Since 1900

Recorded music was not available until 1897 with the invention of the
78 rpm disk
A counter-reaction to modernism that drew on more traditional uses of the elements was
In Voiles, Debussy employs both the
whole tone and pentatonic scales
The climax of Voiles is achieved by a shift in
The sounds Debussy uses in Voiles reflects the
globalization of music during the twentieth century
Debussy disliked the term
Debussy was one of several early twentieth-century composers rebelling against what musical convention?
The first performance of “The Unanswered Question” took place how long after its completion?
almost 40 years
In “The Unanswered Question,” which instrument(s) ask(s) the question?
In addition to the metaphysical debate of the piece, the contrasts between the different instrument groups could also represent
the conflict between old and new music
Which of these things sets “The Unanswered Question” apart from the other musical dialogues, such as concertos?
one group of instruments ignores the dialigue
Ives thought of conventional, pre-modernist music as a(n)
narcotic that dulled the senses
Which of the stanzas of poetry seems most expressionistic?
Heavy, gloomy giant black moths
Massacred the sun’s bright rays;
Like a close-shut magic book
Broods the distant sky in silence.

How does Sprechstimme differ from recitative?
In Sprechstimme, the voice does not maintain the pitch on each note
What kind of harmonic system does Schoenberg use in “Columbine”?
In an atonal work, what term still apply?
The atonality of “Peirrot lunaire” helps to depict Pierrot’s
anguish, despair, and complete alienation
When a piece of music has two simultaneous tonal centers
A pentatonic scale has
five notes
A rhythmic figure or gesture that is repeated many times is a(n)
Meter is said to be irregular when
it changes frequently from measure to measure
Diaghilev had trouble reviving “The Rite of Spring” in 1920 because
the orchestra was so big
How did Crawford develop her compositional skills?
she imposed strict limitations on her compositions
Ruth Crawford’s music is an example of
Crawford created “mixed accents” by
varying the number of notes per group
Which traditional element of Western music was deliberately left out of “Piano Study in Mixed Accents”?
Crawford gives her piece shape by changing what melodic element?
Neoclassical music combines modern ideas with the form and content of
eighteenth-century music
In the context of harp technique, a glissando is a
scale played so fast it becomes a blur
The timbre of neoclassical music is frequently
light and transparent
In the finale of her “Concertino for Harp and Orchestra”, how does Tailleferre use the wind instruments?
as soloists, one at a time
Tailleferre was part of a group of composers who referred to themselves as
Les Six
Like Schoenberg’s Peirrot, Still’s version of the character conveys
insecurity and quiet desperation
African American artists of the 1920s and 1930s like William Grant Still and Langston Hughes use art to
promote racial equality
In order to reflect the character’s state of mind, Still incorporates elements of
the blues
Why is “A Black Pierrot” considered through-composed?
the music is different in each strophe
How does the emotional climax of “A Black Pierrot” occur?
the singer reaches his highest note
How does Copland compose to get the “wide open spaces” sound for which he is famous?
using both very high and very low notes
Which is a rhythmic element that Copland uses throughout “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
How does Copland create contrasting timbres in his “Hoe-Down”?
by alternating between a full orchestra and small groups
Who transcribed (i.e., wrote down in musical notation) the folk melody that Copland used in the A sections of “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
Ruth Crawford Seeger
Compared to the typical rondo form, what is unusual about the rondo form of Copland’s “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
the main melody is not played until the second A section
Bartok’s “Concerto for Orchestra differs from earlier concertos in that it
showcases many different instruments rather than one
While he lived in the US, Bartok
was admired by a small community, but relatively unknown
What makes melody no. 5 (in the muted trumpets) sound slightly menacing?
it is harmonized in seconds
Bartok also worked within which academic discipline as a folk-song collector?
Why does Bartok call this movement “Game of Pairs”?
the wind instruments function in pairs
West Side Story is a modern retelling of
Romeo and Juliet
Which of the following best characterizes the genre of the musical?
spoken dialogue with substantial amounts of singing
How did Bernstein reflect the fact that the action is progressing in the music?
the melodies of the various groups begin to overlap
Additive form is a device Bernstein adapted from
The texture of “Tonight” is
homophonic, then polyphonic
Although “Tonight” starts as a chorus, it ends as a
Although radical in many ways, “Sonata II” does have a relatively conventional
The sound of the prepared piano
is completely unfamiliar to most audiences
What statement best describes Cage’s philosophy of music?
everything in the world around us is music
Which aspect of Zen Buddhism especially influenced Cage’s compositions?
the attempt to eliminate personal will and striving for goals
Cage wrote 4’33” because he wanted his audience to
think about why some sounds are considered music and others are not
In the opera “Einstein on the Beach”, the character of Einstein
never sings, but plays the violin
Minimalism is characterized by
brief ideas repeating and varying incrementally over a long span of time
Glass wanted the audience of “Einstein on the Beach” to
read their own meaning into the work
The harmony of “Knee Play 1” is
very simple tonality
What is one way Glass creates variety in the choral parts of this piece?
sometimes they leave out the number “1”
Philip Glass has studied in these following places
1) Peabody Conservatory
2) India
3) Paris
In “A la Par”, Leon says she is attempting to express the conflict between
her native folk-music traditions and her classical training
What is a pitched percussion instrument?
“A la Par” is written for
percussion ensemble
The rhythmic ostinato in “Guaguanco” is
chromatic, but squarely tonal
The postmodernist musical aesthetic differs from neoclassicism in that it
accepts the extremes of modernism

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Since 1900
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