Sex Education in Secondary Schools
Sex Education in Secondary Schools
The health and bright future of every adolescent is shadowed by risk of sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancy and even abortion, that will enable them to reach their goals in life. Research shows that one youth is infected with HIV every hour of everyday, while 5% increase in teenage birthrate, 40.5 births per 100 young woman ages 15-19 (Hamilton et.al.2009).This mind numbing fact, is pointed to the aggressiveness, curiosity and misguidance of teens about the issues of sexuality. In a Christian country, like Philippines, these issues are taken with great care and fragility, hence, according to Wagoner (2001), this are public issues that should be treated with rights, respect and responsibility instead of fear, denial and blame. The youth have the right to accurate information, deserving of respect and do have an obligation to act responsibly.
Ignorance regarding this is a crucial matter that has an easy remedy: educate the youth and give hope for a more informed tomorrow (Leavitt, 2009). Because like what Wagoner (2001) said, “By this we could protect their (youth) health and their lives.” Sex education on the other hand, according to Kirby (2002) and Alford (2003), it teaches about abstinence as the best method of avoiding STDs and unintended pregnancy through contraception, it talks about interpersonal and communication skills which help young people explore their own values, goals and options, a prevention program that will affect multiple behavior and achieve positive health impacts.
As support to the global call of sex education, Representative Lagman (2008) said that Reproductive Health Bill was formulated by the congress here in the Philippines, that promotes information on access to both natural and modern family planning method, which are medically safe and illegal permissible and assures an enabling environment where women and couples have the freedom and choice on the mode of planning their family while strengthening PopCom in educating the youth.
For this reason, the researchers would like to expose the importance and effects of sex education program in the learning of teens and in the preservation of the country as a whole at the same time, assist and guide the youth to be responsible not only in their decision but more importantly to their judgment as to what Villegas (2009) said, “The only thing that will bring things to order is time.”
Statement of the Problem
1. What are the importance of integrating sex education in the learning of teenagers? 2. What are the effects of integrating sex education in the learning and intellectual growth of teens? 3. What would be the impacts of sex education in social, spiritual and sexual development of teens?
Statement of the Objectives
1. To instill among the youth the importance of sex education. 2. To show the effects of integrating sex education in the learning and intellectual growth of teens. 3. To reveal the impacts of sex education in social, spiritual and sexual development of teens.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study is only limited on the importance and effects of integrating sex education on the learning of teenagers in the secondary level and it’s feasible contribution towards nation building and global prosperity. It was conducted at La Filipina National High School, La Filipina, Tagum City, from February to March 2010 and was participated by 100 respondents consisting of 20 teachers (five every year level) and 80 students (20 per year level).
Significance of the Study
For the youth:
The main purpose of this study is to provide information about sex education, its importance and effects to the academic performance of teens towards self-preservation and to showcase a wide array of choices to help live a healthy and productive life that would ensure active participation of youth in nation building and global development in the future.
For the parents:
The significance of the study is to help them to realized their big and vital duty to guide the youth and inculcate among them the values they should bear in mind to lighten their path towards a brighter future.
For the teachers:
The relevance of this research is to equip them with the right concept in providing not only quality education but also how education be used in fighting ignorance as core cause of deemed tomorrow.
For the community:
The importance of this research is to give the correct and clear meaning of sex education, as well as, its objectives to awaken the community of its advantage to address the increasing population growth and lessen if may not eradicate sexually transmitted diseases infected and to bring back youth closer to the Almighty creator.
Definition of Terms
Sex Education -is a program that teaches about abstinence and about using condoms and contraception to avoid STDs and unintended pregnancy, thus develop interpersonal and communication skills. Abstinence -refraining from doing sexual activity before marriage. Sexually Transmitted Disease -or STD is a disease transferred sexually like AIDS, HIV and many more. Morality-is a conduct or attitude judgment from moral standpoint. Unintended Pregnancy -is similar to unwanted pregnancy.
Contraception – is the process of controlling birth.
Reproductive Health Bill -is a bill in the congress that: • Aims to control rapid population growth, unwanted pregnancy and abortion. • Provide the public contraceptives and intensive discussions about issues of sexuality.
