Many existing scientific theories deny other from the past. Impressing is that many people, including scientists, strongly believed in those old, proved invalid. Although, we should be aware that the new theories can be also disproved in the future. Therefore we cannot really be sure whether a scientific theory is true or false. Imperfections of our knowledge are determined by many different factors, in this essay I will try to show some of them. In the essay I will focus on social sciences, that is the most controversial part of our knowledge, sometimes even considered by many natural scientists?
as a pseudo-science. Social sciences as its name indicates are the part of knowledge describing mainly the nature of society and humanity, they aim to find some general rules that would explain behaviour of human as an individual and society as a whole. The problem is that every human being is unique, so these ? general rules? are never general and you can always find some exceptions.
Sociologists describe behaviour of, for example, an ? average consumer? that is a median of some people living in society, but in reality it does not exist. They create laws that you never know to whom you can apply it.
Laws, that are in some cases accurate and in some not, so we are really unable to say whether they are true or false. That is the main argument against social science, they try to generalise something that is so diversified that it is considered impossible to generalise it.
Controversial is also way of collecting data by social scientists. Their main tool is a questioner and an experiment; both when analysed deeper show a lot of disadvantages. The main proved is that people when they know that are investigated usually do not behave as in reality, but try to achieve, what they consider, an ideal person.
People try to hide their defects and exaggerate virtues ? ?we want to see ourselves better, than we are in the reality? (1). P. Cross carried an experiment in which he asked USA college teachers: if all college teachers were sorted with respect to their teaching skills, so that in the middle of the list would be an ? average teacher? , were would you been above or bellow him?. This opinion pool showed that 94% of American college teachers consider themselves as better that an average college teacher(2). Unfortunately this optimism is against the laws of statistics.
No more than 50% are better, and no more than 50% are worse than average (in this meaning of the word average), but in the experiment only 6% of teachers admitted that they are worse than average teacher is, so the relative error of this measurement were about 730%! (3) Well, I do not think we can talk about any outcome (in terms of its truthful) if the uncertainty of measurement is so big. In this case error could be easily calculated, although in most of cases we have no opportunity to verify obtained results, that is a strong reason why we should be more sceptical when analysing any statistical data.
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