Mindanao State University “Iligan Institute of Technology College of Arts and Social Sciences Department of History Book Review History 146 Submitted By: Novaleen G. Sanchez Submitted To: Mrs. Xandelyn Reyes BaenaA People ‘sHistory of the United States AUTHOR The book was authored by Howard Zinn entitled A People ‘s History of the United States .He was born on August 24, 1922 and grew up in New York City, Brooklyn. His parents were Jewish immigrants. At the age of 18 he became ashipyard worker and suddenly joined the Air Force and flew bombing missions during the 2nd World War.
Because of his experienced during the war, it helped him to shape his opposition to the war and the importance of knowing history. Howard Zinn was interested in books. However, he grew up that there were no books in his home. He graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School and became an learner shipfitter in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. He was ahistorian, author, professor, playwright and activist. His work was focused on adeep range of issues regard race, class, war and history that touches the lives of countless people.
SUMMARY The first chapter entitled Columbus, the Indians and Human Progress .During 15 th century in a place later known as the Bahamas,Christopher Columbus and his sailors came on land, there were Arawak men and women that appear from their village and watch how they landed. It was Christopher Columbus wrote that the Arawak were primitive person, beautiful and kind and they would make them fine servants .The reason why Columbus comes to the New World was to search and find gold and spices. The rulers of Spain (a newly unified nation state) sent him and promised him to share the riches. He had intended to sail to Asia, but in the middle of his voyage, he was lucky to find North America. However, this was also the time that his crew suffered and die from hunger. In the New World, Columbus immediately built afortress. He illegally takes away Arawaks and he ordered his crew to search for gold, however, they didn ‘tfind any gold. However, in Columbus second voyage to the New World, he failed again of finding agold. Rather, he kidnapped more Indians and many of whom died on their second voyage back to Europe. However, when he comes through in Haiti, he created the first military base which called Navidad. He enslaved whole tribes, he ordered them to find gold or else they were killed. Columbus killed nearly half the population of Haiti in just two years. One of the prominent European critics of the Columbus tyrannic regime was a young priest who closely-held a plantation in Cuba, he was Bartolome de las Casas. It was Las Casas argued that the native people of the New World were well-mannered and mostly peaceful, and because of the expedition of Columbus their native way of life destroyed forever. He further claimed that settlers in the New World punished the natives and putting them to work in offensive mines.When we look for the origin of racism in United States history, the author explains how the African slavery began and continued in the Americas. Accordingly, racism is aproduct of historical conditions. One of the historical causes that led to racism was the fact that Europeans became more technologically advanced than Africans. When Europeans took the Americas, they could not find sufficient Europeans to work and they could not squeeze the native Americans. It helps the Europeans to think that they were superior than the Africans. The feeling of superiority helps to lead racism. By the early 1600s, the Portuguese had abducted more than amillion Africans from their homes and brought them to the Caribbean and South America to work as their slaves and then transported them across the Atlantic Ocean. Most African societies used an essentially feudal administrative system. During the voyage, many slaves died, but, in 1800 there were at least ten million slaves in the America. These slaves were psychologically hurt and left in astate of fear and powerlessness. Some argued that white people enslaved black people because of a natural antipathy between the races. But even if its natural to feel racism. It is essential to understand the factual societal influences that supported racism in America. However, Europeans enslaved Africans because they needed labor not just because of anatural antipathy. There are groups of black slaves and white servants that united against their wealthy social superiors in 1676 at Virginia. The uprising was called Bacon ‘s Rebellion ,which is an armed rebellion that, led by Nathaniel Bacon against the practice and the rule of Governor William Berkeley. The uprising was about the Virginian Government ‘shesitation to fight Indians invasive on poor white servantsterritory. During this time, poverty and starvation were rampant. Furthermore, Bacon ‘s Rebellion represented both populist resentment against the rich and the frontier hatred of the Indians. The colonial forces used it to disarm the rebels, and twenty-three rebels were hanged. Most white servants who rose up against the Virginian Government were mostly criminals, unsettled English people who ‘d come to the New World that hopes for a fresh start. However, there were many impoverished people trying to come to America in the 17 th century. Poor Englishmen signed a contract for years, that required them to work for no pay, itis their way of slowly paying their debts. The 18 th century legal records are full of stories about servants who struck their masters, refused to obey. During this time, it articled servitude was gradually phased out in favor of black slavery. If one freed from her/his debts, some indentured servants found fortune but mostly continued to live miserable lives. In the year 1776, the local American power was becoming disgruntled with British leadership. After the Seven Years War, the French and Indian War, Britain elevated taxes in the colonies, which drove up starvation and unemployment. The Founding Fathers realized that they could pull strings the working class