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Senior Management Executive Management Or Management Team Computer Science Essay

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 35 (8570 words)
Categories: Computer, Essay, Management, Science, Tea
Downloads: 2
Views: 7

As the top director, the CEO is typically responsible for the full operations of the corporation and studies straight to the president and board of managers. It is the CEO ‘s duty to implement board determinations and enterprises and to keep the smooth operation of the house, with the aid of senior direction. Often, the CEO will besides be designated as the company ‘s president and will be one of the inside managers on the board ( if non the president ) .

Chief Operationss Officer ( COO ) A

– The COO looks after issues related to selling, gross revenues, production and forces. More hands-on than the CEO, the COO looks after daily activities while supplying feedback to the CEO. The COO is frequently referred to as a senior frailty president.

Chief Financial Officer ( CFO ) A

– Besides describing straight to the CEO, the CFO is responsible for analysing and reexamining fiscal informations, describing fiscal public presentation, fixing budgets and monitoring outgos and costs.

The CFO is required to show this information to the board of managers at regular intervals and supply this information to stockholders and regulative organic structures such as the Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) . Besides normally referred to as a senior frailty president, the CFO routinely checks the corporation ‘s fiscal wellness and unity.

Chief Technology Officer ( CTO ) A

– The CTO studies straight to the CEO and is responsible for scientific and technological issues within the organisation.

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An array shops multiple values in one individual variable.

What is an Array?

A variable is a storage country keeping a figure or text. The job is, a variable will keep merely one value.

An array is a particular variable, which can hive away multiple values in one individual variable.

If you have a list of points ( a list of auto names, for illustration ) , hive awaying the autos in individual variables could look like this:

$ cars1= ” Saab ” ;

$ cars2= ” Volvo ” ;

$ cars3= ” BMW ” ;

However, what if you want to loop through the autos and happen a specific one? And what if you had non 3 autos, but 300?

The best solution here is to utilize an array!

An array can keep all your variable values under a individual name. And you can entree the values by mentioning to the array name.

Each component in the array has its ain index so that it can be easy accessed.

In PHP, there are three sort of arrays:

Numeric arrayA – An array with a numeral index

Associative arrayA – An array where each ID key is associated with a value

Multidimensional arrayA – An array incorporating one or more arrays

Numeric Arrays

A numeral array shops each array component with a numeral index.

There are two methods to make a numeral array.

1. In the undermentioned illustration the index are automatically assigned ( the index starts at 0 ) :

$ cars=array ( “ Saab ” , ” Volvo ” , ” BMW ” , ” Toyota ” ) ;

2. In the undermentioned illustration we assign the index manually:

$ autos [ 0 ] = ” Saab ” ;

$ autos [ 1 ] = ” Volvo ” ;

$ autos [ 2 ] = ” BMW ” ;

$ autos [ 3 ] = ” Toyota ” ;

Example

In the undermentioned illustration you entree the variable values by mentioning to the array name and index:

& lt ; ? php

$ autos [ 0 ] = ” Saab ” ;

$ autos [ 1 ] = ” Volvo ” ;

$ autos [ 2 ] = ” BMW ” ;

$ autos [ 3 ] = ” Toyota ” ; A

echo $ autos [ 0 ] . “ and “ . $ autos [ 1 ] . “ are Swedish autos. “ ;

? & gt ;

The codification above will end product:

Saab and Volvo are Swedish autos.

Associative Arraies

An associatory array, each ID key is associated with a value.

When hive awaying informations about particular named values, a numerical array is non ever the best manner to make it.

With associatory arrays we can utilize the values as keys and assign values to them.

Example 1

In this illustration we use an array to delegate ages to the different individuals:

$ ages = array ( “ Peter ” = & gt ; 32, “ Quagmire ” = & gt ; 30, “ Joe ” = & gt ; 34 ) ;

Example 2

This illustration is the same as illustration 1, but shows a different manner of making the array:

$ ages [ ‘Peter ‘ ] = “ 32 ” ;

$ ages [ ‘Quagmire ‘ ] = “ 30 ” ;

$ ages [ ‘Joe ‘ ] = “ 34 ” ;

The ID keys can be used in a book:

& lt ; ? php

$ ages [ ‘Peter ‘ ] = “ 32 ” ;

$ ages [ ‘Quagmire ‘ ] = “ 30 ” ;

$ ages [ ‘Joe ‘ ] = “ 34 ” ;

reverberation “ Peter is “ . $ ages [ ‘Peter ‘ ] . “ old ages old. “ ;

? & gt ;

The codification above will end product:

Peter is 32 old ages old.

