The Johari Window model is a simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. The Johari Window tool can also be used to assess and improve a group’s relationship with other groups. The Johari Window model was developed by American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in the 1950’s, while researching group dynamics. Today the Johari Window model is especially relevant due to modern emphasis on, and influence of, ‘soft’ skills, behaviour, empathy, cooperation, inter-group development and interpersonal development.
Over the years, alternative Johari Window terminology has been developed and adapted by other people – particularly leading to different descriptions of the four regions, hence the use of different terms in this explanation. Don’t let it all confuse you – the Johari Window model is really very simple indeed. Interestingly, Luft and Ingham called their Johari Window model ‘Johari’ after combining their first names, Joe and Harry. In early publications the word actually appears as ‘JoHari’.
The Johari Window soon became a widely used model for understanding and training self-awareness, personal development, improving communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, team development and inter-group relationships.
The Johari Window model is also referred to as a ‘disclosure/feedback model of self awareness’, and by some people an ‘information processing tool’. The Johari Window actually represents information – feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc – within or about a person – in relation to their group, from four perspectives, which are described below. The Johari Window model can also be used to represent the same information for a group in relation to other groups.
1. Introduction to Self-Development
1.1 What is Self-Development
Self-Development is a process that one undertakes to develop ones potential as a person and as a manager Self-development is self-initiative based. It is not a process instigated by any external force. As M. Armstrong (2011) says ‘Self-awareness is about knowing yourself, so far as that is possible, and analysing your achievements, skills and knowledge, and managerial competences’.
Self-development is an important aspect in a person’s life. It can be defined as the focus of an individual on personal growth and realization of their goals and desires. It can be mental, emotional, physical, social or professional.
2. Introduction to Self – Analysis/Self – Awareness
2.1 Self – Analysis/Self – Awareness
Self-awareness is the knowledge of one’s own personality or individuality. It also means being aware of oneself, including one’s traits, feelings and behaviours. A manager needs to be aware of them so that he can reflect upon his behaviour and be aware of any shortcoming in his style or attitude. This is needed so that he can overcome the shortcomings by self-development and become an efficient and effective manager. As cited by Armstrong (HOW TO BE EVEN BETTER MANAGER 7TH Edition) by Drucker (1955) That “Development is always self-development. Nothing could be more absurd than for the enterprise to assume responsibility for the development of a man. The responsibility rests with the individual, his abilities, and his efforts”.
In essence, in the eyes of a manager, the quote from Drucker boils down simply to “What self- development do I need?” What necessary knowledge and skills do I need, and what standards do I need to set for myself? Successful managers do not take success for granted; they are mindful of the importance of continual change and the importance of searching for new ways and ideas to accomplish tasks. gJohari Window
A model for self-awareness, personal development, group development and
Adapted from www.businessballs.com, © Copyright alan chapman 2003
The Johari Window model
A simple and useful tool for understanding and training selfawareness, personal development, improving communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, team development and intergroup relationships Developed by American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in the 1950’s, calling it ‘Johari’ after combining their first names, Joe and Harry Especially relevant due to emphasis on, and influence of, ‘soft’ skills, behaviour, empathy, cooperation, inter-group development and interpersonal development
Also referred to as a ‘disclosure/feedback model of self awareness’, and an ‘information processing tool’ Represents information – feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc – within or about a person – in relation to their team, from four perspectives Can also be used to represent the same information for a team in relation to other teams
Refers to ‘self’ and ‘others‘
‘Others’ – other people in the team
‘Self’ – oneself, i.e., the person subject to the Johari Window analysis
The four Johari Window perspectives
Called ‘regions’ or ‘areas’ or ‘quadrants’. Each contains and represents the information – feelings, motivation, etc – in terms of whether the information is known or unknown by the person, and whether the information is known or unknown by others in the team The four regions, areas, quadrants, or perspectives are as follows, showing the quadrant numbers and commonly used names
Johari window four regions
Open area, open self, free area, free self, or ‘the arena‘: what is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others Blind area, blind self, or ‘blindspot‘: 13.2 OD INTERVENTIONS : NATURE AND RATIONALE
OD interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units — individuals / groups engage with a task or sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Interventions make things happen and are “what’s happening” (Wendell L. French and Cecil H Bell Jr, 1983). Intervention is defined as a behaviour which affects the ongoing social processes of a system (Beckhard, 1969). ethical career training free materials, ideas, tools, tips, templates related materials
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Motivation, management, communications, relationships – focused on yourself or others – are a lot more effective when you understand yourself, and the people you seek to motivate or manage or develop or help.
Understanding personality is also the key to unlocking elusive human qualities, for example leadership, motivation, and empathy, whether your purpose is self-development, helping others, or any other field relating to people and how we behave.
The personality theories that underpin personality tests and personality quizzes are surprisingly easy to understand at a basic level. This section seeks to explain many of these personality theories and ideas. This knowledge helps to develop self-awareness and also to help others to achieve greater self-awareness and development too.