resentment of Britain to strengthen their own power, while the modern Americans politicians, used the working class anger for their own agenda. Before the Revolutionary War happened, there is already a political and economic conflict in the colonies of America, but this conflict was mostly between the rich and the poor but not between the America and Britain. The poor land tenants in New Jersey, New York and NorthCarolina staged riots against their rich landlords. Thus, in 1760s in North Carolina, the working class movement called the Regulators. The Revolutionary War ,was won by the Founding Fathers in alarge part because they used rhetoric to convince a large number of working class colonists to fight against the Britain. Yet, the huge colonists portion was either neutral or supported by the King.n Many whites working class who didn ‘tjoin the American militia because of the patriotic fervor, because they believed that serving in the military would convey them fortune. American colonies, the conflicts between rich and poor continued. Some of the groups of militia got furious with the rich colonists who claimed to support the Revolution but didn ‘tfight for it. After the war, the colonial elites decided what to do with the land and left by fleeing Loyalists either they claimed the land for their selves nor gave itto the middle class farmers who ‘d fought in the war. However, the indentured servants, slaves and women did not gain any property. To sum up everything, Revolutionary War did not create anew social class, but it allowed the richest and most powerful Americans to become aricher and more powerful. As we all know, women were considered abiologically low than men .W omen were treated as ahouse servant and patronized. Women were invisible in public life and there are also invisible in the history of the early United States. Black women faced even more oppression than white women. The treatment of women was useful, especially in a society based on private profit, where a family became a place of socialization. The white women in the early days of the colonies there is only one reason why they brought to America, it is to bear a child. However, some women were harshly treated and indentured servants. While black women were the worstamong the white women in the colonies. Black women were given small amount of food and treated with no respect. Andrew Jackson was elected as the new president of the United States. It was then, that the Southern states pass alaw to strengthen their control over the Indians and encourage the white to settle on the land of the Indian. However, many of the settlers get troubled with the Indians. Then President Jackson deployed a major army to tell the Cherokee and Choctaw to leave their territory and he promised to allow them to stay in their new territory as long as the grass grows and water runs. During the generation of the American Indians, it becomes the symbol for the duplicity of the Americans. The size of the United States doubled after Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territory. It bordered Mexico, which won its independence from Spain during 1820s. Under the Presidency of James Polk, Texas broke off from Mexico and they formed their own republic, and because of that the United States brought Texas into their union, while the Mexican government continue to regard Texas as their part. President James Polk began the Mexican American War. Some of the politicians supported the war as they wanted to protect their troops, while others wants to acquire more territory from the Southwest. The government of the United States supported the slavery for only one reason, they depend on industry and only slaves provided free labor, which they allowed the Southern states to produce a massive amounts of cotton and other crops without a debt. It is very impossible for all the people living in America today to grasp slavery full. Slave owners were barbarous with their property. By buying slaves, they can tearapart the black families, then the owner of the slaves can force the slaves to work exhausting jobs from sunrise to sunset. Most of the slave owners recognized that they need to devise inventive punishments to make their slaves scared. Accordingly, slavery destroyed the black family, but the fact was, the black slaves adapted to their changing situation by developing a new family relationship. With the help of their new found family, many of them find ways to hang on to their dignity as ahuman beings. John Pierpont Morgan is an American financier and industrial organizer, he was one of the world ‘s foremost financial figures. 1 During the 19 th century, President Grover Cleveland was forced to buy gold from him in exchange for bonds, which Morgan quickly resold at ahuge profit. He began his career by selling rifles to Union soldiers for abigger income despite of the fact that the rifles were defective. It was the administration of Cleveland that the congress pass the Interstate Commerce Act of 1877, which purportedly organized railroads in order to protect consumer benefit. This act was designed to regulate the railroad industry, especially its monopolistic practices. United States had been planning to expand overseas, throughout the 19 thcentury. The policies of their naval enlargement and displays of force were racially tinged. Many Americans, including Theodore Roosevelt, its regarded as the right of the white man to take control of the wild countries and create their land. While, United States ad aclear involvement in expanding their territory, their military interventions were never presented as aself interest. 1Morgan, John P.Encyclopedia Britannica Incorporation.April 13,2019. 