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Essay On Risk Management In Healthcare

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 21 (5168 words)
Categories: Essay, Health, Healthcare, Management, Risk Management In Healthcare
Downloads: 41
Views: 5

“Risk Management”

Introduction

Events outside the control of a corporation can affect the firm and its financing decisions. For example, a change in the interest rate can suddenly make borrowing money very inexpensive or very costly. From 1975 to 1995, interest rates in the United States were as high as 15 percent and as low as 3 percent. Many economic factors, such as changes in the price of oil or the price of foreign currency, can affect businesses as well. (Redmond, WA, 2006)

Corporate financial managers need to make sure that potential economic fluctuations do not threaten the firm.

A variety of tools, known as derivatives, help manage the risk of such events occurring. Four important kinds of derivatives include (1) futures, (2) forwards, (3) options, and (4) swaps. Futures are promises to buy or sell something in the future at a price that is agreed upon today. For example, a candy manufacturer might commit to purchasing a specified quantity of cocoa at a specified price from the producer in six months.

Futures are traded on organized futures exchanges, such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or the Chicago Board of Trade. Forwards are similar to futures, but they are arranged directly between a firm and a bank. Options give a firm the right to buy or sell something in the future at a price that is agreed upon today. For example, if the candy-manufacturer does not know how much cocoa will be needed in six months, it could take out an option to buy cocoa at a certain price. Swaps involve firms swapping one set of payments for another. For example, an American firm may agree to make a series of dollar payments to a Japanese bank, while the bank in return promises to make a series of yen payments.

Derivatives are very popular. For example: worldwide trading of futures amounts to about $35 trillion a year. Most firms use derivatives to reduce risk, but some use them to speculate by buying and selling derivatives in hopes of earning a profit. When these speculations don’t work out, losses can be substantial. For example, the United Kingdom’s Barings’, one of the world’s oldest banks, collapsed in 1995 when futures speculation by one of its traders in Singapore resulted in losses of over $1 billion. Methods of corporate finance continually evolve as financial managers invent new ways to raise money and avoid risk. Smart investment and financing decisions are crucial to a firm’s success. (Redmond, WA, 2006)

Risk analysis

To help individuals and businesses manage risk, providers of insurance must have ways of determining what kinds and degrees of risk different people and businesses face. To do this, insurers rely on the basic principle of grouping together similar risks. By examining the risks faced by a variety of individuals and businesses, insurers can establish common risk profiles (patterns of characteristics). With this information, an insurer can quickly determine what kind of insurance to offer someone applying for a policy, and how much it will cost to insure that person’s risks.

The data presented to this point indicates positive economic conditions for Riordan Manufacturing and opportunities to leverage relatively low interest rates into new investments to enter new markets and increase productivity. Economic growth is expected to be steady, although at a lower rate than 2004 level of 4.40% growth in real GDP. The inflation rate may decline, and interest rates will increase moderately. Oil prices are expected to fall, and as a result, reduce transportation and shipping costs. The value of the dollar will decline, marginally improving export opportunities.

If China removes its practice of pegging its currency to the dollar then sales by the China joint venture may decline a little but not significantly. The labor market should strengthen and this will result in larger payrolls nationally and higher labor costs for Riordan Manufacturing, but also will support consumer spending. The appliance and aircraft markets are expected to continue to be strong. Projections for sales of automobiles suggest consistent sales of automotive parts, but Riordan Manufacturing should expect pressure from domestic automakers to cut costs. Continued sizeable increases in the costs of providing employee benefits are highly likely to continue. Despite this particular issue related to costs, the stable economy described in the forecast presented above should provide for the basis to at least meet the firm’s sales goals.

Analysis

Table of Values

Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Asset A

10
12
5
19
4
18
11
1
Asset B

12
11
12
10
12
11
3
-12

Year
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Asset A

20
4
13
7
4
10
11
9
Asset B

13
17
12
13
13
12
8
10

Year
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Asset A

15
6
5
20
12
8
3
12
Asset B

12
7
13
5
13
17
12
12

Theory

Standard Deviation, a number representing how closely bunched a set of numbers is around its mean, or average value. The standard deviation is an important concept in statistics because it is a precise indicator of the degree of variability within a set of numbers. A set with a smaller standard deviation consists of more closely bunched numbers than a set with a larger standard deviation. If the test scores of a class were 76, 80, 82, 85, and 91, for example, the standard deviation would be about 5.04, reflecting the fact that the scores are fairly close together. A class with the wildly varying test scores 0, 53, 77, 91, and 100, however, would have a standard deviation of about 35.8.

The standard deviation of a set of numbers is calculated using the deviation of individual numbers from the set’s mean. Each deviation is found by subtracting the number from the mean. If there are n members in a set and the deviations of the members from the mean are symbolized by x1 through xn, the standard deviation (?) is given by the formula:

To compute the standard deviation of the set {2, 3, 5, 6, 9}, for example, first find the mean. The mean is the sum of all the members of a set divided by the number of members of the set: (2 + 3 + 5 + 6 + 9)/5 = 25/5 = 5. The individual deviations from the mean are 5 – 2 = 3, 5 – 3 = 2, 5 – 5 = 0, 5 – 6 = -1, and 5 – 9 = -4. Square the individual deviations and add them together: 32 + 22 + 02 + (-1)2 + (-4)2 = 9 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 16 = 30. Divide the result by the number of members of the set: 30/5 = 6. Take the square root and round to two decimal places: ?6 = 2.45. The standard deviation of {2, 3, 5, 6, 9}, therefore, is 2.45.

