Severe Weather Modules

  1. Single cell and supercell thunderstorms.

Single cell thunderstorm takes place in the late afternoon, when temperature level is the most popular and usually happens in the summer season, whereas supercell thunderstorm usually happens after midnight. Air mass thunderstorm is triggered by convective lifting (it means that because of high temperature level and heating throughout the day some quantity of warm air raises, although they can be of different temperature and different humidity. So, when this cloud reaches the point where the difference of temperature suffices to condense, it creates a cumulus cloud (this is a cumulus phase), the second phase is mature stage, where this condensed accumulated water vapor becomes large and then after it results into ice particles and heavy droplets, which drop as rain.

In case the temperature level in the upper atmosphere is cold enough, it can even drop as hail.

Sometimes, in case there are both downdrafts and updrafts during this phase, it can trigger some motions which result in lightings, strong winds and even tornadoes.

And, finally there is dissipation stage), whereas supercell thunderstorm can be caused both by convective and frontal lifting (they occur when updrafts form cumulo-nimbus clouds, then after there is a mesocyclone, which results more unsafe and windy storm). Single cell thunderstorms are not so hazardous like supercell thunderstorms, which can be single cells or can be formed of a variety of cells either and can be topped numerous states.

  1. Lightning stroke sequence.

So, lightning mostly starts with charge transfer in cloud (where positive and negative charges are formed – it begins usually with a local discharge which frees electrons that were attached to ice particles or water.

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The electrons neutralize small positive charge of the base of the cloud and continue their way to the ground), followed by a stepped leader (these electrons move in luminous steps approximately 50 yards long) which reaches to the ground (and when the leader approaches the ground, there takes place a large positive charge below it and) and connects with upward-moving discharges approximately 30-50 meters long. When the contact is done, there is a violent discharge to the ground. Light is produced mainly by the return stroke, which we usually call the lightning. This process can be repeated, starting with a dart leader, because usually flashes contain several strokes.

  1. Tornado formation.

The first condition for having tornado is a supercell thunderstorm (warm tropical air, which is moist, meets together with cold polar air, which is dry). When a mesocyclone becomes stronger, it enlarges downwards. Simultaneously, it becomes more compact so it starts to swirl with higher speed, forming a kind of funnel creating an area with very low pressure, which absorbs more air). In case this process will continue, this mesocyclone can reach the earth and result a tornado. Because of this funnel of very low pressure, there is a danger the funnel will suck not only air inside, but even some tings from the ground (parts of buildings, people, some small things, etc).

  1. Effects of hurricanes in human environments.

Damage caused by hurricanes is great. It can be losses of life and damage of property. For example, the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane where 600 people died, and 1969 Hurricane Camille, which caused damage of 1,4 billion dollars. The Bay of Bengal (1970) hurricane resulted approximately 300 000 people death. Agnes Hurricane of 1972 caused major flooding which became even a tropical storm and caused other damage as well.

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Severe Weather Modules. (2017, Apr 06). Retrieved from

Severe Weather Modules
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