Skills Gap Analysis For Graduates Essay
Skills Gap Analysis For Graduates
Abbreviations and Acronyms BAACH Business Alliance Against Chronic Hunger CCTV Closed Circuit Television CDF Constituency Development Fund European Centre for Development of Vocational Training CEDEFOP DBSCS District Business Solution Centres District Enterprise Development Officer DEDO DTDO District Trade Development Officer DYO District Youth Officer DYTO’s District Youth Training Officers EFI Electronic Fuel Injection EGH Elder of Order of Golden Heart ESP Economic Stimulus Programme EPZ Export Processing Zone FTC Farmers Training Centre GDP Gross Domestic Product GOK Government of Kenya HCDA Horticultural Development Authority.
HSC Head of State’s Commendation Hon. Honorable ICT Information Communication Technology ILO International Labour Organization International Standards Classification of Occupations ISCO IT Institute of Technology JK Jua Kali JKUATES Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Enterprises Ltd JUMP Jobs for the Unemployed and Marginalized Young People KEBS Kenya Bureau of Standards KCDF Kenya Community Development Foundation KICTB Kenya Information Communication Technology Board KCPE Kenya Certificate of Primary Education KCSE Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education KEPSA Kenya Private Sector Alliance KNEC.
Kenya National Examination Council KIDDP Kenya Italy Debt for Development Programme KIE Kenya Industrial Estates KIE Kenya Institute of Education KIPI Kenya Industrial Property Institute KIRDI Kenya Industrial Research Institute KNEC Kenya National Examinations Council KPLC Kenya Power & Lighting Company IMCs Institute Managing Committees IMPS Integrated Micro-computer Processing System MAG Metal Inert Gas Welding MDG’s Millennium Development Goals Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth iii MIG MoLHRD MoA MoE MoEn MoH MoL&F MoR MoTR MoTO MoYAS MoEST MoI.
MoW MP MSMEs MVE MVM NAVCET NEMA NCCK NCS&T NEP NIC NGO NKCC NQF NSDA NSDS NYS OECD PA PDYA PSP’s PTTO RRI SAQAs SETA SPSS SQL TIG TTI TIVET TNA TTI TOT UNDAF iv Metal Active Gas Welding Ministry of Labour & Human Resources Development Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Education Ministry of Environment Ministry of Housing Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Ministry of Roads Ministry of Trade Ministry of Tourism Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports Ministry of education, Science & Technology Ministry of Industrialization Ministry of Water Member of Parliament Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Motor Vehicle Electrician
Motor Vehicle Mechanic National Vocational Certificate in Education and Training National Environment management Authority National Council of churches of Kenya National Council for Science and Technology North Eastern Province Newly Industrialized Country. Non-Governmental Organization New Kenya Cooperative Creameries National Qualification Framework National Skills Development Authority National Skills Development Authority Strategy National Youth Service Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development Personal Assistant Provincial Director of Youth Affairs Private Service Providers Provincial Technical Training Officer.
Rapid Results Initiatives Sector Accreditation and Qualification Authorities Sector Education and Training Authorities Statistical Package for Social Sciences Structured Query Language Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Technical Training Institute Technical, Industrial, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Training Needs Assessment Technical Training Institute Training of Trainers United Nations Development Assistance Framework Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth UNDP UNEP UNESCO UNHDR UNICEF UNIDO VSO VTC VTCs VVTI WEDF YEC YEDF YEF YERP YES YG YP.
YP’s United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Human Development Report United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Industrial Development Organization Voluntary Service Organization Vocational Training Center Vocational Training Centers Variable Valve Timing with Intelligence Women Enterprise Development Fund Youth Empowerment Centre Youth Enterprise Development Fund Youth Enterprise Facility Youth Employment Regional Programme Youth Empowerment Support Youth Group Youth Polytechnic Youth Polytechnics.
Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth v Foreword he Constitution of Kenya defines youth as all individuals in the republic who have attained the age of 18 years but have not attained the age of 35. According to 2009 Census, the youth constitute 35. 4% of the total national population of Kenya. Majority of the unemployed population are youth and they lack the necessary skills for gainful employment. Skills development through training in technical, vocational and entrepreneurship skills will enable the country to address the problem of youth unemployment.
