Salmonella in USA Essay
Salmonella in USA
I want to educate the public, farmers and individuals that are at risk of contracting this deadly disease called Salmonella. At risk individuals such as the elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more prone to getting a severe illness such as salmonella.
Objective and Goal
The objective is to educate the general public, farmers, and consumers of grocery stores, owners of grocery stores, consumers of restaurants, owners of the restaurants, cooks, chefs, food handlers, and educational institutions about the health risks of the bacteria disease Salmonella. My goal for this public educational plan is that the public take the information and learn from it and take the precautions to avoid salmonella. Salmonella disease it’s transmitted to humans by contaminated food of animal origin or water.
Salmonella disease affects the entire human population but the people at more risk are children because their immune systems are immature and the elder’s because their immune system are declining also people with immunocompromised diseases. People who leave in poor conditions are also in risk of contracting salmonella. After 12 to 72 hours of infection common symptoms of salmonella are fever, abdominal cramps and diarrhea; usually the illness lasts 4 to 7 days. However in some cases the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized if the person it’s not hospitalized it can lead to death.
(CDC) Historical Outbreaks
Spanish- American war (1898) in all, 20,738 recruits contracted the disease 82% of all sick soldiers, 1590 died. A significant number of these deaths actually occurred at training area in the southeastern United States. (History of typhoid fever (salmonella)) South African war (1899-1902) outbreak in British camps- British troops lost 13,000 men to salmonella the outbreak was due to unsanitary towns and farms throughout Africa. (History of typhoid fever (salmonella)). In the early 1900’s in New York Mary Mallon was the first famous carrier of typhoid fever in the U.S. Mary Mallon was a chronic carrier of salmonella; she was hired as a cook at several private homes, she work for 7 different families 22 cases of salmonella where reported and one death. (History of typhoid fever (salmonella))
These early outbreaks can be attributed to unsanitary living conditions and the bacterial tainting of food and water supplies. 1985 Chicago United a Chicago dairy was involved in a salmonellosis outbreak involving 6 states with 16,000 confirmed cases.(CDC) More recently reported outbreaks in the U.S. involve different kinds of salmonella strains, predominantly S. Enteritidis and S. Typimurium. The center for disease control and prevention has a page with reports of selected salmonella outbreaks for this year it has at least 9 reports.
Salmonella infections has increase by 10% in U.S. in the last 15 years it’s estimated that 2 to 4 million cases of salmonellosis occur in the U.S. annually reported and unreported. (CDC) On January 2011 a FDA Food safety modernization act was sing in to law; this act establish standards for safe produce, regulates food facilities, oversee imported foods and recalls of contaminated foods. (FDA) Also salmonella can be controlled by proper preparation of poultry and eggs and avoidance of contamination of other food with uncooked poultry products. Investigation and research studies by the government to mitigate the impact of salmonella Research
1- Inactivation of salmonella on tomato stem scars by acidic sanitizing solutions. Investigating stem scar sanitation may represent a worst case scenario model for inactivating salmonella from externally contaminated tomatoes. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial coating for inactivation of salmonella on the surface of tomato stem scars. (Agricultural Researc services) 2- Biofilm formation by salmonella SPP on cantaloupe surfaces The research demonstrates that cells of Salmonella do not exist as single, solitary organisms, but instead organize together into biofilms. These biofilms form quickly on melon surfaces and are difficult to inactivate or remove. The formation of biofilms by cells of Salmonella is likely responsible for the limited efficacy of sanitizers. (Agricultural Researc services) 3- Microbial quality and safety of X-ray irradiation.
The research shows that irradiation destroys at least 99% of common foodborne pathogen within approved dosage. These pathogens such as salmonella are associated with poultry, meat and fresh produce contamination. (Agricultural Researc services) The governments of many countries are playing their roles to mitigate the impact of salmonella. In United States the USDA (US Department of agriculture) and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has done coordinated efforts to address salmonella problems. They have given some recommendation for the safety of the consumers from salmonella. 1- Wash surface and hands often; 2- no cross contaminate; 3- cook to safe temperature 4- refrigerate immediately. President Obama signs the FSMA (Food safety modernization act) into law on January 2011. This act gives FDA new and improves authorities and mandates to protect consumers and promote public health. Responsibility for food safety is managed by a complex network of federal, state, local and territorial agencies (Food safety) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
• Oversees the country Salmonella infections frequency
• Supports the state and local health departments in outbreaks investigation and elaborates control measures. (Salmonella)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
• All foods imported are inspected
• Monitors inspections of all plants dedicated to milk pasteurization
• Recommends new techniques for better preparation of foods in food processing plants and restaurants
• Controls turtle’s sales. (Food safety)
The US Department of Agriculture
• Overseas animal health issues
• Inspect all plant dedicated to pasteurization of eggs
• Is responsible for the quality of processed and slaughtered meat.