Multidimensional Arraies

In a multidimensional array, each component in the chief array can besides be an array. And each component in the sub-array can be an array, and so on.

Example

In this illustration we create a multidimensional array, with automatically assigned ID keys:

$ households = array

A A (

A A ” Griffin ” = & gt ; array

A A (

A A ” Peter ” ,

A A ” Lois ” ,

A A ” Megan ”

A A ) ,

A A ” Quagmire ” = & gt ; array

A A (

A A ” Glenn ”

A A ) ,

A A ” Brown ” = & gt ; array

A A (

A A ” Cleveland ” ,

A A ” Loretta ” ,

A A ” Junior ”

A A )

A A ) ;

The array above would look like this if written to the end product:

Array

(

[ Griffin ] = & gt ; Array

A A (

A A [ 0 ] = & gt ; Peter

A A [ 1 ] = & gt ; Lois

A A [ 2 ] = & gt ; Megan

A A )

[ Quagmire ] = & gt ; Array

A A (

A A [ 0 ] = & gt ; Glenn

A A )

[ Brown ] = & gt ; Array

A A (

A A [ 0 ] = & gt ; Cleveland

A A [ 1 ] = & gt ; Loretta

A A [ 2 ] = & gt ; Junior

A A )

)

Example 2

Lashkar-e-taibas try exposing a individual value from the array above:

reverberation “ Is “ . $ households [ ‘Griffin ‘ ] [ 2 ] .A

“ a portion of the Griffin household? “ ;

The codification above will end product:

Is Megan a portion of the Griffin household?

Complete PHP Array Reference

For a complete mention of all array maps, go to ourA complete PHP Array Reference.

The mention contains a brief description, and illustrations of usage, for each map!

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PHP Looping -A While Loops

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Loops execute a block of codification a specified figure of times, or while a specified status is true.

PHP Loops

Frequently when you write codifications, you want the same block of codification to run over and over once more in a row. Alternatively of adding several about equal lines in a book we can utilize cringles to execute a undertaking like this.

In PHP, we have the undermentioned iteration statements:

whileA – cringles through a block of codification while a specified status is true

make… whileA – cringles through a block of codification one time, and so repeats the cringle every bit long as a specified status is true

forA – cringles through a block of codification a specified figure of times

foreachA – cringles through a block of codification for each component in an array

The piece Loop

The piece cringle executes a block of codification while a status is true.

Syntax

while ( status )

A {

A codification to be executed ;

A }

Example

The illustration below defines a cringle that starts with i=1. The cringle will go on to run every bit long as I is less than, or equal to 5. I will increase by 1 each clip the cringle runs:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

$ i=1 ;

while ( $ I & lt ; =5 )

A A {

A A reverberation “ The figure is “ . $ I. “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A $ i++ ;

A A }

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product:

The figure is 1

The figure is 2

The figure is 3

The figure is 4

The figure is 5

The bash… while Statement

The bash… while statement will ever put to death the block of codification one time, it will so look into the status, and reiterate the cringle while the status is true.

Syntax

make

A {

A codification to be executed ;

A A }

while ( status ) ;

Example

The illustration below defines a cringle that starts with i=1. It will so increment I with 1, and compose some end product. Then the status is checked, and the cringle will go on to run every bit long as I is less than, or equal to 5:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

$ i=1 ;

make

A A {

A A $ i++ ;

A A reverberation “ The figure is “ . $ I. “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A }

while ( $ I & lt ; =5 ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product:

The figure is 2

The figure is 3

The figure is 4

The figure is 5

The figure is 6

The for cringle and the foreach cringle will be explained in the following chapter.

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PHPA Functions

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The existent power of PHP comes from its maps.

In PHP, there are more than 700 constitutional maps.

PHP Built-in Functions

For a complete mention and illustrations of the constitutional maps, delight visit ourA PHP Reference.

PHP Functions

In this chapter we will demo you how to make your ain maps.

To maintain the book from being executed when the page loads, you can set it into a map.

A map will be executed by a call to the map.

You may name a map from anyplace within a page.

