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Everyday in our lives self-monitoring is being used without us even knowing. From everyday task such as cooking or baking, to our jobs, and even our social life with family, friends, and even loved ones. When it comes to cooking and baking, we continuously taste the food to see what other ingredients it needs to make it taste better. With jobs, we always try to find new ways to do something better. In our social lives we are always trying to make the relationship stronger and better by changing things up and working towards it.
Self-monitoring (SM) is a technique to support/help many developmental stages of an individual. The stages consist of: academic, social, and behavioral development. Even though self-monitoring comes naturally and seems unimportant to most, it’s a whole new life style and lesson to individuals who have disabilities. The strategy of self-monitoring is important and has a strong impact on many disabilities, ages, on-task behavior, academic, productivity, engagement, and technology when it comes to students in a classroom setting.
Throughout this paper there will be key terms that are important to the study. The terminology ranges form different techniques, different disabilities, and different applications for devices To begin with is the different types of disabilities. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD) is a mental disorder where the individual is unable to control their own impulses and may have a hard time paying attention for long periods of time. Autism is a disability where a child has a difficulty forming relations with others due to the difficulty of communicating.
Learning disabilities is when a child has difficulty with skills and knowledge. Intellectual disabilities is when an individual has difficulties with problem solving, reasoning, and learning. Asperger’s syndrome is a disorder that impacts social skills and restrictive patterns. Specific learning disability is when an individual has a disorder in one or more psychological category. The categories consist of: listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, or spelling. When it comes to different techniques and applications, most of the studies used different tactics. Assistive Technology (AT) is any type of device or equipment that can improve an individuals capabilities. Kids Tool was one of the AT application and it is a software that is computer based that helps and individual gain control of their own targeted behavior. I-Connect is an application that is downloaded to a device and it delivers prompts to that individual using it asking if they are working. This device can either chime or flash to grab the individual’s attention. Lastly is the ACT-REACT which is a self-monitoring of attention and performance strategy that allows individual to be in control of their own learning.
Self-monitoring(SM) has impact on students with Autism when it comes to on-task behavior and it will decrease the disruptive behavior. Rosenbloom (2015) had a study where assistive technology was being used on a child with severe Autism. The purpose of her study was to determine how the associative technology device of I-Connect will increase on-task behavior while it decreased disruptive behavior from the child. Her study showed that the I-connect device increased the percentage of on-task behavior with the decrease of disruptive behavior. When the child was using the I-Connect, the on-task behavior increased immediately compared to when the child did not have the I-Connect which his on-task behavior decreased tremendously and it increased the disruptive behavior. This research showed that a child who has a disability can stay focus on different task when begin in a classroom setting when they have a tool to guide them. This is important because it shows that a child who has Autism can stay focus and not cause disruption in the classroom when the child is able to monitor their own behavior.
SM has a strong impact on students with intellectual disabilities and learning disabilities.
Clemons (2015) , had a study that consisted of self-monitoring with learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disabilities. The purpose of his study was to determine and evaluate how the I-Connect improves the child’s’ on-task behavior and how the self-monitoring device improved the students’ and teachers’ view on academic performance of the student (which I will elaborate more on later in the paper). The results proved that the self-monitoring technique improved on-task behavior for all three disabilities. Even though the technique improved their on task-behavior, the percentages varied per disability. For the student who has a learning disability percentages were 83% to 98% on staying on task (this was out of 100). The student who has Autism percentages ranged from 92%-100% of being on task, and the student who has an intellectual disability percentages ranged form 84%-97% of the time staying on task while using the device. This study was important because it shows how the strategy increases the student’s on-task behavior and by how much which is important when it comes to how effective the strategy was on the certain individual. With the effectiveness being shown, this can allow others to see the impact and try it on their students to help them stay on-task as well.
