Essays on science,philosophy

Compare and contrast the concepts of determinism compatibilism and libertarianism as outlined
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Compare and contrast the concepts of determinism, compatibilism, and libertarianism, as outlined in Chapter 4. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of these positions? Which one do you believe is the most likely to be correct? Why?DETERMINISMDeterminism can be explained as a concept that every event, including human actions, are caused by previous events according to the natural laws that govern the world. This concept of determinism gives the decision makers to accept the fact that nothing happens…...
Compare And ContrastPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophySciencescience,philosophy
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Essay Critically discuss the Nineteenth Century theory of Evolutionism in relation to the social development of cultures. special development of cultures. Anthropology originated in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Missionaries, traders and travellers in Africa, North America, the pacific and elsewhere provided the first great anthropological works. Anthropology is the holistic study of the biological, social and cultural aspects of mankind, paying particular attention to the relationships between our physical and cultural natures and between culture and the nvironment.…...
Jack London Questions and Essay on “To Build a Fire”
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1. What does "survival of the fittest" mean, and where does the phrase come from? “Survival of the fittest” means that species or race with the best acquired characteristics would survive. And the phrase comes from one of the authors that most influenced London, Herbert Spencer. 2. What is socialism? Why was London attracted to it? Socialism is an economic system in which the means of prediction are owned and controlled by the working class. And London was attracted to…...
PhilosophySciencescience,philosophySocial DarwinismTo Build a Fire
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Assimilation and Accommodation
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Assimilation and Accommodation Jean Piaget viewed intellectual growth as a process of adaptation (adjustment) to the world. This happens through: * Assimilation, which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation. * Accommodation – this happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation. * Equilibration – occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, a…...
Cognitive DevelopmentPhilosophySciencescience,philosophy
Causal Realism & Idealism
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We next part of the chapter the book discusses is Cogito, “I think, therefor I am” means that the act of thinking presupposes the existence of the subject - the thinker. This is important because it requires no other predicates. The mere act of questioning means that there is a questioner. The reading material then moves to the criticisms of cogito. The most universally accepted opinion is that the conclusion is extremely limited. Descartes was incapable to express his doubts.…...
Goffman’s Dramaturgical Sociology
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The article by Brown elaborates on traditional symbolic interactionism. Goffman was mainly interested in social self in the society that constitutes of individual personality formation. His notion of self involves engaging in purposive forms of activities and impressions. According to Goffman’s dramaturgy, there are various schools of interactionist analysis. People try to manipulate themselves and the situations in which they interact. Goffman’s interests were more to the ritualized forms of social interaction. There are various wings of interactionism; we have…...
Rationalist and empiricist philosophies: Arguments by Hume and Kant
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Immanuel Kant deduced the harmony between rationalism and empiricism. His form of philosophy is sometimes called “Copernican revolution of philosophy” emphasize its novelty and importance associated. But after Kant, there could be no discussion of reality or knowledge without any rational awareness about the role of the human mind that constructs reality and knowledge.  In the end, it was the termination of the age old debate between rationalists and empiricists and finally it was the epistemology which went in a…...
Ethnographic Argumentation as Scientific method
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In reference to Clifford & Marcus (1986), ethnography is two fold with being the fundamental cultural anthropological research method and being the written text which is normally developed to analyze and report on the ethnographic research results. As a research method, ethnography digs to answer anthropological questions related to the ways of life of living human beings and especially in the link between behavior and culture as well as analyses of how different cultural processes develop over time. To address…...
EthnographyEthnographyPhilosophySciencescience,philosophyScientific method
Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
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Charles Darwin was a British scientist who came up with the idea of the theory of Evolution. He was also a botanist which would be one of the reasons what lead him towards inventing his Theory of Evolution. Why and How? Charles Darwin travelled to the Galapagos Island as a biologist. He travelled on a ship which was undertaking surveys of the Pacific Ocean. His voyage was to examine plants and animals on the islands through which he came up…...
Charles DarwinEvolutionPhilosophySciencescience,philosophy
?Darwin’s Theory of Evolution & Natural Selection
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Charles Robert Darwin was born on 12 February 1809 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire into a wealthy family. Darwin himself initially planned to follow a medical career, and studied at Edinburgh University but later switched to divinity at Cambridge. In 1831, he joined a five year scientific expedition on the survey ship HMS Beagle. This is where he came up with his theory of evolution. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin found evidence that challenged traditional belief that species are unchanging.…...
EvolutionNatural SelectionPhilosophySciencescience,philosophy
Problems some sociologists may face in their research
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?Examine the problems some sociologists may face when using different kinds of experiments in their research (20 Marks) To have control over variables and the environment they are researching, sociologists often use laboratory experiments in research. Lab experiments are used to test a hypothesis in a controlled environment, by altering an independent variable to see the dependant variable being tested changes. Problems sociologists face in their experiments Positivists favour this method of research as it is a more scientific approach…...
Free EssaysPhilosophySciencescience,philosophy
Cultural Anthropology Study
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“The word anthropology is derived from the Greek words anthropo, meaning “human beings” or “humankind,” and logia, translated as “knowledge of” or “the study of.”1 Likewise, it is a study which comprises four subfields: the physical anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology and cultural anthropology or ethnology, which constitutes a broad approach to the study of humanity.2 Furthermore, “Anthropology is the exploration of human diversity in time and space.”3 Consequently, anthropology is a study or discourse of human being which deals human…...
AnthropologyCultural AnthropologyPhilosophySciencescience,philosophy
?Certainty and Doubt Essay
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William Lyon Phelps and Bertrant Russel have conflicting views regarding the importance of certainty and doubt. Phelps position is that having certainty in oneself allows you to accomplish impossible tasks. While Russel believes it is healthy to have a certain amount of doubt in oneself and that people should not only believe in any one philosophy. Both Russel and Phelps make good points on the relationship between doubt and certainty but a combination of the two would be the most…...
Gestalt Psychology Reflection
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At almost the same time the behaviorist revolution was gathering strength in the United States, the Gestalt revolution was taking hold of German psychology. Gestalt theories followed the basic principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The main founders of Gestalt Psychology are Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler. Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler worked in establishing theories of Gestalt Psychology. Kurt Koffka His main focus was in the field of cognition…...
New Directions in Planning Theory
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Chapter #9 Summary: New Directions in Planning Theory Susan S. Fainstein Susan S. is professor of urban planning and acting program director in Columbia University. In this article she discusses and critiques contemporary planning theory in terms of its usefulness in addressing what I believe to be its defining question: what is the possibility of consciously achieving widespread improvement in the quality of human life within the context of a global capitalist political economy. She examines the three approaches referred…...
Paranormal Activity
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Paranormal is a general term (coined c. 1915–1920) that designates(indicate) experiences that lie outside "the range of normal experience or scientific explanation" or that indicates phenomena understood to be outside of science's current ability to explain or measure.Paranormal phenomena are distinct from certain hypothetical entities, such as dark matter and dark energy, only insofar as paranormal phenomena are inconsistent with the world as already understood through empirical observation coupled with scientific methodology. Thousands of stories relating to paranormal phenomena are…...
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