Youth Polytechnics (YPs) and Vocational Training Centers (VTCs), are institutions offering school leavers opportunities to acquire quality skills and knowledge that make them employable or be self reliant. T Each year over 500000 (five hundred thousand) youth leave the school system before obtaining a formal professional training. The Youth Polytechnics (YPs) and Vocational Training Centers (VTCs), which have increased to more than 700 countrywide are expected to play a vital role in the provision of relevant skills to the youth for self-employment or job creation and supply of skilled labor for industrialization.
Unfortunately, the YPs and VTCs are currently facing several challenges in training high quality graduates. The purpose of this (report is to investigate the Skills Gap for graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centers and out of school youth with a view to coming up with interventions which will contribute to youth employment. To obtain this result, the report first reviews the skills of the YP graduates and other out of school youth in order to identify possible skill gaps. In the light of the outcomes, it assesses the capacity of YPs and VTCs to respond to these education needs.
The report’s findings indicate that both employers, graduates and trainees agree on the most significant skill gaps among the youth, being the capacity to use modern machines, trade knowledge and practical industrial exposure in that order. These results are mainly due to inadequate infrastructure available within the YPs and VTCs, on one hand, and the lack of partnership and exchange between YPS and VTCs and industry, on the other hand. The report also casts new light on the demands of the out of school youth. The study findings indicate that the youth are aware of the courses offered in YPs and VTCs, which are the typical 2-3 year courses.
The youth however express preference for much shorter duration modules (one to three days) with faster turn-rounds not currently available in the local institutions. Furthermore, it investigates untapped economic activities which could be exploited and provide employment and business opportunities. By examining the extensive information gathered during the provincial workshops, the report identifies specific quick impact opportunities in the respective provinces in Kenya, including slum and arid/semi arid areas. vi.
Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth In order to address the skill gaps of the current graduates from YPs and VTCs and to empower the out-of-school youth to exploit the untapped economic opportunities in their regions, the report suggests implementing a broad spectrum of interventions. In the short-term, it recommends creating the capacity for the quick impact interventions in YPs and VTCs and linking the youth to markets and micro-finance services.
In the medium-term, it states that the YPs and VTCs need to be equipped with state of the art equipment and qualified staff, while linking its activity with the private sector and industry in order to obtain technology transfer and practical skills exposure. In the long-term, it recommends the MOYAS to promote the YPs and VTCs as an alternative route to advanced technology education and training. The study has been conducted with technical and financial support of UNDP / Regional Programme for Social Cohesion and Youth Employment (YERP) funded by the Spanish cooperation.
Aeneas C. Chuma Resident representative United Nations Development Programme Kenya Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth vii Acknowledgment T he Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports is thankful to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) through the leadership of Mr. Aeneas C. Chuma for commissioning this study. We are deeply indebted to UNDP and the Spanish Cooperation for their financial, technical and logistical support and to Ms.
Couty Fall, the Coordinator for the Regional Programme for Social Cohesion and Youth Employment (YERP) and her team for providing the back-stopping support services while in Dakar-Senegal. Specifically, we wish to recognize the commitment, professional support and guidance by Boniface M. Kitili (UNDP-Programme Analyst), Dr. Dinah C. Mwinzi (Director-Youth Training), and Leonard Kimani (Director-Economic Affairs-National Economic Social Council) and to all who provided valuable comments during the presentation and discussion of the draft report.
This study took advantage of their varied knowledge and experience in vocational skills development, entrepreneurship and employment creation. Special thanks go to my officers led by Dr. Dinah C. Mwinzi and assisted by Isaac Odek for taking the lead in mobilizing and guiding the process and ensuring the involvement of key stakeholders which included Government departments, the private sector, youth and youth leaders and community representatives in the phase of conducting the study and reviewing the report through a stakeholders forum.
Special thanks also go to all the members of National Steering Committee for the ideas they shared to support this study. This collaborative effort made it possible to identify skill gaps inhibiting the youth from taking advantage of the viable income generating options within their set up. UNDP also would like to thank Entwise Associates Limited under the guidance of the Lead Consultant Mr. Julius Mburugu for conducting the study. To you all thank you very much. Mr. James M Waweru, CBS Permanent Secretary Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports viii.
Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth Executive Summary I n Kenya, only 39% of the 14 million youth are absorbed in the job market leaving the remaining 61% jobless. A majority of the youth, both employed and unemployed are found in rural areas but they migrate to urban centers to look for employment opportunities. These opportunities are often scarce and therefore many of the youth end up in slums where gangs and militia groups take advantage of them because of their vulnerability.
In pursuit of the goals of Vision 2030, the youth are meant to provide the bedrock for the transformation of requisite human resource skills for technological and industrial transformation. This will then lead to increased wealth and social well-being as well as enhancement of the country’s international competitiveness. This study sought to investigate the skills gap analysis for graduates of Youth Polytechnics (YPs), Vocational Training Colleges (VTCs) and out-of-school youth, with a view to recommend interventions that will contribute to youth employment, to enable the country achieve some of the listed goals of Vision 2030.
The more than 700 YPs and VTCs which are spread throughout the country are expected to play an important role in the provision of relevant skills to the youth for self-employment or job creation and also supply the skilled human resource for the industry. Towards this goal, the UNDP and other development partners are facilitating the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports in the development of youth empowerment centers and the revitalization of youth polytechnics.
Unfortunately, the existing institutional infrastructure, staffing, equipment, financing mechanisms and governance systems in most of the public YPs and VTCs are inadequate to effectively produce high quality graduates for Vision 2030. Evidence from employers indicates that graduates of YPs and VTCs experience difficulty in using modern equipment. They also lack adequate trade skills, innovation and creativity and knowledge mainly due to limited practical exposure.
The youth polytechnic graduates need at least six months of industrial orientation to integrate into the workplace. Besides low technical skills, the graduates are also weak in work attitude, communication, customer care, behavior and social skills. This shows a disconnect between the skills offered and those demanded by employers and society. There is therefore a need to align the courses offered in the YPs to the needs of the industry and society. The youth in Kenya have great potential in innovation and creativity.
With the right combination of skills, motivation, ideas and opportunities, young people are able to establish productive and creative business ventures and shift themselves from being job seekers to job creators. The study findings indicate that some of the untapped economic opportunities most preferred by the youth include Kienyeji (indigenous) chicken rearing, fish farming, greenhouse farming, bee keeping, garbage collection Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth ix and recycling.
Others include eco-tourism, dairy farming, poultry farming, creative arts, and water filtration and bottling among others. The study findings also indicate that the youth are aware of the courses offered in the YPs and VTCs during the 2 to 3 year courses. They however expressed preference for much a shorter duration, shorter courses/modules (one to three days) with faster turn-rounds that are not currently available in the local institutions. Examples of the preferred training areas include the following: • • • • • • •
Training skills relating to the identified economic opportunity Book keeping and credit management Entrepreneurship and marketing Legal aspects of contracting Talents development techniques Leadership and group dynamics Branding and packaging The coming into force of the East African Common Market Protocol presents great opportunities for labor and skills transfer and therefore more employment for qualified youth. There is therefore an urgent need to address the skills preferences and standardization of training transferable to member countries.
In order to ensure portability of skills from one country to another it will be necessary to adapt a qualification framework which is acceptable among member states. In order to address the skill gaps of the current graduates from YPs and VTCs and to empower the out-of-school youth to exploit the untapped economic opportunities in their regions it will be necessary to implement the following broad interventions; a)Short-term interventions This can include establishing a model for quick impact interventions to empower the youth to engage in income generating activities which will contribute to economic growth and sustainable livelihoods.
This will necessitate capacity building for the quick impact interventions in YPs and VTCs and also link the youth to markets and micro-finance services. b) Medium-term interventions The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MOYAS) can provide state-of- the-art equipment for one YP/VTC per county and ensure that the institutions have adequate staff with appropriate qualifications. In addition, YP/VTCs can be linked to private sector through a programme which provides technology transfer and practical skills exposure. c) Long-term interventions.