Make a PHP Function

A map will be executed by a call to the map.

Syntax

functionA functionName ( )

{

codification to be executed ;

}

PHP map guidelines:

Give the map a name that reflects what the map does

The map name can get down with a missive or underline ( non a figure )

Example

A simple map that writes my name when it is called:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

map writeName ( )

{

echo “ Kai Jim Refsnes ” ;

}

reverberation “ My name is “ ;

writeName ( ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product:

My name is Kai Jim Refsnes

PHP Functions – Adding parametric quantities

To add more functionality to a map, we can add parametric quantities. A parametric quantity is merely like a variable.

Parameters are specified after the map name, inside the parentheses.

Example 1

The undermentioned illustration will compose different first names, but equal last name:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

map writeName ( $ fname )

{

echo $ fname. “ Refsnes. & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

}

reverberation “ My name is “ ;

writeName ( “ Kai Jim ” ) ;

reverberation “ My sister ‘s name is “ ;

writeName ( “ Hege ” ) ;

reverberation “ My brother ‘s name is “ ;

writeName ( “ Stale ” ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product:

My name is Kai Jim Refsnes.

My sister ‘s name is Hege Refsnes.

My brother ‘s name is Stale Refsnes.

Example 2

The undermentioned map has two parametric quantities:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

map writeName ( $ fname, $ punctuation )

{

echo $ fname. “ Refsnes ” . $ punctuation. “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

}

reverberation “ My name is “ ;

writeName ( “ Kai Jim ” , ” . “ ) ;

reverberation “ My sister ‘s name is “ ;

writeName ( “ Hege ” , ” ! “ ) ;

reverberation “ My brother ‘s name is “ ;

writeName ( “ Stale ” , ” ? “ ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product:

My name is Kai Jim Refsnes.

My sister ‘s name is Hege Refsnes!

My brother ‘s name is Stale Refsnes?

A

PHP Functions – Tax return values

To allow a map return a value, utilize the return statement.

Example

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

map attention deficit disorder ( $ x, $ Y )

{

$ total= $ x+ $ y ;

return $ entire ;

}

reverberation “ 1 + 16 = “ . add ( 1,16 ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product:

1 + 16 = 17

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Php

Function

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PHPA Forms and User Input

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The PHP $ _GET and $ _POST variables are used to recover information from signifiers, like user input.

PHP Form Handling

The most of import thing to detect when covering with HTML signifiers and PHP is that any form component in an HTML page willA automaticallyA be available to your PHP book.

Example

The illustration below contains an HTML signifier with two input Fieldss and a submit button:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; signifier action= ” welcome.php ” method= ” station ” & gt ;

Name: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” fname ” / & gt ;

Age: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” age ” / & gt ;

& lt ; input type= ” submit ” / & gt ;

& lt ; /form & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

When a user fills out the signifier above and chinks on the submit button, the signifier information is sent to a PHP file, called “ welcome.php ” :

“ welcome.php ” looks like this:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

Welcome & lt ; ? php echo $ _POST [ “ fname ” ] ; ? & gt ; ! & lt ; br / & gt ;

You are & lt ; ? php echo $ _POST [ “ age ” ] ; ? & gt ; old ages old.

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product could be something like this:

Welcome John!

You are 28 old ages old.

The PHP $ _GET and $ _POST variables will be explained in the following chapters.

Form Validation

User input should be validated on the browser whenever possible ( by client books ) . Browser proof is faster and reduces the waiter burden.

You should see server proof if the user input will be inserted into a database. A good manner to formalize a signifier on the waiter is to post the signifier to itself, alternatively of leaping to a different page. The user will so acquire the mistake messages on the same page as the signifier. This makes it easier to detect the mistake.

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PHPA $ _GETA Variable

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In PHP, the predefined $ _GET variable is used to roll up values in a signifier with method= ” get ” .

The $ _GET Variable

The predefined $ _GET variable is used to roll up values in a signifier with method= ” get ”

Information sent from a signifier with the GET method is seeable to everyone ( it will be displayed in the browser ‘s address saloon ) and has bounds on the sum of information to direct.