SM has a positive impact on individuals of all ages and all grade levels. Graham-Day (2010), did a study on three students who were 16 years old and sophomores in high school. The purpose of this study was to asses the impact of self-monitoring procedure while evaluating if reinforcements were needed to apply the self-monitoring technique on the student, the impact it has on academic performance (which I will elaborate more on later in the paper, and how the teacher and student respond to the SM technique (which I will elaborate more on soon). The results of this study showed an improvement for on-task behavior with the self-monitoring strategy. All three students demonstrated high ratings for on-task behavior when the SM strategy was in play.
Furthermore, Clemons (2015), did a study that consisted of 3 students who varied in age and grade level. The first participant was 17 years old and was a junior in high school, the second participant was another 17 year old and was a junior in high school, and the last participant was a 15 year old who was a freshman in high school. Like previously stated the purpose of this study was to evaluate the students on-task behavior with the I-Connect device. The results of this experiment proved that SM technique improved on-task behavior for all the students. Clemons (2015) and Graham-Day (2010) studies were both important because it shows that students in high school can still use self-monitoring skills to stay on task and that it is still effective on them.
Even though SM has an impact on high school students it also has a positive reaction to children in younger grades. Rock (2005), did a study that consisted of 9 students ranging in different ages. The ages ranged from 7-13 which is elementary school and middle school students. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of self-monitoring tool ACT-REACT ( Which I will discuss more later) on the engagement of academic, problem behavior that is not targeted, the students accuracy, and productivity (which I will elaborate later on in the paper). The results of the study proved that SM technique ACT-REACT was effective increased the child’s engagement and productivity. This study was important because it shows that the strategy of SM works on younger children as well and the study has shown that the students prefer to have self-monitoring because it keeps them on task and they can take charge of their own behavior.
Self-monitoring has an increase on on-task behavior when it comes to male and female. Crabtree (2010), did a study to test the effects of SM and response to reading comprehension on 3 boys. The results of his study showed a positive relationship between SM and reading comprehension when it comes to all 3 boys. Falkenberg (2013), did a study on two boys and two girls to determine the effects of SM when it came to subjects such as: math and spelling homework. On all 4 students, the results showed a strong relationship for SM and the math and spelling homework. Both of these studies are important because it shows that SM doesn’t only work on one gender it works on both genders and SM shows positive results towards all children. This is also important because it shows teachers and parents that SM isn’t favored for one gender over the other gender.
SM has a stronger impact on on-task behavior than academic performances. Graham-Day (2010) like I previously stated, was to asses the impact of self-monitoring procedure while evaluating if reinforcements were needed to apply the self-monitoring technique on the student, the impact it has on academic performance, and how the teacher and student respond to the SM technique. The results for on-task behavior increased for all three students.When it comes to the results of academic performances, the first two participant did not improve on their academic performances. The results showed that 3 of their grades decreased while one improved while the other one stayed about the same. The third participant results showed that two grades decreased, one stayed the same and one increased. This is important because it shows that SM has a positive impact when it comes to on-task behavior and it has a mostly negative impact when it comes to the academic performances. This is also important because this study showed that SM doesn’t work on everything and it gives the parents and teachers an idea what they should do with SM to keep the students grades up while using this SM strategy.
SM has a positive outcome on both attention and academic performance. Harris (2005) did a study to determine if academic performance and attention had an effect on students spelling and on-task behavior. The results of the study showed, that both academic and attention has a positive impact on the spelling study. But the study also showed that the performance indicated that two ad different effects based on the number of words spelled correctly. This study was important because it showed that attention and performance had a connection and it had a positive response to the students spelling. This also shows that SM strategy works on attention and academic which is more positive information and it shows just how much more the importance of self-monitoring is on a student.
With SM having a a positive outcome for academic performances(AP), AP may results to an increase in productivity and accuracy. Shimabukuro (1999), did a study on the impact of SM of productivity and accuracy on AP. The students in this study had to monitor themselves as well as graph their performance on different subjects. The results showed that AP may have resulted into an increase of accuracy and productivity in all three subjects of: math comprehension and writing. This is important because this shows teachers that students can not only improve in AP but they can also improve in comprehension and accuracy at the same time.
