With the rapid growth of global economy and advancement in technology, gender discrimination in the workplace is still being a significant importance that exists within the society. Gender discrimination has been highlighted in the workplace and women are more prone to experience from this issue. This can be explained by the fact that although women have the abilities to perform the same skill and the same potential for success as men are still rejected when applying a job. (Barrett, Farahany, LLP, 2018) According to Pew Research Center survey data, 44% of employed women are more likely about to say they have experienced at least one of eight specific forms of gender disparity at work.
(Parker & Funk, 2017) In addition to that, there is influence of gender stereotypes and traditional thinking about gender roles in the modern workforce which is men are more likely to get a higher position than women. In fact, according to the Noble and Moore, the continued underrepresentation of women in leadership positions has violated the human rights and stunt diversity.
(Rader et al, 2016) As people are moving towards the increasing globalization and modernization of the world, women should be looked upon and treated equal as men to advancing gender equality.
On the other hand, gender discrimination also involves treating the employees in a different manner based on their sexual orientation or gender identity which may occur in hiring, job classification, and pay. In fact, gender inequality explains that it is associated with gender identities which are considered as male and female, while sex refers to anatomical identity, for instance, a worker who identifies a transgender is harassed by the coworker due to the identification or firing an employee because of their gender transition.
This has been proven that sexual harassment is also one of the significant issue that causes gender discrimination. (Philips & Associates, 2018) There are also problems classified as both direct and indirect gender discrimination. Direct discrimination occurs when the employee who contributes the same as the other employee but is treated unfavorably due to his or her gender identify while indirect discrimination refers to discrimination against a group of people or an individual when the requirement of the employers for particular level of education is not reasonable. (Queensland Council of Social Service, 2018) The gender predicament has involved different treatment that negatively affects one’s job position, employment status, and pay rate as well as job opportunities which are known as the terms or conditions of employment. (Equal Rights Advocates, 2018)
Other than that, in the United States of America, the economic disparity of women and men such as gender-based pay inequality is closely related to the nature of gender identity. According to the first Graphical, Paper and Media Union (GPMU) women’s conference, the report was told that the failure of employers and workers to accept that women should have fair access to every job in the industry has been the root cause of women’s problems. (Dawson, 2018) Due to the broader culture of male dominance, women tend to be relegated to traditionally by the women’s roles which are income of women are more likely less than men, they are preferably to stay at home and take care of the children, and they tend to subsist at or below the poverty line. In the number of real life context, the reality of men earning more income than women have reinforced the unequal position of women in today’s society. Gender pay gaps persist around the world, including in the United States. According to public information collected by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), the global gender pay gap ranges from 3 percent to 51 percent with a global average of 17 percent (ITUC 2009, International Labour Organisation, 2011) In fact, equal pay for both men and women in the workplace has contributed to a of series defeats in the United States courts and became the object of attack by a conservative administration and conventional economic wisdom. Indeed, both men and women should receive equal pay where everyone can be fairly rewarded for what they have contribute to the job since they have the equal contribution. (Nelson, 1999)
Besides that, job classification is also one of the evidences that attribute the persistent present of gender discrimination. For example, after a woman who works at a company for few years returns to her company from giving a birth, her position is then changed to a lower level and lesser pay as she is unable to put in as many hours of overtime due to health condition, instead the male coworkers who are in similar positions are allowed to cut back their overtime hours for personal reasons without any changes to their positions or income. (Workplace Searches, 2018) Consequently, the position of the women in the workplace has been discriminated by gender disparity as the men are more likely to get a better treatment. Based on the data from the co-authors, Laura Doering, McGill University, and Sarah Thébaud, University of California-Santa Barbara, evidence has proven that previously gender-ambiguous roles were treated as if they were male or female typed, and more authority were given to the managers who filled the role when they associated the job with men rather than women. (American Sociological Association, 2017) In such circumstance, gender bias has inherited to the effect of unbalanced economic and the unfairness treatment of the employees especially women.
Likewise, to prohibit sexual discrimination in the workplace, a federal law has been amended which is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that protects all private employees, state and local governments, and educational institutions. According to this act, employers are not allowed to discriminate against the applicants or employees based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. Furthermore, retaliating against an applicant or employee who asserts his or her right under the law is prohibited by the employers. For instance, it might be legal for a strength requirement but illegal to harass someone on the basis of a protected characteristics such as race and sex. (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2018) Furthermore, The Equal Pay Act of 1963 declared that ‘an employer who is paying a wage rate differential in violation of this subsection shall not, in order to comply with the provisions of this subsection, reduce the wage rate of any employee.’ The act requires employers to pay both men and women who have the same skills, attribute the similar job under the same working conditions, the same pay. (Loucopoulos, et al, 2002) These laws have made it has made it illegal for the employers to discriminate against individuals in hiring, paying wages, and other terms and conditions of employment.
Last but not least, gender differences in access to economic opportunities are frequently debated in the relation to the participation of different genders in the labor market. According to Audra Jenkins, chief diversity and inclusion officer of Randstad North America,
‘The gap between how women and men are represented and treated in the workplace is substantial right now, but what many employers do not realize is the underlying factors – like the rise of automation – will only widen the divide. In fact, there is a misconception that women will not be impacted by technology as much as men, but that’s simply not true,’ (Randstad USA, 2018)
In fact, living in the 20th century, everyone has his or her own human rights to fight against disparity, women should stand up for their rights in order to have equal treatment in their workforce. Similarly, there is always a false belief of everyone that men are more qualified to obtain higher income and sustain the wage gap. As a woman, we must create a few role models to look up but not lose faith in ourselves when there is no advancing to leadership positions.
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