Example

& lt ; signifier action= ” welcome.php ” method= ” get ” & gt ;

Name: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” fname ” / & gt ;

Age: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” age ” / & gt ;

& lt ; input type= ” submit ” / & gt ;

& lt ; /form & gt ;

When the user clicks the “ Submit ” button, the URL sent to the waiter could look something like this:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.w3schools.com/welcome.php? fname=Peter & A ; age=37

The $ _POST Variable

The predefined $ _POST variable is used to roll up values from a signifier sent with method= ” station ” .

Information sent from a signifier with the POST method is unseeable to others and has no bounds on the sum of information to direct.

Note: A However, there is an 8 Mb soap size for the POST method, by default ( can be changed by puting the post_max_size in the php.ini file ) .

Example

& lt ; signifier action= ” welcome.php ” method= ” station ” & gt ;

Name: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” fname ” / & gt ;

Age: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” age ” / & gt ;

& lt ; input type= ” submit ” / & gt ;

& lt ; /form & gt ;

When the user clicks the “ Submit ” button, the URL will look like this:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.w3schools.com/welcome.php

The “ welcome.php ” file can now utilize the $ _POST variable to roll up signifier informations ( the names of the signifier Fieldss will automatically be the keys in the $ _POST array ) :

Welcome & lt ; ? php echo $ _POST [ “ fname ” ] ; ? & gt ; ! & lt ; br / & gt ;

You are & lt ; ? php echo $ _POST [ “ age ” ] ; ? & gt ; old ages old.

When to utilize method= ” station ” ?

Information sent from a signifier with the POST method is unseeable to others and has no bounds on the sum of information to direct.

However, because the variables are non displayed in the URL, it is non possible to bookmark the page.

The PHP $ _REQUEST Variable

The predefined $ _REQUEST variable contains the contents of both $ _GET, $ _POST, and $ _COOKIE.

The $ _REQUEST variable can be used to roll up signifier informations sent with both the GET and POST methods.

Example

Welcome & lt ; ? php echo $ _REQUEST [ “ fname ” ] ; ? & gt ; ! & lt ; br / & gt ;

You are & lt ; ? php echo $ _REQUEST [ “ age ” ] ; ? & gt ; old ages old.

The PHP Date ( ) Function

The PHP day of the month ( ) map formats a timestamp to a more clear day of the month and clip.

A A timestamp is a sequence of characters, denoting the day of the month and/or clip at which a certain event occurred.

Syntax

day of the month ( format, timestamp )

Parameter

Description

format

Required. Specifies the format of the timestamp

timestamp

Optional. Specifies a timestamp. Default is the current day of the month and clip

PHP Date ( ) – Format the Date

The requiredA formatA parametric quantity in the day of the month ( ) map specifies how to arrange the date/time.

Here are some characters that can be used:

d – Represents the twenty-four hours of the month ( 01 to 31 )

m – Represents a month ( 01 to 12 )

Y – Represents a twelvemonth ( in four figures )

A list of all the characters that can be used in theA formatA parametric quantity, can be found in ourA PHP Date mention.

Other characters, like ” / ” , “ . “ , or “ – ” can besides be inserted between the letters to add extra data format:

& lt ; ? php

reverberation day of the month ( “ Y/m/d ” ) . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

reverberation day of the month ( “ Y.m.d ” ) . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

reverberation day of the month ( “ Y-m-d ” ) ;

? & gt ;

The end product of the codification above could be something like this:

2009/05/11

2009.05.11

2009-05-11

PHP Date ( ) – Adding a Timestamp

The optionalA timestampA parametric quantity in the day of the month ( ) map specifies a timestamp. If you do non stipulate a timestamp, the current day of the month and clip will be used.

The mktime ( ) map returns the Unix timestamp for a day of the month.

The Unix timestamp contains the figure of seconds between the Unix Epoch ( January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT ) and the clip specified.

Syntax for mktime ( )

mktime ( hr, minute, 2nd, month, twenty-four hours, twelvemonth, is_dst )

To travel one twenty-four hours in the hereafter we merely add one to the twenty-four hours statement of mktime ( ) :

& lt ; ? php

$ tomorrow = mktime ( 0,0,0, day of the month ( “ m ” ) , day of the month ( “ d ” ) +1, day of the month ( “ Y ” ) ) ;

echo “ Tomorrow is “ .date ( “ Y/m/d ” , $ tomorrow ) ;

? & gt ;

The end product of the codification above could be something like this:

Tomorrow is 2009/05/12

Complete PHP Date Reference

For a complete mention of all day of the month maps, go to ourA complete PHP Date Reference.

