Scientific Method

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Scientific Method

Research design is a blue point or detail plan for how a research study is to be conducted operationalizing variables they can be measure selecting and testing hypothesis.

The word demography derived from Greek word “Demas” means the people and “Grapho” means to draw or write. So the word demography means to draw or write about people. Demography is the scientific study of population. It draws on several components of population including size, composition and territorial distribution, to understand the social consequences of population change. Demographers study demographical variations and historical trends in their effort to develop population forecast. They also analyze the structure of a population- the age, gender, race and ethnicity of its members. A key figure in this analysis was Thomas Malthus.

According to Multilingual Demography dictonary “Demography is the scientific study of human population with respect to their size, structure and developemnt.” The components of demography including population size, territorial distribution geographical variations “the age, gender, sex, race and ethnicity.”

1. Birth Rate: Number of live birth per 1000 population in a year. 2. Death Rate: Number of deaths per 1000 population in a year. 3. Growth Rate: Growth rate means the difference between births and deaths rates per 1000 population in a given year. 4. Total Fertility Rate: The average number of children born alive to any women, assuming that she can forms to current fertility rate. 5. Longivity: Longivity means the lifetime of a people up to death. 6. Life Expectancy: Life expectancy means the median number of years a person can be expected to live under a current mortality conditions. 7. The Infarty Mortality Rate: Is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per 1000 live births in a given year.

Education system is a basic rights of people. It is a learning process or traning process how a person learn about culture, sociolization, behaviour and attitude. According to Plato- “Education is the hermonious development of body, mind and soul” According to A.W.Green- “Historically education means the conscious traning of the young for the later adaption of adult roles.”

* To complete the sociolization process.
* To trnasmit central heritage.
* Formulation of social personality.
* Reformation of attitude.
* Occupational placement.
* To ensure achieved status.
* Encourage the sprit of completation.
* To ensure better standard of behaviour.
* Increase social awarness.
* Democratic participation.

Thomas Robert Malthus was born in 1766 and died in 1834. His major books is “The Eassys on the principle of population.” published in 1798. He was famous for his population theory name Malthus theory of population. Malthus helds that the worlds population was growing more rapidly than the people population. He argued that food supply increases in order the prograssion 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10, whereas population growth increases expands by the way of Geomatric prograssion 1-2-4-8-16-32-64-128-256.

According to Malthus analysis the Gap between food production and population growth increasing single way to double unit. As a result a country population will double in every 25 years. Over population creat great problem in the standard of living and way of life in a country. According to Malthus there are two way to control population growth. 1. Positive Check: When a country will over populated then the natural desester such as flood, cyclone, drought, crope failure and another, war, riot automatically control population. 2. Preventive Check: People willingly control population by using contraceptine, date marriage, birth control, prevent early marriage and polygumy marriage, another control free sexual life.

1. Malthus said that population control by positive check, but natural disester never happen frequently in the over populated country. 2. He argued that food production increase arithmatic rate, but modern science and technology, machinary, hybrid seeds food production increase into double rate. 3. Malthus never think that proper education population will be resource, migration, skill, experience increase population standard of living.

According to H.T Majamdar- “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or made either modifying the old in the life of a people.” According to Machiver and Page- “Social change refers to a process responsive many types of change in the man made condition of life, change in the attitude and beliefs of man. The control to the biological and physical nature of things.” According to Kingsley Davis-“ Social change means only such alternatives as occur in social organization that is structure and functions of society.”

1. Social change is continuous
2. Social change is temporary
3. Social change is environmental
4. Social change is humanistric
5. Social change is short term vs long term
6. Social change is planned/unplanned
7. Social change is objetive
8. Social change is reactive
9. Social change is interaction of human
10. Social change is behaviour

1.Evalutionary theory: Evalutionary theorist argue that society change from simple to complex situation by the process of evalution. Social change means progress the change of positive and benificial whwrw society reach higher level of cevilization.

Conflict theories highlited that society change from simple to complex by the process of conflict. Conflict is essential for every society. There is no society or country in the world without conflict. Conflict motivated people gather together for achieving their objectives.

According to Karl Marx- “All the history in the world is the history, of classes struggle.”
He also said that conflict existing in the society between two classes-
1. Owner class
a. Rich people
b. Bourgious
2. Non owner class- Poor people.
always conflict because owner class exploit non owner class. As a result non owner class occure violance against owneer class for achieving their objectives.

1. Premitive society
2. Slavary society
3. Feudalism society
4. Capitalism
5. Socialism

According to George Simmel- “Conflict occure in the society and people influence or motivated to joined conflict because of achieved their rights.” Capitalism society always influence people to conflicting situation.

Functional theory highlighted that society from simple to complex by the changing of societies functions. In simple society One institution done various types of function. Ex- Family=Family function is economics, recreation, production, reproduction education, cultural and religious etc. But in the complex society various institution established for doing various types of function, because of capitalism influence people to creat artificial demands, as a result demand basis institution developed fulfilling such kind of demand.