(Foodborne Illness and disease) The US Environmental Protection Agency
• Monitors and regulates drinking water supplies safety.
Data Collection Template
Name of the disease: __Salmonella____
Etiological agent: __Salmonella_
Mode of transmission
Age/gender/behaviors that may put individuals at risk
Recent cases of outbreak
Factors leading to recent outbreak
Water and food (animal food, vegetables, fruits)
Uncooked chicken or unwashed fruits or vegetables
Poor or unsanitary conditions
Own a bird or reptile
Entire human population more risk children and elders and people with immunocom promised diseases 10 reports during 2012
See below (2012 salmonella outbreak)
Good diet a lot of fluids and
Good hygiene practice
Washing vegetable and fruits
Adequate cooking of meats and eggs
Salmonella enteric bacteria it’s a bacteria that causes diseases in the intestinal tract; the bacteria attacks the intestinal wall and inflammation occurs. The symptoms include nausea, chills, abdominal pain, vomiting, muscle aches and fever. Salmonella affects the body by three clinical forms of salmonellosis 1) gastroenteritis (S Typimurium) 2) septicemia (S. choleraesius) and enteric fevers. Clinical identification of salmonella it’s done by laboratory test such as biochemical and serological test a stool or blood specimens are planted on an agar media to determine the presence of salmonella also a phenol red test it’s used.
Salmonella treatments are Antimotility drugs to stop the diarrhea and in case that it’s suspected that salmonella bacteria it’s in the blood antibiotics are prescribe to kill the bacteria. Also drinking a lot of fluids to prevent dehydration and eating a healthy diet. During this year (2012) the centers for diseases control and prevention has 10 reports of selected salmonella outbreak investigations a total of 1307 individuals are reported infected 264 are hospitalized and 5 deaths. Each of these cases had or still been investigated by CDC to find the origin cause of the salmonella outbreak I only going to mention the last 5 of the reports.
Salmonella outbreaks 2012
1- Reported on August 29, 2012 Mangoes- salmonella braenderup In 16 states 105 persons infected 25 hospitalized 0 deaths
Investigation: state public health officials are conducting interviews with ill persons; 70% of the ill persons reported eating mango during a week before getting ill. 2- Reported August 17, 2012 Cantaloupe-salmonella Typimurium In 21 states (Georgia state included) 178 persons infected 78 hospitalized 2 deaths (Kentucky) Investigations indicated the chamberlain farms produce, Inc. from Indiana it’s the source of this outbreak 3- Reported July 23, 2012 Ground Beef- salmonella Enteritidis In 8 states, 40 persons infected 11 hospitalized 0 deaths
Investigations indicate that ground beef produced by Cargill meat solutions it’s responsible for this outbreak 4- Reported July,23, 2012 Live poultry salmonella hadar
In 11 states 37 persons infected 8 hospitalized 0 deaths
Investigation: results from laboratory test and trace back findings link a company from Idaho.
5- Reported June 21,2012 Live poultry-salmonella Montevideo
In 22 states (Georgia state included) 76 persons infected 17 hospitalized 1 death Investigation: Estes Hatchery in Springfield, Missouri it’s responsible for this outbreak TyphoidalandNontyphoidalSalmonellaStages of SymptomsCauses to lead to outbreaksSymptoms of diseases Cause and EffectSalmonellaFeverChillsPet animals such as reptilesFood contaminated by animal fecesUnsanitaryleaving1-Fever, headache and cough2-High Fever 104 degrees, red spot on the chest diarrhea4-Symptoms start subsiding during this stageNauseaAbdominal painVomitingMuscle pain3-Symptoms become prominent (most dangerous stage)
Causes of emergence and reemergence of salmonella
1- Globalization of food supply: (2000- 2002) Cantaloupe from Mexico was associated with a multistate outbreaks of S Ponna infection. 2- New geographic areas: unavoidable introduction of pathogens 3- Travelers, refugees and immigrants expose to unfamiliar foodborne hazards 4- Changes in microorganisms: evolution of new pathogens, development of antibiotic resistance, the capacity to survive in different environmental conditions. 5- Human population changes: population of highly susceptible people is expanding, more likely to succumb to bacterial infections. 6- Lifestyle: great amount of people eat prepared meals. In some countries, the food service establishments don’t follow the food safety and control regulations. (CDC) Recent outbreaks of salmonella infections suggest that the bacteria are not exclusive to poultry and have infiltrated other areas of the food industry. The most commonly reported serotypes, in history and present of salmonella are: S. typhi, S. enteritides and S. typhimurium.