The mention contains a brief description, and illustrations of usage, for each map!

PHPA Include Files

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PHP include and require Statements

In PHP, you can infix the content of one PHP file into another PHP file before the waiter executes it.

The include and require statements are used to infix utile codifications written in other files, in the flow of executing.

Include and require are indistinguishable, except upon failure:

require will bring forth a fatal mistake ( E_COMPILE_ERROR ) and halt the book

include will merely bring forth a warning ( E_WARNING ) and the book will go on

So, if you want the executing to travel on and demo users the end product, even if the include file is losing, usage include. Otherwise, in instance of FrameWork, CMS or a complex PHP application cryptography, ever use require to include a cardinal file to the flow of executing. This will assist avoid compromising your application ‘s security and unity, merely in-case one key file is by chance losing.

Including files saves a batch of work. This means that you can make a standard heading, footer, or bill of fare file for all your web pages. Then, when the heading needs to be updated, you can merely update the heading include file.

Syntax

include ‘filename ‘ ;

or

require ‘filename ‘ ;

PHP include and require Statement

Basic Example

Assume that you have a standard heading file, called “ header.php ” . To include the heading file in a page, usage include/require:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php include ‘header.php ‘ ; ? & gt ;

& lt ; h1 & gt ; Welcome to my place page! & lt ; /h1 & gt ;

& lt ; p & gt ; Some text. & lt ; /p & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

Example 2

Assume we have a standard bill of fare file that should be used on all pages.

“ menu.php ” :

reverberation ‘ & lt ; a href= ” /default.php ” & gt ; Home & lt ; /a & gt ;

& lt ; a href= ” /tutorials.php ” & gt ; Tutorials & lt ; /a & gt ;

& lt ; a href= ” /references.php ” & gt ; References & lt ; /a & gt ;

& lt ; a href= ” /examples.php ” & gt ; Examples & lt ; /a & gt ; A

& lt ; a href= ” /about.php ” & gt ; About Us & lt ; /a & gt ; A

& lt ; a href= ” /contact.php ” & gt ; Contact Us & lt ; /a & gt ; ‘ ;

All pages in the Web site should include this bill of fare file. Here is how it can be done:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; div class= ” leftmenu ” & gt ;

& lt ; ? php include ‘menu.php ‘ ; ? & gt ;

& lt ; /div & gt ;

& lt ; h1 & gt ; Welcome to my place page. & lt ; /h1 & gt ;

& lt ; p & gt ; Some text. & lt ; /p & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

Example 3

Assume we have an include file with some variables defined ( “ vars.php ” ) :

& lt ; ? php

$ color=’red ‘ ;

$ car=’BMW ‘ ;

? & gt ;

Then the variables can be used in the naming file:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; h1 & gt ; Welcome to my place page. & lt ; /h1 & gt ;

& lt ; ? php include ‘vars.php ‘ ;

echo “ I have a $ colour $ auto ” ; // I have a ruddy BMW

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

A« Previous

Following ChapterA

Opening a File

The fopen ( ) map is used to open files in PHP.

The first parametric quantity of this map contains the name of the file to be opened and the 2nd parametric quantity specifies in which mode the file should be opened:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

$ file=fopen ( “ welcome.txt ” , ” R ” ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

The file may be opened in one of the undermentioned manners:

Manners

Description

R

Read merely. Starts at the beginning of the file

r+

Read/Write. Starts at the beginning of the file

tungsten

Write merely. Opens and clears the contents of file ; or creates a new file if it does n’t be

w+

Read/Write. Opens and clears the contents of file ; or creates a new file if it does n’t be

a

Append. Opens and writes to the terminal of the file or creates a new file if it does n’t be

a+

Read/Append. Conserves file content by composing to the terminal of the file

ten

Write merely. Creates a new file. Returns FALSE and an mistake if file already exists

x+

Read/Write. Creates a new file. Returns FALSE and an mistake if file already exists

Note: A If the fopen ( ) map is unable to open the specified file, it returns 0 ( false ) .

Example

The undermentioned illustration generates a message if the fopen ( ) map is unable to open the specified file:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

$ file=fopen ( “ welcome.txt ” , ” R ” ) or issue ( “ Unable to open file! “ ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

Closing a File

The fclose ( ) map is used to shut an unfastened file:

& lt ; ? php

$ file = fopen ( “ test.txt ” , ” R ” ) ;

//some codification to be executed

fclose ( $ file ) ;

? & gt ;

Check End-of-file

The feof ( ) map cheques if the “ end-of-file ” ( EOF ) has been reached.