In the long term MOYAS can to establish a YP Board linked to the Technical, Industrial, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TIVET) system which will promote YPs/ VTCs as an alternative route to advanced technical education and training. x Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth Chapter 1 Background 1. 1 Situation Analysis he recently released 2009 Census Report1 for Kenya indicates that out of about 11 million youth (15-35 years who comprise about 36 per cent of the population) only 39% are absorbed in the job market.
The remaining 61% are left jobless and live below the poverty line of less than one US Dollar per day. About 92% of these youth lack vocational or professional skills demanded by the economy to which agriculture contributes 30% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). By the year 2012, the number of youth will have risen to 16 million. The high level of unemployment undermines the country’s potential for development, leaving youths’ energy and resourcefulness untapped while raising dependency levels. T Many of the employed youth have jobs that do not match their qualifications and personal development goals.
A majority of the youth both employed and unemployed are found in rural areas but they migrate to urban areas to look for employment opportunities which are scarce and therefore end up in slums where gangs and militia groups stay. In this regard there is an urgent need to direct the potential of these youth to income generating activities and also put measures in place to provide out-ofschool youth with skills that match the market needs and create new jobs. The development and management of competent human resources in Kenya has assumed a central role in enterprise performance.
This is a key factor in the effective introduction and management of technology; in the application of knowledge; in increasing productivity and competitiveness; in enhancing capacity to provide better terms of employment; and in increasing enterprise flexibility to respond rapidly to market changes. Gallup’s 2010 research data indicates that 62% of Kenyans have not been in any form of employment over the last 12 months and that only 25% out- ofsecondary school and university leavers are absorbed in regular employment, hence the need to boost training in entrepreneurial skills2.
The globalization of trade and removal of import restrictions has increased competitive pressure in the market place. This requires suppliers of goods and services to adapt to new technology change work ethics to improve productivity and efficiency and also provide quality services so as to remain competitive. It also requires the workforce to be equipped with skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for increased levels of productivity. It is also important to note that a large number of firms are still using traditional materials like steel and timber instead of aluminum and plastic products for training and production of goods.
The change-over will require new techniques and tools. 1 Kenya population and housing census 2009 – Kenya National Bureau of Statistics 2 Teaching practical Skills Can Create More Jobs”, in Business Day, July 6, 2010, Nairobi Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth 1 Kenya does not have an effective labor market information system. The last national manpower survey was carried out between 1986 and 1988. A national skills inventory3 undertaken in 2005 proposed a private-sector led national qualification framework incorporating all TIVET cadre of workers.
It is expected that the country will undertake effective human resource planning after completion of the national manpower survey which kicked off in June 20104. Only a few employers in the country have drawn and documented job descriptions, job specifications and the performance standard by which the output or performance of the workforce can be measured. It is now necessary, for the large enterprise and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sectors to define competencies required to perform the jobs and the training required to bridge the skill gap in the various sectors.
Skill gaps occur when employees are not ‘fully proficient’ in their job. In this regard, the on-going project with KEPSA/World Bank5 on youth internship will serve as a major contribution in bridging this gap. Kenya needs a vibrant youth polytechnic (YP) training programme which can support the enhancement of productivity in the MSME sector that currently accounts for 76% of total employment but only contributes 18% to the national GDP. The YP system can play a dual role of providing long term basic technical skills training while at the same time providing short term vocational training to bridge identified skills gap in the MSME sector.
In this regard, investing in the youth for sustainable livelihoods is a step towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as the goals of Vision 20306 which are aimed at moving Kenya from a developing country to middle income country by 2030. A number of problems have been identified as the key factors hindering the youth from engaging in decent wages or self-employment: • • • Graduates of youth polytechnics (YPs) and vocational training centers (VTCs) lack competence in modern technology, practical skills and trade knowledge (skill gaps).
Unemployed youth (92%) lack skills required to exploit untapped opportunities in their regions. Majority of the youth are jobless and live below the poverty line of less than one US dollar a day. 3 Republic of Kenya. 2006. Report on Skills Inventory, Training Needs Assessment and Development of Curriculum Structures in Kenya, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Nairobi 4 In “Smart Company” Page 3, Daily Nation, October 28, 2010. 5 Kenya Youth Empowerment Project – Government of Kenya, January 2010. 6 Republic of Kenya. 2009. Kenya Vision 2030 – Medium-Term Review, Nairobi 2.
Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth 1. 2 Current Initiatives 1. 2. 1Government of Kenya (GOK) and private sector Initiatives In 2009, the Government elaborated a new national development blueprint, the Vision 2030,7 that aims at making Kenya a newly industrialized middle income country providing high quality of life for its citizens by the year 2030. Kenya Vision 2030 is anchored on the economic, social and political pillars whose foundation is science, technology and innovation.
In pursuit of the goals of this vision, the youth are to provide the bedrock for the transformation of requisite human resource skills for technological and industrial transformation. This will then lead to increased wealth and social wellbeing as well as the enhancement of the country’s international competitiveness. MOYAS has also envisioned the establishment of Youth Empowerment Centres (YECs) in every constituency as a one-stop information centre to address the diverse needs of the youth in a constituency through the Kenya Youth Empowerment Project. In 2008/9, 46 centres were constructed all over the country at a cost of Kshs.
240 million8. The Daily Nation also reported that in the 2009/10 financial year, the Ministry had planned to construct 30 more centres at a cost of Kshs. 204 million. The Kenya Youth Empowerment Project, which is supported by the World Bank, has several components which will cost Ksh. 5. 6 billion in an effort to tackle youth unemployment. One of these components to be implemented through the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) is expected to offer internships to about 6,600 primary and secondary leavers between the ages of 15 and 29 and 4,400 tertiary level graduates.
In 2007, the Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF) under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MOYAS) was launched and allocated one billion shillings which was later increased to Kshs. 2. 4 billion. A further 2. 5 billion has been pledged to the fund by Kenya Commercial Bank, First Community Bank, Equity Bank and Family Bank. By the end of 2009, the Fund had disbursed Kshs. 2. 1 billion to about 68,000 youth-led enterprises.
On labor export, about 1500 young men and women have been assisted by the fund to get employment overseas through the structured labor export programme, a figure which is expected to rise to 10,000 jobs every year from 2011 (Anyang, 2010). In some districts self help groups are loaned Kshs. 2 million9 to help the youth engage in income generating projects. In July 2010 the government launched the Economic Stimulus Programme (ESP) as a short to medium term, high intensity, high impact programme aimed at jump-starting the economy towards long-term growth and development.
It also aimed to secure the livelihoods of Kenyans and address the challenges of regional and inter-generational inequity. Through the constituency industrial development centres, the government plans to spend an upwards of Kshs. 525 million to buy equipment for youth groups and organizations already formed under the Kazi Kwa Vijana programme. This initiative started in 2009 with Ksh. 800 million to provide 500,000 jobs for the youth in urban and 7 Republic of Kenya. 2009. Kenya Vision 2030, Nairobi, Kenya 8 Daily Nation, 2nd December 2009, Nairobi, Kenya.
9 Daily Nation, 13th August 2010, Nairobi, Kenya Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth 3 rural areas10. The centres are expected to provide a major training ground for youth while initiating them into industrial technology at the constituency level. 1. 2. 2GOK, UN Agencies and NGO Initiatives The challenges of youth in YPs and VTCs as well as the out-of-school youth constitute a target group addressed under the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF, 2009) for Kenya.
This framework identifies a set of priorities aligned to the Economic and Social Pillar of Government of Kenya’s Vision 2030 outcome 3 which promotes sustainable and equitable economic growth for poverty and hunger reduction with a focus on vulnerable groups. It is important to note that Kenya is one of the 108 member states who are signatories to the United Nations (UN).
Millennium Declaration of 2001 which adopted the following eight goals that respond to world’s main development challenges, to be achieved by 2015: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (2) Achieve universal primary education (3) Promote gender equality and empower women (4) Reduce child mortality (5) Improve maternal health (6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases (7) Ensure environmental sustainability and (8) Develop a global partnership for development. To date the Kenyan government has undertaken several initiatives towards meeting the MDGs.