Outbreaks in the past are largely due to unsanitary water and food supplies and unsanitary way of leaving. Since improvements in food handling, piped and filtered water supplies as was as water/sewage treatment have been made, enteric fever has become relatively rare in developed countries such as United States. Historically, chickens and their eggs are been associated with salmonella; in the mid to late 20th century, eggs where the main sources of salmonella enteritidis this is less common now because of the high hygiene measures in production of eggs and laying hens are been vaccinated to prevent salmonella colonization. (CDC) The similarities between the past and present outbreaks of salmonella are from animal food sources such as meat, poultry and seafood also the unsanitary ways of preparing them.
The symptoms are the same showing a step ladder pattern it begins with sudden onset of high grade fever, dry cough and headache and it keeps going to a second, third and fourth stage the most dangerous stage it’s the third stage where the symptoms become more prominent. A big difference now it’s that we have more effective treatments to control salmonella. Today three types of typhoid vaccines are available 1- inactivated whole-cell vaccine 2- ty21a 3- vi polysaccharide vaccine these vaccines have been shown be 70- 90% effective. (Salmonella symptoms) Salmonella are a group of bacteria that normally live in the intestinal tracts of animals and birds. The bacteria are usually transmitted to people when they eat foods contaminated with animal feces.
Contaminated foods are often of animal origin, such as poultry, beef, eggs or milk. But all foods, including vegetables and fruits, can become contaminated. In order to reduce salmonellosis a food safety approach it’s necessary staring from the farms to the consumers table. Industry, farmers, retailers, food inspectors, food workers and consumers are critical links in the food safety chain. The center for disease control and prevention reported 11 cases of salmonella outbreak during this year 2012. 3 of those cases are from live poultry.
( Salmonella) Diseases control plan for poultry
Farmer food safety plan (prevention, control and hygiene)
1- Salmonella control has to start at the farms.
2- Pest control sanitation, properly chlorinated water and biosecurity are crucial for controlling salmonella.
A. Restricting access
• Dedicated clothing and boots
• Disinfectant boot dip
3- Vaccination of hens used in breeding
4- Eggs should be collected and placed in clean or new disinfected trays.
A. Dust sampling- collecting dust from dust on equipment in the poultry building
B. Faecal sampling from poultry animals
C. Sampling of boots that walk around the poultry building
D. Frequency of testing before and after laying eggs its extremely important
6- Use good sanitation practice
A. Enforce employee hygiene
Salmonella continues to be an issue in poultry processing plants and farms. Each plant /farm is unique and must determine the best way to control salmonella in their operation. Salmonella testing should be done on a regular basis to validate control measures are working. (Controlling salmonella in poultry plants
) Preventions for consumers
1- Clean- wash hands and surface before handling any food
2- Avoid cross-contamination- separate raw poultry, meat and seafood from other foods
3- Poultry and eggs should be refrigerator
4- Cook- do not eat raw or undercooked meat, eggs or poultry (Salmonella questions and answers) The plan explains the measurements need to be taken by farms or plants by outlining procedures on how to avoid salmonella also prevention and control are monitored by Good agricultural practices and hazard analysis critical control point. By following the guidelines mention the farm and plants owners will reduce health risk to the consumers and prevent future outbreaks of salmonella. Consumers need to be aware of Salmonella reports and practice the prevention tips to avoid been contaminated with the diseases. Also this plan shows the public/consumer the precautions taken by the farms and plants to keep the poultry salmonella free.