The feof ( ) map is utile for looping through informations of unknown length.

Note: A You can non read from files opened in tungsten, a, and ten manner!

if ( feof ( $ file ) ) echo “ End of file ” ;

Reading a File Line by Line

The fgets ( ) map is used to read a individual line from a file.

Note: A After a call to this map the file arrow has moved to the following line.

Example

The illustration below reads a file line by line, until the terminal of file is reached:

& lt ; ? php

$ file = fopen ( “ welcome.txt ” , “ R ” ) or issue ( “ Unable to open file! “ ) ;

//Output a line of the file until the terminal is reached

while ( ! feof ( $ file ) )

A A {

A A reverberation fgets ( $ file ) . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A }

fclose ( $ file ) ;

? & gt ;

Reading a File Character by Character

The fgetc ( ) map is used to read a individual character from a file.

Note: A After a call to this map the file arrow moves to the following character.

Example

The illustration below reads a file character by character, until the terminal of file is reached:

& lt ; ? php

$ file=fopen ( “ welcome.txt ” , ” R ” ) or issue ( “ Unable to open file! “ ) ;

while ( ! feof ( $ file ) )

A A {

A A reverberation fgetc ( $ file ) ;

A A }

fclose ( $ file ) ;

? & gt ;

PHP Filesystem Reference

For a full mention of the PHP filesystem maps, visit ourA PHP Filesystem Reference.

A« Previous

Following Chapter A»

Create an Upload-File Form

To let users to upload files from a signifier can be really utile.

Expression at the following HTML signifier for uploading files:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; signifier action= ” upload_file.php ” method= ” station ”

enctype= ” multipart/form-data ” & gt ;

& lt ; label for= ” file ” & gt ; Filename: & lt ; /label & gt ;

& lt ; input type= ” file ” name= ” file ” id= ” file ” / & gt ; A

& lt ; br / & gt ;

& lt ; input type= ” submit ” name= ” submit ” value= ” Submit ” / & gt ;

& lt ; /form & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

Notice the following about the HTML signifier above:

The enctype property of the & lt ; signifier & gt ; tag specifies which content-type to utilize when subjecting the signifier. “ multipart/form-data ” is used when a signifier requires binary informations, like the contents of a file, to be uploaded

The type= ” file ” property of the & lt ; input & gt ; tag specifies that the input should be processed as a file. For illustration, when viewed in a browser, there will be a browse-button following to the input field

Note: A Leting users to upload files is a large security hazard. Merely license trusted users to execute file uploads.

Make The Upload Script

The “ upload_file.php ” file contains the codification for uploading a file:

& lt ; ? php

if ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ mistake ” ] & gt ; 0 )

A A {

A A reverberation “ Mistake: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ mistake ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A }

else

A A {

A A reverberation “ Upload: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A reverberation “ Type: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A echo “ Size: “ . ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ size ” ] / 1024 ) . “ Kb & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A reverberation “ Stored in: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ tmp_name ” ] ;

A A }

? & gt ;

By utilizing the planetary PHP $ _FILES array you can upload files from a client computing machine to the distant waiter.

The first parametric quantity is the signifier ‘s input name and the 2nd index can be either “ name ” , “ type ” , “ size ” , “ tmp_name ” or “ mistake ” . Like this:

$ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] – the name of the uploaded file

$ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] – the type of the uploaded file

$ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ size ” ] – the size in bytes of the uploaded file

$ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ tmp_name ” ] – the name of the impermanent transcript of the file stored on the waiter

$ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ mistake ” ] – the mistake codification ensuing from the file upload

This is a really simple manner of uploading files. For security grounds, you should add limitations on what the user is allowed to upload.

