Simple pendulum Essay
The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum depends on the length and is directly proportional to the square root of the length. Moreover, we know that the period of oscillation is independent of the amplitude when the amplitude is within small limits (length remaining constant). This means the amplitude can vary within small limits, but the period of oscillation will be the same. The period of oscillation is also independent of the nature of the bob, i. e. , the size, shape and material of the bob can vary, but the period of oscillation will remain the same.
Apparatus Pendulum bob (e. g. a metal sphere with a hook attached, or with a hole bored through its centre), cotton thread, stop-watch, meter rule, retort stand and clamp, G-clamp, protractor, pieces of paper, small improvised vice, vernier caliper (available upon request), and triple beam balance (available upon request). Method About two-meter thread was tied to a pendulum bob and the cotton thread was suspended rigidly from the jaws of an improvised vice, such as two small wooden blocks held in a clamp.
Alternatively two coins, two halves of a cork split lengthwise, or the jaws of a pair of pliers served equally of suspension when gripped in a clamp. (figure showing the set up with two small wooden blocks held in clamp) A piece of paper with a vertical mark on it was placed behind the pendulum so that when the latter was at rest it hid the vertical mark from an observer standing in front of the pendulum. The length L of the cotton thread was measured from the point of attachment to the center of mass of the bob by meter rule. (This was called effective length of the pendulum. )
The pendulum bob was set to swing through an arc of about 10 The time for 20 complete oscillations was measured with a stop-watch by setting the stop-watch goes when the pendulum was released from a little angle apart from the vertical. Successive amount of about 10cm was shortened from the length of the pendulum by putting the cotton thread through the vice and for each new length we took observation of the time for 20 oscillations. The experiment with different length was repeated . A graph with values of T2 / s2 as ordinates against corresponding values of L/ m2 as abscissa should be plotted to yield a straight line.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 10 July 2017
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