20 th century saw the continued control of the capitalist leaders like John Pierpont Morgan. There are thousands of horrific factory accidents in the early 20 th century. Almost amillion workers were estimated that get injured in factories. Most of the Unions continue to exclude black members and eliminate women and immigrants. United States entered the war in 1917 and it was during the administration of President Woodrow Wilson, despite of the fact that he promised that the United States would stay neutral. However, he claimed that he reversed the policy because the submarines of German will attack the American merchant vessels. At some point, the exact reason why he sends his country to war, was because of economic necessity. During the 1914, United States was in the stage of aserious financial condition, since the Europe conflict was forbidding its foreign markets. American capitalist traded with England between 1914 and 1917 to the point that England became amarket for American goods and for lend interest. Second World War is unique in the history of American because it was widely regarded as the people ‘swar a fight were capitalist, communist, working class and Americans joined forces. The Second World War was a fight against evil which includes totalitarian, racist, militaristic German state which headed by Adolf Hitler. Some of us knew that ,the United States has always positioned itself as aprotector of a helpless country. However, on the contrary, they always acted to protect its own interest, especially the interest of the rich. President Harry Truman formed aCommittee on civil rights in 1946, and it cites three reasons for doing it 1) a moral instant to end discrimination in America 2) economic damage of discrimination 3) the international shame associated with beenseen as aracist country. He signed executive orders ending segregation in the military. During 1954, the supreme court ruled the structure in the school was unconstitutional and recommended that the school should be integrated, with all the deliberate speed. United States spent billions of dollars and ten thousands lives to fight anationalist group in a tiny peasant country and it failed between 1964 and 1972. The French continued to control the colonies in Indochina which aregion of Southeast Asia.. Ho Chi Minh is acommunist who structured the peasants and farmers. He demanded the rights of self determination. Vietnam War arose and itwas abrutal for the Vietnamese people, while the American forces treated them cruelly. The My Lai Massacre is one of the most notorious episodes during the war. American troops murdered women, children and even the elderly. Furthermore, Generals American fully supported the bombing of the Vietnam ‘scivilian population. In the year 1920, women can vote alongside men. Sexism is one of the first major disruptions in America that occurred during the second world war. However, women continued to hold afar less political power than men, because they represented fifty percent (50 %) of the voting population but, less than four percent (4%) of office political holders. In the Civil Rights Movement of year 1950s and 60s, women played akey role. Betty Freidan was an American feminist activist and awriter. She was known as the leading figure in United States women ‘smovement. 2 Her famous book entitled The Feminine Mystique which she criticize the social system that to forced women to surrender their individual dreams and to serve their husband and children. 2Friedan, Betty.Encyclopedia Britannica Incorporation.January 31,2019In the 20 th chapter, entitled The Seventies: Under Control covers the political corruption and the American sophistication with the United States government during the 1970 ‘s. Because of this political corruption and disillusion, all the Americans were united together to fight against the U.S. government and the large corporations, while the voters were increasingly refusing to identify either the Democratic or Republican party. It was during the presidency of Richard Nixon that led to the growing scandal and became one of the major factors that pleased the people of America ‘s disillusionment. The five burglars tried to break the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington D.C. Accordingly, some of the burglars were closely connected to President Nixon Officials. Furthermore, it was discovered that the top Nixon officials had accepted the illegal donations from large corporations which allocated funds for encroaching the Democratic Party. It is also attempted to sabotage the reputations of President Nixon ‘ critics, and approved the secret illegal bombing in Cambodia. In year 1974, President Nixon reconciled from the White House rather than face the impeachment of the Congress. His Vice-President Gerald Ford took over the place. He proclaimed that Our long national nightmare is over. Nevertheless, the resignation of Nixon left an entire impact that all the mechanism and all the false values which permitted the Watergate scandal. The last chapter of the book compares the presidency of Democrat Jimmy Carter and to the Republican presidencies of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush. The presidency of Carter is an attempt to reach out the disenfranchised and the downtrodden, but he made gestures toward the marginalized groups and discussed the human rights overseas. He was known as apopulist candidate who appealed to black people, antiwar activists and working class voters. His administration protectedcorporate power and he used military might abroad. When Reagan took over the place in 1981, his agenda was clearer. His administration would cut benefit stothe poor. He also support the wealthy and the destroy revolutions abroad. CONCLUSION Ibelieve that learning the history of a specific country can help you to share your knowledge about what you knew. But can say that the author is bias because he himself is an American. However, the book investigate and explained the interlocking experiences of the people in the United States. The book also, analyzing the major and minor political events that shape the People ‘sHistory in the United States. It also discuss the different type of policies that the former presidents implemented. It is very interesting because the book refers to and describes the major issues and events of the history of people in the United States.
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