Power means ability to control others. Here power means political power which is related to authority and politics to control or rulling the country. Authority refers to institutionalized power that is recognizied by the people over whom it is excercised. Another sociologist used authority commonly connection with elected or publicly acknowladge position.

1. Traditional Authority: Refers to the legitimate power by custom and accepted practice. Here custom and tradition is the symbol of power. Ex- King and queen of UK, Tribal Chief. 2. Rational Legal Authority: Refers to power exercise by written rules and regulations of political systems such as constitutions. 3. Charismatic Authority: Refers to power made legitimate by a leder exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his/her followers. Charismatic leaders who commanded the personal loyality a large number of citizen in a country. Ex- Nelson Mendela.

Migration refers to the change of individual permanent residence to new reisdence from one place to another place for better life style, better education, better job, better security and better standard of living.

1. Internal Migration: Internal migration is within the country when individual change permanent residence from village to city, one district to another. Ex- Khulna to Dhaka 2. International Migration: When individual change permanent residence from one country to another country for better life style, better education, better job, better security and better standard of living. Ex- Bangladesh to USA

There are two major factors in migration-
1. Pull Factors: Pull factors means when individual are influence to change his permanent residence to new residence for better life style, better education, better job, better security and better standard of living is called pull factors. Ex- * Job security

*Educational Facilities.
*Green Environment.
*Safety and Social security.
*Stabdard of living.
*Stable political culture.
2. Push Factors: Push factors means individual are influence to change his permanent residence to new residence for war, riot, social crisis, natural disester, flood, river errosson, cyclone, drought and another lack of security food crisis etc.

Socialism is a form of economic system where production, distribution and consumption as well as industry owner everything is controlled by the central government, that is called socialism. Here everybody will get the job according to his/her educational qualification and everyone get facilites according to their demand. Ex- China, Russia, Argentina, South Korea.

1. Public ownership
2. Governmental distribution
3. Public limited company
4. Public/Governmental profit
5. National development policy
6. National service
7. Job security
8. Social security
9. Sustainable development
10. Governmental regulation
11. Absent of individual property
12. Proper distribution of wealth

Capitalism is a form of economic system where production, consumption and distribution as well as industry owner profit loss everything is the individual level ownership, that is called capitalism.

1. Private ownership
2. Private profit-loss
3. Individual industry
4. Labor expotation
5. International trade
6. International investment
7. Global market
8. Open market economy
9. Income inequality
10. Income difference between rich and poor
11. Lack of job security
12. International corporation.

Collective behaviour is the relatively spontaneous and unstructured behavior of a group of people who are reaching to a common influence in an ambigues situation. Numors are a form of collective behavior. It is public opinion. People reactions to shared events such as war and election.

1. Crowds
2. Panic
3. Mobs
4. Rumors
5. Urban Legends
6. Fashion
7. Public opinion
8. Mass hystoria
9. Propaganda
10. Fads

There are two factors-
1. Biological Factors
a. Fertility age (14-49)
b. Physical illness
c. Willingly interact
d. Abortion
e. Use contraceptic
2. Social Factor-
f. Early marriage
g. Late marriage
h. Polygamy marriage
i. Desire son
j. Depends on old age

1. Monarchy: Monarchy is a form of government where single member of a royal family usually a king or queen or some other heridetary ruler are the suprime authority of a country. Ex- Saidi Arabia. 2. Oligarchy: Oligarcy is a form of government where few individual are the ruler of a country. The ruler are royal family which is the family tradition selected ruler one of the another. Ex- Tribal chief, Ancient Greek 3. Dictatorship : Dictatorship is a form government in which one person has nearly hold total power to make and enforce law/Marshal law/Military rules. Here decision making and another all state issue controled on handling by the specific ruler. 4. Democracy: Democracy is the form of government where political system established by the participator of parlament member with election process. Here people elected parlament member by their voting rights. According to Abraham Linkon- “Democracy is the government of the people by the people and for the people.”

Globalization refers to the expansion of global linkage and the growth of global consciousness among economic(Production, Consumption, Distribution), sicual, political and cultural transformation whole over the world. Here globally connected that is called global village which is performs faster communication, technology and cultural heritage among the countries.

1. The expansion of global market
2. Transformation of global politics
3. The emergence of new social and political movement

1. Increase economic growth
2. increase the efficiency of global business
3. Benifits to consumer
4. Gains to owner of multinational corporation
5. Higher standard of living
6. Capital inflow to poor countries
7. Increase total export of develop countries
8. Open market economy

1. Reduction in economic growth
2. Increase inequility
3. Huge jobless
4. Downward pressure of wages
5. Supervision from international organization
6. Reduction of social protection
7. Threating environment


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  • University/College: University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 17 October 2016

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