Salmonella it’s a diseases that can be prevented just by practicing good hygiene; the educational plan makes emphasis on the following subjects: all the historical outbreaks where due of unsanitary way of preparing food and way of leaving. The emergence and reemergence of salmonella it’s due to several factors including the growing of population and population lifestyle but today improvements of food handling and good sanitation makes harder for the food to be contaminated with salmonella. (Salmonella) The government has done many different research to diminish the impact of salmonella in the country; food safety it’s managed by different agencies such as The center for disease control and prevention (CDC), The food and drug administration (FDA), the US department of agriculture, and the US environmental protection agency each of this agencies has a specific job to do. (Salmonella) The educational plan highlights the symptoms, how the disease it’s transmitted, who its more at risk of contracting the disease; also the precautions that consumers need to take and also the treatments used by the health care department again this diseases.
Consumer are inform of the different stages of the diseases and which stage it’s the more dangerous; the health care department has specific laboratory test to determine the presence of salmonella treatments are also mention such as antibiotics, a lot of fluids and antimotility drugs and now there are 3 types of vaccines for typhoid salmonella available for the consumer. (Salmonella symptoms) The disease control plan discusses strategies which are not economically expensive and easy to follow by the farm and consumers. The farm will benefit by following each strategy which will help to prevent salmonella and by having salmonella free poultry the farm will not suffer any economic loss; the consumer will gain social growth by reading the educational plan and practicing the preventions listed to avoid salmonella also by reading the many strategies used to prevent and control salmonella in poultry farms.
The plan encourage consumers to practice safe preparation and cooking of food specially raw food such as poultry and eggs; by practicing the preventions the salmonella bacteria can be kill and stop from spreading. The farms are encouraged to maintain and practice good sanitation in all areas of the plant staring with their employees. In the farms the early interventions are done by following different testing methods and vaccination of hens. The plan presents prevention and control; if each farm follows and practices all the strategies this will reduce future salmonella outbreaks from poultry. (Controlling salmonella in poultry plants) Overall the plan presents a good detail safety plan for farmers to prevent salmonella by following this plan salmonella outbreaks will be avoid in the future. The consumers need to educated themselves in this type of diseases and practice the preventions to avoid been contaminated with this diseases call salmonella.
Davis, C. P. (n.d.). What is salmonella. Retrieved from medicinenet: www.medicinenet.com/salmonella/article.htm This article discuss everything about salmonella: what is salmonella? How is transmitted to humans, what are the symptoms, how its diagnose and what are the treatments and preventions. Multistate outbreak of salmonella braenderup infection associated with mangos. (2012, August 29). Retrieved from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/braenderup-08-12/index.html CDC investigation of multistate outbreak of human salmonella braenderup infection linked to mangos Multistate outbreak of salmonella typhimurium infection linked to cantaloupe. (2012, August 17). Retrieved from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/typhimurium-cantaloupe-08-12/index.html CDC investigation of multistate outbreak of typhimurium salmonella associated with cantaloupe Multistate outbreak of salmonella enteritidis infection linked to ground beef. (2012, July 23). Retrieved from center for disease control and prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/enteritidis-07-12/index.html Investigation of multistate outbreak of human salmonella enteritidis associated to ground beef Multistate outbreak of salmonella hadar infection linked to live poultry. (2012, July 23). Retrieved from center for disease control and prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/hadar-live-poultry-07-12/index.html Investigation of multistate outbreak on hadar infection associated with live poultry. Multistate outbreak of salmonella montevideo infection linked to live poultry. (2012, June 21). Retrieved from center for disease control and prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/montevideo-06-12/index.html Investigation of multistate outbreak on montevideo infection associated with live poultry. Report of selected salmonella outbreak investigations. (2012, August). Retrieved from center for disease control and prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/outbreaks.html Investigation reports of specific outbreaks of salmonella during this year. References:
Agricultural Researc services. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.USDA.gov. CDC. (n.d.). Salmonella. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov.
Controlling salmonella in poultry plants. (n.d.). Retrieved from USDA: www.fsis.usda.gov Davis, C. P. (n.d.). What is salmonella. Retrieved from medicinenet: www.medicinenet.com/salmonella/article.htm Food safety. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.FDA.gov.
Foodborne Illness and disease. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.USDA.gov. FDA. (n.d.). The new FDA food safety modernization act. Retrieved from www.fda.gov. History of typhoid fever (salmonella). (n.d.). Retrieved from www.globalsecurity.org. Salmonella symptoms. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.salmonellatreatment.org. Salmonella questions and answers. (n.d.). Retrieved from USDA: www.fsis.usda.gov Salmonella. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 25 October 2016
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