Review of Related Literature
The question of weather sex education should be taught in school took along debate up to this very moment inspite with the fact given by the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) and Demographic Research and Development Foundation, restated by Dr. Singson (2010), 26 percent of our Filipino youth nation wide from 15 to 25 admitted to have a premarital sex experience, and worst is 38 percent of youth are already in live-in arrangement. The Philippine Situationer dated 2009, added that about 1.8m boys and 670,000 girls aging 15-24 have pre-marital relations already, 766 HIV seropositive children and youth, and got pregnant between 18-19 years old that contribute to 400,000 indused abortion annually thus infecting the quality of education gained by youth that unable them to be productive.
Wagoner (2001), emphasized sexuality education is not an either/ or proposition, it’s the reality young people needed and deserved. He further stretched, that he will always believe that the better way is to try rights, respect and responsibility to give young people tools and, more they will make safe and responsible decision out of it. Sex education on the other hand, according to Alford (2001), teaches abstinence as the best method to avoid HIV, unintended pregnancy and abortion, it provides value based education, shows variety of choices in the manner of living, accurate information about the reality of sexual issues, teaches proper usage of contraceptive materials to serve as protection, and preaches religious values to give youth opportunity to explore their own.
Macken in 2006 also mentioned the programs efficacy in preventing HIV and other STD. Leavitt (2009), determined ignorance regard safe sex is a crucial matter with an easy remedy: educate the youth and give them hope for an informed tomorrow. However, Anderson (1993) President of Probe Ministries International, viewed that the problem is not lack of education, but lack of moral instruction, according to him, young people needed information about sex, but it must be placed in moral context. He further said that we should provide youth with biblical principles and moral leadership in dissecting this issues. In contrary, researchers of Advocates of Youth (2009), stated that sex education clearly shows programs that do not encourage teens to start sexual intercourse, do not increase even the frequency, instead decrease the number of sexual partners which was supported by Kirby (2001) and Alford (2003) and in Mckeon’s research in 2006.
That is why Rep. Edcel C. Lagman (2008), author of the RH Bill of the Philippines, wishes to proved that, (1) Information and access to natural and modern family planning (2) Maternal, infant and child health and nutrition (3) Promotion of breast feeding (4) Prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications (5) Adolescent and youth health (6) Prevention and management of reproductive tract infections, HIV/AIDS and STDs (7) Elimination of violence against women (8) Counseling on sexuality and sexual and reproductive health (9) Treatment of breast and reproductive tract cancers (10) Male involvement and participation in RH; (11) Prevention and treatment of infertility and (12) RH education for the youth strengthen PopCom, are vital to promote a well oriented community that shall raised the level of public awareness on the urgent need to protect and promote reproductive health and rights.
The study of Kohler and et al. (2008) said, that its not harmful to teach teens about birth control in addition to abstinence. Mauluer et al. (2009) also added, that sex education greatly boost the delay if not decreased the intercourse participation rate. Dr. Markham (2009), told that we need to develop prevention programs that address the needs of the students who are not yet sexually active to promote skills and attitude to help them wait until they are older to have sex, we need to provide knowledge of condom and other contraceptive materials to the sexuality active and to give accurate and factual information and services related to STD’s through education. Albert (2010) said, that no one suggests to set guidelines alone will work at all time for all people, that it is important that we will have a large portfolio and effective options, and that is what education could cater.
Effects In the academic and intellectual growth.
Supposed sex education is effectively implemented. The Millennium Development Goal or MDG #2, which seeks to achieve universal primary education will be attained, for the program will help youth to proceed and finish proper education, thus, creating them employable, said Virola (2009). Senderowitz in 2000 analyzed that, learning about the reproductive health is pout of the larger developmental process as child become adult. He further stated, this developed self-esteem, a sense of hope and goals for the future, and respect for others. Pick de Weiss et al. (1998), said that the study of Institute Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion or (IMIFP) and the New York- based Population Council showed that the course can increase student’s knowledge on how to incorporate sex in the larger context of life.
Delano in 2000, Association for Reproductive and Family Health Executive Director, revealed that this assessment could provoke life-building skills like negotiation skills, values classification, refusal skills, decision- making and goal setting. She further emphasized, that this skill will enable youth to cope with the demands and challenges of growing up and self management. Moreover, Mahler (1896) agreed, because according to her this will help youth develop and practice decision- making skills, because sex education is not just about sex, but it facilitates self-esteem and the feeling that you have options and you are in control of things.