Restrictions on Upload

In this book we add some limitations to the file upload. The user may merely upload.gif or.jpeg files and the file size must be under 20 kilobits:

& lt ; ? php

$ allowedExts = array ( “ jpg ” , “ jpeg ” , “ gif ” , “ png ” ) ;

$ extension = terminal ( explode ( “ . “ , $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] ) ) ;

if ( ( ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] == “ image/gif ” )

|| ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] == “ image/jpeg ” )

|| ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] == “ image/pjpeg ” ) )

& A ; & A ; ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ size ” ] & lt ; 20000 )

& A ; & A ; in_array ( $ extension, $ allowedExts ) )

A A {

A A if ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ mistake ” ] & gt ; 0 )

A A A A {

A A A A echo “ Error: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ mistake ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A }

A A else

A A A A {

A A A A echo “ Upload: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A echo “ Type: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A echo “ Size: “ . ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ size ” ] / 1024 ) . “ Kb & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A echo “ Stored in: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ tmp_name ” ] ;

A A A A }

A A }

else

A A {

A A reverberation “ Invalid file ” ;

A A }

? & gt ;

Note: A For IE to acknowledge jpg files the type must be pjpeg, for FireFox it must be jpeg.

Salvaging the Uploaded File

The illustrations above create a impermanent transcript of the uploaded files in the PHP temp booklet on the waiter.

The impermanent copied files disappears when the book ends. To hive away the uploaded file we need to copy it to a different location:

& lt ; ? php

$ allowedExts = array ( “ jpg ” , “ jpeg ” , “ gif ” , “ png ” ) ;

$ extension = terminal ( explode ( “ . “ , $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] ) ) ;

if ( ( ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] == “ image/gif ” )

|| ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] == “ image/jpeg ” )

|| ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] == “ image/pjpeg ” ) )

& A ; & A ; ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ size ” ] & lt ; 20000 )

& A ; & A ; in_array ( $ extension, $ allowedExts ) )

A A {

A A if ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ mistake ” ] & gt ; 0 )

A A A A {

A A A A echo “ Return Code: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ mistake ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A }

A A else

A A A A {

A A A A echo “ Upload: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A echo “ Type: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ type ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A echo “ Size: “ . ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ size ” ] / 1024 ) . “ Kb & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A echo “ Temp file: “ . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ tmp_name ” ] . “ & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

A A A A if ( file_exists ( “ upload/ ” . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] ) )

A A A A A A {

A A A A A A echo $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] . “ already exists. “ ;

A A A A A A }

A A A A else

A A A A A A {

A A A A A A move_uploaded_file ( $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ tmp_name ” ] ,

A A A A A A ” upload/ ” . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] ) ;

A A A A A A echo “ Stored in: “ . “ upload/ ” . $ _FILES [ “ file ” ] [ “ name ” ] ;

A A A A A A }

A A A A }

A A }

else

A A {

A A reverberation “ Invalid file ” ;

A A }

? & gt ;

The book above cheques if the file already exists, if it does non, it copies the file to the specified booklet.

Note: A This illustration saves the file to a new booklet called “ upload ”

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What is a Cookie?

A cooky is frequently used to place a user. A cooky is a little file that the waiter embeds on the user ‘s computing machine. Each clip the same computing machine requests a page with a browser, it will direct the cooky excessively. With PHP, you can both make and recover cooky values.

How to Make a Cookie?

The setcookie ( ) map is used to put a cooky.

Note: A The setcookie ( ) map must look BEFORE the & lt ; html & gt ; ticket.

Syntax

setcookie ( name, value, expire, way, sphere ) ;

Example 1

In the illustration below, we will make a cooky named “ user ” and delegate the value “ Alex Porter ” to it. We besides specify that the cooky should run out after one hr:

& lt ; ? php

setcookie ( “ user ” , “ Alex Porter ” , clip ( ) +3600 ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; html & gt ;

… ..

Note: A The value of the cooky is automatically URLencoded when directing the cooky, and automatically decoded when received ( to forestall URLencoding, usage setrawcookie ( ) alternatively ) .

Example 2

You can besides put the termination clip of the cooky in another manner. It may be easier than utilizing seconds.

& lt ; ? php

$ expire=time ( ) +60*60*24*30 ;

setcookie ( “ user ” , “ Alex Porter ” , $ expire ) ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; html & gt ;

… ..

In the illustration above the termination clip is set to a month ( 60 sec * 60 min * 24 hours * 30 yearss ) .

How to Recover a Cookie Value?

