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This paper presents an in-store e-commerce system that provides shopping aid and individualized advertisement through the usage of a new construct in context cognizant calculating, dynamic contextualization. This system, Promo Pad, utilizes augmented world engineerings on a handheld Tablet Personal computer to supply for dynamic alteration of the contextual scenes of merchandises on shop shelves through the usage of diaphanous vision with augmentations. Augmented world enhances the human perceptual experience of world in this application by contextualizing single objects that are encountered in the existent universe with practical complements so as to do the existent objects more meaningful and appealing.
This real-time alteration of the perceptual experience of context, dynamic contextualization, moves beyond the traditional construct of context-aware calculating into context alteration. The proficient demands for recognizing dynamic contextualization utilizing augmented world engineerings are described in item. The mark design of the Promo Pad is a consumer friendly shopping helper that requires minimal user attempt and is practical in a public environment such as a shopping promenade or a food market shop.
This paper will besides depict the proficient execution of the picture diaphanous augmentation system and how this engineering makes possible the construct of dynamic contextualization, the alteration of context to direct the involvement flow of users.
Keywords: Augmented world, dynamic contextualization, context-aware, permeant computer science, e-commerce
This paper describes the PromoPad design, a computing machine device and a e-commerce system that performs shopping aid and a personalised in shop advertisement. The PromoPad is a hand-held paradigm device that provides context sensitive shopping aid.
This aid will be in the signifier of augmented imagination which uses the augmented world engineering and the content of this is built around the construct of dynamic contextualisation. Dynamic contextualization is nil but an extension of the conventional advertisement construct of contextualization to include real-time alteration of perceived context which is based on the interaction among the user, the environment and focal objects utilizing augmented world engineerings. Augmented world ( AR ) differs from practical world ( VR ) in such a manner that there is no effort to replace the existent universe so the users can still interact with the existent universe and at the same clip they can comprehend enhanced positions with augmentations. Augmented world will heighten the human perceptual experience of world in this application by contextualizing the single objects which may meet in the existent universe with practical complements, so as to do the existent objects more meaningful and appealing. The PromoPad is a tablet Personal computer with a camera mounted on the dorsum. The show captured tablet PC provides a modified version of the camera image. This image can be modified by utilizing augmented world techniques that add new imagery relation to a focal merchandise or take elements of the image that may deflect from the focal merchandise. Therefore augmented world techniques offer the capablenesss necessary for recognizing dynamic contextualization. In traditional context-aware computer science, context is inactive and represents the state of affairs of the user, supplying merely input to the computer science system. But in dynamic contextualization, the context can be both input every bit good as end product and is modified to be more meaningful for the focal objects and creates more involvement to the users. Pervasive retail system was developed by Kourouthanassis and Roussos developed MyGrocer that can pull off the shopping lists, besides monitors the entire cost of cart contents, navigate consumers and popup publicity information within the shop.
The chief purpose of a good e-commerce system is non merely to supply inactive information but besides be able to supply trigger impulse purchase determination. Dynamic contextualization can be made possible by augmented world ( AR ) techniques that modify the perceptual experience of the existent universe in existent clip. Several surveies on augmented world provide groundss that tells us augmented world engineerings can better the human interaction public presentation. In archeology, an outdoor augmented world technique called archeoguide system used to supply individualized Tourss of archeological sites and besides to better the information presentation, simulation of ancient environment, and the recovery of destroyed sites. The research in augmented world explores the proficient feasibleness and benefits for advertisement and consumer experiences.
The balance of this paper is organized in the undermentioned manner. In subdivision 2 the construct of Dynamic contextualization will be introduced and is provided with the theoretical footing for its application. Section 3 will depict the construct of PromoPad system and the proficient inside informations that make the augmented shelf position work. Section 4 discusses the execution of dynamic contextualization on the PromoPad. Section 5 the consequences of this paper are summarised and discusses the future issues of research.