Among the first such initiative was identification in 2000 of 9 Millennium districts namely; Siaya, Bondo, Muranga North, Meru South, Turkana, Kilifi, Suba, Bungoma and Garissa where the one-stop shop Business Solution Centres (DBSCs), were established in 2008 in collaboration with Kenya Industrial Estates (KIE) and Ministry of Trade under the public-private partnership arrangement. The DBSCs are equipped with high internet connectivity and ICT infrastructure to enable youth, women and MSEs access vital information, training, marketing and advisory support.
Other initiatives include ILO, YES, JUMP, COOP, a two-year pilot project which started in 2009 and is targeted at creating 1,000 decent jobs in the two years for youth in marginal areas of Nakuru, Athi River and Nyandarua districts. ILO’s Youth Enterprise Facility (YEF) is a five-year project intended to enable the youth in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania turn their energy and ideas into business opportunities and contribute to the creation of decent work both as a means of self employment and job creation.
The Japanese Government has also since 2005 sponsored a project in the slums of Kawangware among others, on garbage collection by the youth in Nairobi City11. VSO Jitolee also received government funding of up to Kshs. 4 million to carry out a five year project for 8 youth polytechnics in Coast Province, namely Mkongani, CITC, Kidaya, Likoni, Mwamba ya Nyundo, Gede, Mkwanjuni and Mtongwe. VSO started 10 Murithi Mutiga in Daily Nation, 4th July, 2010, Nairobi, Kenya. 11 Paul Wafula in Daily Nation, 12th August 2010, Nairobi, Kenya.
4 Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth pilots in Coast Province carrying out practical action as a consultant. They looked at the skills being taught and whether multi-skilling could be implemented in the area. Technoserve/Kenya is also another initiative which supports the Young Women Entrepreneurship Clubs (business plans) in schools and among communities in Kariobangi and Kibera slums of Nairobi.
Its intention is to spread to over 1,800 secondary schools and disadvantaged communities throughout the country. The Junior Achievement of Kenya and a number of other NGOs are also undertaking similar programmes targeting the youth in secondary schools. The National Youth Talent Academy12, an initiative of the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Ministry of Education and UNICEF, enrolled its first group of 100 youth in March 2010 in four major disciplines namely: football, volleyball, music and dance and film and theatre at Moi International Sports Centre, Kasarani.
The Academy which aimed at empowering 500 talented out- of-school youth in 2010, through skills and talent development in sports and performing arts, attracted the interest of youth, donors and the private sector. The programme seeks to engage the youth through an innovative approach that taps into their talents in order to boost opportunities for improved livelihoods that is in line with their aspirations and the needs of the communities in which they live.
UNDP has further facilitated MOYAS to accomplish key milestones in meeting the needs of the youth through the Kenya National Youth Development and Training Programme. This programme has two components; (a)Creation of livelihood opportunities for the youth in the 9 Millennium districts and 24 selected constituencies and (b)Revitalization of Youth Polytechnics. Below are some of the achievements of the National Youth Development and Training Programme. • • • • It has trained 316 young graduates in business skills and entrepreneurship development.
It has developed 46 young university graduates into enterprise development agents. It has placed 45 trainees on business experience attachment. It has produced a business skills and entrepreneurship development training manual. It is against this background that UNDP facilitated the study on Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of YPs, VTCs and Out of School Youth vide CFPS/0012/2010 dated 8th April 2010 with a view of coming up with interventions that will contribute to youth employment.
12 “Talent Search Starts to Bear Fruit” in Saturday Nation 30th October 2010, Nairobi, Kenya. Skills Gap Analysis for Graduates of Youth Polytechnics, Vocational Training Centres & Out of School Youth 5 1. 3 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigate the skills gap analysis for graduates of YPs, VTCs and out of school youth with a view to coming up with interventions which will contribute to youth employment. The specific tasks to be performed included the following: 1. 3.
1 Establishing the current and future market skill requirements and demands for the different environmental regions of Kenya (arid and semi-arid areas, slum areas, rural areas, and high potential areas). a) Identifying local and untapped/under-utilized resources in the different regions; b) Recommending the interventions required in order to create jobs by taking advantage of the available local resources; c)Recommending both short-term and long term training programmes to close the identified gaps. 1. 3. 2 Finding out the existing skill ga.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 27 October 2016
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