Nguer in 1999 added, that this education allows youth to be more mature and to be able and face some of life’s problems, it was also supported by Vincent et al. (1987), that the program is focused to improve decision-making skills, interpersonal communication skills, self-esteem and balancing of personal values, which is parallel to what Bailie said in 1995, thus, expressed a strong desire for better education and parents should be part of it. In the study of Cairns (1990), he found out the self-esteem and locus of control were associated with benefits in a single sex school than a mixed- sex environment. Mallam (1993) also revealed that this kind of curriculum showed attitudes toward academic subjects.
Impacts on the Social, Sexual and Spiritual development
• Social advancements
Since social aspect is defined as the relationship and communication into someone or to the community, as a whole. Integrating sex education according to Kirby, restated by Leavitt (2009), that this program can effectively reduced the number of sexual partners. Sex education had been successful in various settings. Sendorovitz (2000), written that the program include peer-based approaches and media activities to reach people thus young people can comfortably and safely explore issues and concerns to practice safer sexual behaviors.
Whitaker (2000), reported that its effects were safer behavior and strong ties in the family, school and church. Nguer of 2000 also emphasized, that this also involves respect and responsibility. Since the values of respect for women by men and violence were instill in their minds. Bailie (1995) also added that the opportunity for individual counseling with someone they trust like their parents and friends are also given importance. According to Dohoney (2007) they (youth) learned about how to say no to sex which is a clear result of having a sound judgment.
• Sexual improvements
Sexual activities are both natural to human and animals yet for human it’s more sacred and treated with respect. Kirby (2007) found that 30 percent of this program lessens sex frequency and 60 percent reduced unprotected sex. Kohler et al. (2008) said that teens who received sex education were 60 percent was likely to report becoming pregnant. According to Grunseit (1997) this activity delayed the inset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sexual partners and decrease unplanned pregnancy and STD rates and a significant reduction in sexual risk-taking. Dohoney (2007) said, that receiving sex education before the first sexual activity has the positive outcome.
According to Lagman (2008) this reduces abortion rates by as much as 85 percent that negates the need to legalize abortion. He added that the United Nation and countries with sex education stated, that the youth understand the proper sexual values, early initiation is delayed, multiple sex partners is avoided, spread of STDs is prevented. In conclusion he said this raise the level of public awareness on the urgent need to protect and promote reproductive health and rights.
• Spiritual enlightenment
When temptation comes let GOD be your guide. 1 Corinthian 10:13 said, “There hath no temptations taken you but such as in common man: but GOD is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted. “It is clearly stated that with intimate relation with GOD no temptation will ever shake the foundation of our very soul which is faith. According to Leavitt, the mission can only be achieved by offering a personal relationship with Jesus Christ as the best way to live a sexually pure life.
In addition, Sanches (2010) said, that if you’re sexually pure because you are educated, you will avoid things that may tempt you to do pre-marital sex, and aborting baby. You won’t feel cheap like used rags, because you believe in God and with it the pursuit for sexually pure is easy.
Locale of the Study
The location of the study may be classified into two: First, was at La Filipina National High School, La Filipina, Tagum City and the second was at the University of Southeastern Philippines,Tagum-Mabini Campus, Apokon, Tagum City. The former, includes the gathering of data through survey and latter, signifies the interpretation, analysis and making of the entire research study.
After deciding the topic, researches of the anything related to it followed. From these researches, the researchers come up to a survey questionnaire form making it accurate to answer the problems and objectives of the study. The survey was made last March 2, 2010 at La Filipina National High School which was participated by 20 students and 5 teachers every year level summed up to 100 respondents. In every year level, the focus of the survey was only on the first section class having 20 respondents each, composed of 10 boys and 10 girls selected on random order.
For the teachers, there were no specific guidelines on choosing who will answer the survey questionnaire. The respondents were chosen for they will be the one who will be affected directly for what so ever the result may be. Interpretation and analysis of the data gathered followed to form the summary, conclusions and recommendations.
Subject: Human sexuality,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 6 November 2016
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