From the position of human psychological science, dynamic contextualization with the PromoPad utilizing augmented world engineering can imitate an enhanced merchandise experience. `` Enhanced '' , here implies a combination of both direct experience and practical experience. Traditionally, merchandise experiences can be categorised as direct or indirect. Direct merchandise experience is a direct interaction between consumers and merchandises in a full sensory capacity which includes ocular, audile, gustatory sensation and odor, tactile and pointing. Indirect merchandise experience is the experience gained through secondary beginnings such as advertisement. When the direct and indirect merchandise experiences are compared, the direct merchandise is much richer for several grounds. Direct experience merchandise is considered as most trusty because the direct method the information can be self-generated by the consumer and besides the direct scrutiny of the shopper is allowed to experience and touch a merchandise and acquire input from multiple centripetal channels. The shopper can inspect a merchandise in a sequence and gait of their pick and can custom-make the information depends on their demands. The consumer can analyze the merchandise, but non needfully take it from boxing and seldom topographic point it into its intended context. Inorder to get the better of these disadvantages, practical experiences as simulated in 3-D visual image.
The existent beauty of augmented world ( AR ) is that it enables a shopper to inspect a merchandise personally and at the same clip they can besides see some of the extra objects in 3-D visual image on the Tablet PC show of the PromoPad. The objects found in 3-D visual image are able to bring forth a new signifier of mediated experience - practical experience. The practical experience is one signifier of indirect merchandise experience, because both are mediated experience. But the practical experience seems to be richer than indirect experience rendered by printed ads, telecasting commercials, or even 2-D images on the Web etc. Li, Daugherty, and Biocca indicate that practical experience, as simulated in 3-D visual image, consists of more active cognitive and affectional activities than 2-D selling messages. They attribute to the psychological and emotional effects to the interface belongingss of 3-D advertisement, every bit good as to the psychological esthesis of presence.
The PromoPad is a mediated device that provides in-store practical experience with 3-D merchandise visual image. The system consists of two waiter constituents, the front-end client constituent and back-end waiter constituent in which the front-end constituent is a light-weight show device that slips into a cradle in the shopping cart. This can implement by utilizing Tablet PC engineering in which a camera is attached to the dorsum of the Tablet PC, the client device is cognizant of the place and orientation of the shopper relation to the shopping cart and shop shelves. It is besides capable of supplying the shopper a diaphanous position of the shelves and besides the extra information that is related to the points in the position by the shoppers. The back-end constituents chiefly consist of one or more waiters that contain stock list informations, client profiles and concern logic, from which information in the databases is filtered and returned to the front-end constituent. The PromoPad employs augmented world engineerings and passes an augmented camera image from the rear of the Tablet Personal computer to the show.
The chief end of utilizing this engineering is that it is an intelligent shopping assistance which provides the shoppers automatic and meaningful aid when needed and besides to minimise human intervention and attempt. With wireless communicating engineering, a Tablet Personal computer can hold different manners for shoppers in different shopping orientations. Those come ining the shop with specific purchase in head ( the planned shoppers ) , may utilize a tablet Personal computer to optimise their shopping paths in a shop to rapidly happen points they plan to purchase. Those seeking gross revenues and clearance points ( deal shoppers ) may utilize the tablet to happen sale points that they are interested in with easiness. Those come ining the shop merely to shop ( recreational shoppers ) can utilize a Tablet Personal computer to obtain merchandise information that is non on the packaging. Let 's see an illustration ; an augmented show of a bottle of vino might include images of the wine maker and/or wine evaluations or reappraisals. By utilizing the Tablet PC the Content customization and personalization can be greatly ease the convenience of all types of shoppers by heightening them with the shopping experience. The most of import thing is acknowledge that the huge bulk of food market and convenience shop purchases are impulse purchases. Little betterment in marketing public presentation can even be resulted in monolithic addition in gross revenues.
To accomplish this end of the Tablet PC as a see-though augmentation device, several proficient issues have to be mentioned. First, the ways of tracking the location context needs to be robust, stable and scalable. Second, the existent image in the Tablet PC show should be adjusted in such a manner that it should offer a true diaphanous position as if the Tablet PC show was crystalline so that the device is good integrated with the environment and besides in harmoniousness with existent merchandises. Third, the existent image should be accurately registered with the practical object. Finally, the system should be able to cover with different practical and existent composing methods which can include sheathings, occlusion, and diminishment.