SM has a strong outcome for both productivity and accuracy. Rock (2005) study (like I previously stated) was to examine the effects of self-monitoring tool ACT-REACT ( Which I will discuss more later) on the engagement of academic, problem behavior that is not targeted, the students accuracy, and productivity. The results from the study for the category of productivity and accuracy showed there was an effective relationship between productivity and ACT-REACT self-monitoring strategy. This is important because it shows how SM can impact productivity and accuracy in a student within a classroom setting. This is also important because it shows that SM can be used towards anything including productivity and accuracy from a child.
SM has a positive effect on student’s homework completion and accuracy. Falkenberg (2013), did a study on the impact of SM packaging when it comes to homework in the subject areas of math and spelling. The results showed a positive relation between SM and in the accuracy and completion of the homework. The results were accurate with an exception to one child who had a 100% on their math homework completion to being with. This study was important because it shows teachers when a child uses SM it doesn’t only improve their in class work but it also improves on their homework completion as well as there accuracy. This is also important because this proves that SM doesn’t only work at school, it can also work at home when the child is either studying or doing homework.
SM has a positive relationship with elements of reading comprehension. Crabtree (2010), did a study that showed the relations between SM and active response to reading comprehension. The SM technique required the students to read a story, and within that story, the students had three places to stop. At each point they had to stop, the students had to write answers down to questions on a sheet of paper. The reading comprehension was measured by the number of events the student was bale to recall and how many they received credit for. The results of this study showed, a positive relation between SM and reading comprehension. All participants had an improvement on recalling certain criteria from the passage. This is important because it shows that SM also has a strong impact on reading comprehension and the students can retain more information when they stop at certain points to summarize what they have just read.
Technology has a huge role in self-monitoring techniques and the technology has a positive reaction when it comes to students using it for SM. Clemons (2015), did a study to evaluate the impact of I-Connect invention for SM to improve the students on-task behavior. I-Connect is an application that gets installed into any device. This device could be set at different intervals depending on the students need. When the time was up the device would flash and ask the question of “Are you on task?”. Here the child would be able to answer yes or no and than the device would keep track of the answers and at the end of the session, the device would let the teacher know out of 100% on-task behavior, what percentage of that was the child focused. The results of I-Connect showed improvement on on-task behavior for all the students who participated in the experiment. This is important because not only does the student benefit from this device the teacher does too. This is because instead of the teacher checking on the child every couple minutes, the device checks in for them and the child can answer the questions themselves and this gives the teacher more time to spend with other students and answer their questions. Falkenberg (2013) determine the effects of SM using KidTools when it came to subjects such as: math and spelling homework. KidTools is software program that includes reseat-based information that assist children in gaining control of their own targeted behavior. This software was provided to the participants everyday. When the students opened up the application, they had to answer two questions that consisted of: “Did I bring my homework to class? and did I turn my homework into the teacher?”. The results of the KidTools showed a relation between SM technique of using KidTools and completion of assignments. The relation was when the students had KidTools there was a higher percentage of turning in the homework and the accuracy of their answers. This is important because this tool gives the child independence and control over their targeted behavior. This also gives the teacher a better knowledge that the students are doing their homework because of this tool because they want to meet their own behavior goals by bringing their homework to school and turning it in on time. Rock (2005), did a study to see the difference and/or similarities of SM intervention of ACT-REACT on engagement, accuracy, and productivity. ACT-REACT is a combination of attention and performance of SM that help students who are disengage control their own learning. For example the students set their own goals that they wanted to achieve for the day. One student said they wanted to complete 15 math problems. When the child achieves it they can write it down on their graphic organizer and their booklet. The results showed that the ACT-REACT was an effective tool for enhancing academic performance (AP) and self-management. This study was important because it shows that when students are able to set their own goals they want to achieve them and they want to feel proud of themselves for completing such a task. I think this is also a good impact for the teachers as well because instead of them negotiating a goal for the child, the child can come up with their own reasonable goal and they can complete it and be excited once its achieved.
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