpful for data transfer applications. SIM900 is a GSM/GPRS engine which works on the frequency of 900 MHz. The SIM900 module is integrated with the TCP/IP protocol. To use the TCP/IP protocol easily, the AT commands are developed. The board has a SIM card slot, and to have cellular network connectivity a SIM is inserted in the slot.

The Arduino Duemilanove board is a development board that shows compatibility with all Arduino development tools, softwares, codes, etc. It allows to program the arduino microcontroller with the basic programming language C. The Atmels 8-bit microcontroller uses 32 KB flash memory along with read-while-write capabilities. Other specifications

Fig 1 Existing System Agriculture Architecture

System design

Node MCU ESP 8266

NodeMCU is an open source IoT platform. It includes firmware which runs on the ESP8266 Wi-Fi SoC from Espressif Systems, and hardware which is based on the ESP-12 module.

The term “NodeMCU” by default refers to the firmware rather than the development kits. The firmware uses the Lua scripting language. It is based on the eLua project, and built on the Espressif Non-OS SDK for ESP8266. It uses many open source projects, such as lua-cjson and SPIFFS.

Fig 2 Node MCU ESP 8266

GSM module sim 900 a

This is an ultra compact and reliable wireless module. The SIM900A is a complete Dual-band GSM/GPRS solution in a SMT module which can be embedded in the customer applications allowing you to benefit from small dimensions and cost-effective solutions.

Featuring an industry-standard interface, the SIM900A delivers GSM/GPRS 900/1800MHz performance for voice, SMS, Data, and Fax in a small form factor and with low power consumption. With a tiny configuration of 24mm x 24mm x 3 mm, SIM900A can fit almost all the space requirements in your applications, especially for slim and compact demand of design.

Fig 3 GSM module sim 900 a

Mobile Device

A mobile device is a handheld tablet or other device that is made for portability, and is therefore both compact and lightweight. New data storage, processing and display technologies have allowed these small devices to do nearly anything that had previously been traditionally done with larger personal computers. Mobile devices are also known as handheld computers.

Fig 4 Mobile Device

Relay Module

The relay module is an electrically operated switch that allows you to turn on or off a circuit using voltage and/or current much higher than a microcontroller could handle. There is no connection between the low voltage circuit operated by the microcontroller and the high power circuit. The relay protects each circuit from each other.

The each channel in the module has three connections named NC, COM, and NO. Depending on the input signal trigger mode, the jumper cap can be placed at high level effective mode which closes the normally open (NO) switch at high level input and at low level effective mode which operates the same but at low level input power switching up to 50 A is generally possible with industrial relays, whilst higher currents are usually the province of contactors.

The principle contact materials used for relays with nominal contact ratings within the range 5 to 50 A are most commonly, Silver Nickel, Silver Cadmium Oxide and Silver Tin Oxide Silver Nickel has been around for almost ever.

Fig 5 Relay module

Soil Moisture Sensor

Soil moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content in soil.Since the direct gravimetric measurement of free soil moisture requires removing, drying, and weighting of a sample, soil moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content indirectly by using some other property of the soil, such as electrical resistance, dielectric constant, or interaction with neutrons, as a proxy for the moisture content.

The relation between the measured property and soil moisture must be calibrated and may vary depending on environmental factors such as soil type, temperature, or electric conductivity. Reflected microwave radiation is affected by the soil moisture and is used for remote sensing in hydrology and agriculture. Portable probe instruments can be used by farmers or gardeners.

Soil moisture sensors typically refer to sensors that estimate volumetric water content. Another class of sensors measure another property of moisture in soils called water potential; these sensors are usually referred to as soil water potential sensors and include tensiometers and gypsum blocks.

The soil moisture sensor consists of two probes which are used to measure the volumetric content of water. The two probes allow the current to pass through the soil and then it gets the resistance value to measure the moisture value.

When there is more water, the soil will conduct more electricity which means that there will be less resistance. Therefore, the moisture level will be higher. Fig 6 Soil Moisture Sensor

Overall Architecture

The system uses a simple, low cost 8-bit microcontroller; a GSM module and smart phone. The system architecture is shown in Figure . Fig 7 SAA Smart Agriculture Architecture


This paper presents the development of a smart monitoring of agricultural land. The IoT concept is adopted in this research to conduct the connectivity of all sensor devices in the smart farm.This prototype model and functions of the sensors are observed on controlling the pumping motor.

By using this technique it reduces work load of the farmers and also power consumption is reduced . In addition to that data stored in the firebase can be referred in future for the intelligent control action better than the existing. To achieve the aims of this paper, a mobile application called android IoT farming is implemented. Farmers could monitor smart farm conditions via smart phone, while customers could access supporting information.


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Cite this essay

Smart Monitoring of Agricultural Field. (2019, Dec 03). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/smart-monitoring-of-agricultural-field-and-controlling-of-water-example-essay

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