The location of a shopper as a 3-D place and orientation relation to merchandise and shop shelves is acquired by an in-store trailing system. When the shopper is utilizing the PromoPad, it is sensible to presume that the place and the orientation of the Table Personal computer are a good estimate of the place and orientation of the shopper. Some of the bing engineerings can be scaled for this application to store-size volumes with big measures of PromoPads. Location information required for the PromoPad is well more strict than that required by traditional context-aware calculating systems. Dynamic contextualization and augmented world require alteration of the camera image. In order to accomplish pixel-resolution enrollment of practical elements with shop shelf contents, the PromoPad system requires high-accuracy cognition of the location and orientation of the client device.
The position as seen on the Tablet PC show is derived from the image captured by a camera mounted on the rear of the tablet. The features of the camera position are, in bend, determined by the camera intrinsic and extrinsic parametric quantities. The intrinsic parametric quantities of a camera describe how the camera will change over objects within the camera 's field of position into an image. The extrinsic parametric quantities describe the place and orientation of the camera in infinite. Figure 1 illustrates a perspective camera projection theoretical account. The optical axis, which is extraneous to the retinal plane a„? , passes through the centre of projection C and intersects with at the chief point degree Celsius on the image plane. The distance between the centre of projection C and the retinal plane a„? is the camera focal length f. Let M denote the universe co-ordinate of some point on the tip of the wine bottle. The corresponding point m on the retinal plane is the intersection of the line that passes through M and C and the retinal planea„? . Therefore, intuitively, what the camera can see is the volume inside the infinite pyramid whose vertex is C and the four lines that form the borders of the pyramid base on balls through the four corners of the retinal plane, as illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Perspective camera projection theoretical account
This pyramid is referred to as the artworks frustum. Artworks frustums for rendering are frequently truncated with close and far niping planes, where the close cutting plane avoids rendition of objects excessively near to the camera or at the uniqueness point C and the far niping plane avoids rendering objects so far off from the camera as to be considered no longer seeable. The close and far niping planes besides serve a practical map of restricting the needed preciseness of deepness buffer values. The artworks frustum for the practical elements must fit the camera point of view and intrinsic parametric quantities in order to mime the position of the camera and have the practical objects accurately registered with the camera image. The far and near niping planes must unclutter any rendered practical elements.
Assuming a graduated camera, a sensible premise as camera standardization is a common procedure, the camera focal length degree Fahrenheit, the centre of projection C, the chief point degree Celsius and the size and place of retinal plane a„? are known to the system. Before puting up the screening frustum, the viewport rectangle needs to be set as the same declaration ( viewport rectangle size in pels ) as that of the camera retinal plane in order to hold the same position of the camera if the frustum is set harmonizing to the camera 's intrinsic parametric quantities. For illustration, if the camera declaration is 640 by 480 pels, so the size of the viewport rectangle needs to be set as 640 by 480 every bit good. The parametric quantities specifying a screening frustum that match the camera point of position are ( cubic decimeter, B, -n ) , which specifies the 3-D co-ordinates of the lower left corner of the close cutting plane, and ( R, T, -n ) , which specifies the upper right corner of the close cutting plane. The values of cubic decimeter, R, T, and B are as follows.
cubic decimeter = -n.C/f ;
R = N ( w-C ) /f ;
T = -n.c/f ;
b= N ( h-c ) /f ;
( C, degree Celsius ) is the 2-D co-ordinate of chief point degree Celsius in the retinal plane a„? , tungsten and H are the breadth and tallness of the retinal plane a„? , degree Fahrenheit is the camera focal length. These parametric quantities much be measured in the same unit, normally pels. N is the distance from the camera to the close cutting plane and is of the unit as cubic decimeter, R, T, and B. The practical objects that are rendered in this frustum are good aligned with the camera image.