The PHP $ _COOKIE variable is used to recover a cooky value.A

In the illustration below, we retrieve the value of the cooky named “ user ” and expose it on a page:

& lt ; ? php

// Print a cooky

echo $ _COOKIE [ “ user ” ] ;

// A manner to see all cookies

print_r ( $ _COOKIE ) ;

? & gt ;

In the undermentioned illustration we use the isset ( ) map to happen out if a cooky has been set:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

if ( isset ( $ _COOKIE [ “ user ” ] ) )

A A reverberation “ Welcome “ . $ _COOKIE [ “ user ” ] . “ ! & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

else

A A reverberation “ Welcome invitee! & lt ; br / & gt ; ” ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

How to Delete a Cookie?

When canceling a cooky you should guarantee that the termination day of the month is in the yesteryear.

Delete illustration:

& lt ; ? php

// set the termination day of the month to one hr ago

setcookie ( “ user ” , “ ” , clip ( ) -3600 ) ;

? & gt ;

What if a Browser Does NOT Support Cookies?

If your application trades with browsers that do non back up cookies, you will hold to utilize other methods to go through information from one page to another in your application. One method is to go through the informations through signifiers ( signifiers and user input are described earlier in this tutorial ) .

The signifier below passes the user input to “ welcome.php ” when the user chinks on the “ Submit ” button:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; signifier action= ” welcome.php ” method= ” station ” & gt ;

Name: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” name ” / & gt ;

Age: & lt ; input type= ” text ” name= ” age ” / & gt ;

& lt ; input type= ” submit ” / & gt ;

& lt ; /form & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

Recover the values in the “ welcome.php ” file like this:

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

Welcome & lt ; ? php echo $ _POST [ “ name ” ] ; ? & gt ; . & lt ; br / & gt ;

You are & lt ; ? php echo $ _POST [ “ age ” ] ; ? & gt ; old ages old.

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

A« Previous

Following Chapter A»

PHP Session Variables

When you are working with an application, you open it, make some alterations and so you close it. This is much like a Session. The computing machine knows who you are. It knows when you start the application and when you end. But on the cyberspace there is one job: the web waiter does non cognize who you are and what you do because the HTTP reference does n’t keep province.

A PHP session solves this job by leting you to hive away user information on the waiter for later usage ( i.e. username, shopping points, etc ) . However, session information is impermanent and will be deleted after the user has left the web site. If you need a lasting storage you may desire to hive away the informations in a database.

Sessions work by making a alone Idaho ( UID ) for each visitant and shop variables based on this UID. The UID is either stored in a cooky or is propagated in the URL.

Get downing a PHP Session

Before you can hive away user information in your PHP session, you must first get down up the session.

Note: A The session_start ( ) map must look BEFORE the & lt ; html & gt ; ticket:

& lt ; ? php session_start ( ) ; ? & gt ;

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

The codification above will register the user ‘s session with the waiter, let you to get down salvaging user information, and delegate a UID for that user ‘s session.

Storing a Session Variable

The right manner to hive away and recover session variables is to utilize the PHP $ _SESSION variable:

& lt ; ? php

session_start ( ) ;

// shop session informations

$ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] =1 ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; html & gt ;

& lt ; organic structure & gt ;

& lt ; ? php

//retrieve session informations

echo “ Pageviews= ” . $ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] ;

? & gt ;

& lt ; /body & gt ;

& lt ; /html & gt ;

End product:

Pageviews=1

In the illustration below, we create a simple page-views counter. The isset ( ) map cheques if the “ positions ” variable has already been set. If “ positions ” has been set, we can increment our counter. If “ positions ” does n’t be, we create a “ positions ” variable, and set it to 1:

& lt ; ? php

session_start ( ) ;

if ( isset ( $ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] ) )

$ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] = $ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] +1 ;

else

$ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] =1 ;

echo “ Views= ” . $ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] ;

? & gt ;

Destroying a Session

If you wish to cancel some session informations, you can utilize the unset ( ) or the session_destroy ( ) map.

The unset ( ) map is used to liberate the specified session variable:

& lt ; ? php

session_start ( ) ;

if ( isset ( $ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] ) )

A unset ( $ _SESSION [ ‘views ‘ ] ) ;

? & gt ;

You can besides wholly destruct the session by naming the session_destroy ( ) map:

& lt ; ? php

session_destroy ( ) ;

? & gt ;

Note: A session_destroy ( ) will reset your session and you will lose all your stored session informations.

Cite this essay

Senior Management Executive Management Or Management Team Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/senior-management-executive-management-or-management-team-computer-science-new-essay

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