Figure 2 shows the different effects of the Tablet PC window when the show is from the camera 's point of position and adjusted to the user 's point of position. A cereal box is behind the Tablet Personal computer and in the scene of the camera. The PromoPad captures the cereal box and augments the position with a nutrition saloon and a piece of advertisement information. Figure 2a shows the augmented position from the camera 's point of view. The adjusted position is shown in Figure 2b with the consequence of a 'magic frame ' .
a. show from the camera 's point of position b. show zoomed to user 's point of position
Figure 2 Tablet PC displays from different point of views
With dynamic contextualization, the decision makers of the system can command the involvement flow of the users by virtually modifying the focal entity 's context information. In a shopping environment, dynamic contextualization is a concern scheme that the retail merchants can utilize to virtually alter the merchandise scenes placed objects in more complementary scenes or taking viing or unflattering merchandises that may be in close propinquity to the focal merchandise.
Product contextualization is the arrangement of a merchandise in a peculiar scene that will vibrate with consumers and do clear the merchandise ingestion patterns or state of affairss. Product contextualization is frequently seen in shop shows and advertisement. In electronic commercialism, merchandise contextualization can be simulated with 3-D visual image, which can offer a assortment of ways for the consumer to set up a focal merchandise with other complimentary merchandises on the computing machine screen. Research workers use this practical contextualization to put complimentary merchandises with a focal merchandise in 3-D visual image in order to impact the user 's perceptual experience of the focal merchandise. For illustration, the user can set up a set of furniture in different scenes in 3-D on a web site to choose the preferred combination. Research has demonstrated that practical contextualization can take to better consumer experience, trade name attitude, and therefore influence purchase purpose.
This paper presents the construct of a shopping helper that utilizes augmented world engineerings to supply individualized advertisement and in-store shopping aid based on dynamic contextualization. This PromoPad system is a measure towards permeant and omnipresent computer science in the extremely moneymaking food market shopping section. The development end is to offer a pleasant and ask foring shopping experience that is mediated by an augmented reality-based Tablet Personal computer. The paper describes the proficient execution of the picture diaphanous augmentation system and how this engineering makes possible the construct of dynamic contextualization, the alteration of context to direct the involvement flow of users. Dynamic contextualization, the real-time alteration of context, can be enabled by augmented world engineerings with augmentations and diminishments of the perceived ocular context. Dynamic contextualization is based on, but extends beyond, the spacial and temporal context of the user. Location context, user context, and merchandise context are integrated in this design to turn to the demands of an intelligent context-aware shopping helper.
The construct of dynamic contextualization and the design methodological analysis of the PromoPad system can be extended to other fortunes such as touristry ushers, developing helpers, etc. Nevertheless, interior decorators of other systems need to carefully see the context factors based on the demands of an application sphere.
Although this article has addressed several of import issues in planing the PromoPad, there are still some of import issues that must be addressed in the hereafter development of PromoPad as an e-commerce system.
User privateness has to be protected. The privateness issue arises when the retail merchants collect the ingestion activities and effort to foretell the consumer 's involvement based on her old shopping behavior. It is necessary to equilibrate the tradeoff between mechanization and privateness to run into the demands of both retail merchants and consumers. Consumers may be willing to give certain grade of their privateness in return for certain sensed value, and retail merchants decidedly should esteem the privateness of their clients. A batch of ongoing research plants are concerned of privateness and security of on-line e-commerce systems. The end of the initial development of PromoPad, nevertheless, is to maximise the mechanization of the shopping experience and research the potency of dynamic contextualization and the possible applications of augmentations and diminishments in the perceptual experience of a short shelf image. Hence the privateness issue is beyond of the range of this initial work and this article.
Another quandary in this design is the tradeoff between user flexibleness and mechanization. Maximizing the mechanization requires small user attempt but limits the user 's flexibleness at the same clip. Although the design has been deliberated in orienting the information flow to suit single demands, some advanced user would wish to hold more control over the augmentations and diminishments in the PromoPad. This quandary can be arbitrated by analyzing a study of serviceability questionnaire to samples of consumers with assorted instruction backgrounds. Besides, options giving consumer-appropriate control over the PromoPad can be provided for advanced users to equilibrate the tradeoff.
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