This equation works for sets in which all members are specified. A more complex equation is necessary to determine the standard deviation of a set using only a sample of that set’s elements.

The standard deviation is a measure of variability that is more convenient than percentile differences for further investigation and analysis of statistical data. The standard deviation of a set of measurements x1, x2, …, xn, with the mean ? is defined as the square root of the mean of the squares of the deviations; it is usually designated by the Greek letter sigma (?). In symbols

The square, ?2, of the standard deviation is called the variance. If the standard deviation is small, the measurements are tightly clustered around the mean; if it is large, they are widely scattered.

Mean

Mean, also known as the arithmetic mean, a value that helps summarize an entire set of numbers. A set’s mean is calculated by adding the numbers in the set together and dividing their sum by the number of members of the set. For example, the mean of the set {3, 4, 8} is 5, calculated (3 + 4 + 8)/3 = 5. Similarly, the set {16, 13, 9, 2} has a mean of (16 + 13 + 9 + 2)/4 = 10.

In examining large collections of numbers, such as census data, it is helpful to be able to present a number that provides a summary of the data. Such numbers are often called descriptive statistics. The arithmetic mean is probably the best-known descriptive statistic. The mean is often called the average, but it is actually only one of several kinds of averages, such as the median and the mode.

Riordan Manufacturing, Inc.

The Executive Summary

            In this proposal for Riordan Manufacturing, Inc (known as the company), aims at providing a workable framework for the business of Car Cover and Park Service Business in Kuwait. The company, based on the need at present is ready and fully equipped to provide the services to ready customers in the area. It is already running and has achieved remarkable success. The framework in this report aims at making it more profitable. The products of car cover service are mainly to be sold to civil service and company workers on a routine work schedule, who are in need of a place to park their vehicles during the day.

Company profile

Riordan Manufacturing, Inc. is an industry leader in the field of car cover service. With state-of-the art design capabilities, we create innovative products that have earned international acclaim. Attention to detail, extreme precision and enthusiastic quality control are the hallmarks of Riordan Manufacturing. With facilities in San Jose, California, Albany, Georgia, Pontiac, Michigan and Hangzhou, China, we have the capacity to fulfill your unique needs. Riordan Manufacturing is wholly owned by Riordan Industries, a Fortune 1000 enterprise.

Nature of the product/service being offered

The three entirely different layout alternatives help to demonstrate the importance the layout decision.

v Product layout-the physical configuration of the facilities arranged around the product; used when large quantity of the single service are needed.

v Process layout-the process around the facilities; used in facilities those create or process a verity of service.

v Fixed-position layout-it is around a single layout area; used for the manufacture of the large and complex service.

Business Description

Mission Statement

Our Focus

Six Sigma, leading edge R;D and exceeding ISO 9000 standards define the attitude and abilities of Riordan Manufacturing.
We are industry leaders in car cover and park service to provide solutions to our customer’s challenges.
Our R;D is, and will remain, the industry leader in identifying industry trends.
Our Customer Relationships
We will strive to be a solution provider for our customers and not be a part of our customer’s challenges.
Long-term relationships will be sought by maintaining rigorous quality controls, innovative solutions, a responsive business attitude and reasonable pricing.
Our Employees
We will maintain an innovative and team oriented working environment.
By assuring that our employees are well informed and properly supported, we will provide a climate focused on the long term viability of our company.
Our Future
We must be focused in achieving and maintaining reasonable profitability to assure that the financial and human capital is available for sustained growth.
History behind the idea or current business

Introduction

Kuwait a country located in the middle of the equator with extreme heat due to its location, we have an average of 8 months of summer with temperatures reaching up to 50 Celsius. Even in the winter the weather cools down dramatically but the sun still shines with intense heat, meaning even when the temperature in winter is about 10 Celsius you can feel the upholstery of the car heated up.

The Problem

Due to the extreme heat we experience in Kuwait, covered parking is neither that available nor located close to work places due to high real estate prices. Literally speaking commuters in Kuwait try to find any spot of shade or a tree to park their cars under for the duration of there working hours. Cars are being ruined everyday due to the intensive heat and scrutiny it’s getting. Car in Kuwait are losing their resale value due to the sun exposure they receive during everyday of the year. The car itself drives differently if exposed to the sun the whole day and interior of the car ruins and breaks. Paint on the car suffers too. The heat is so intense that when your get back to your car from a average 8 hours work day in the month of April, you cannot touch the steering wheal for five minutes, any metallic object in the car cannot be touched until for 40 minutes. Women in Kuwait use gloves in the summer just to drive without feeling the pain of the intense heat on the cars interior.

Company’s current or proposed legal form

The company’s legal for shall be that of having a legal adviser to attend to legal issues relating to customer service and any negative trend such as car theft. The registration of the company with the relevant authorities shall be the primary assignment of the legal team at the initial or growing stage of the company, where it requires a to be known.

Proposed entry strategy and time line of events

The entry strategy shall be a wide publicity mainly in the offices and business places. It shall be done at this period of the year when the temperature is very hot and the effects of the sun on the car are most experienced.

With this, there will be some free trials for a selected few, who will now tell the good story to others after experiencing the product.

Initial product/service

            A call center must be established to receive the orders and any adjustments to the timing, location and surprise shift in times. A coordinator position must be established to coordinate the orders and the drivers. Kuwait city will be segmented into Zones, cars parked in specific zones will be marked with a special tag for identification. Divers will be sent out to specified zones and cover all the area in search for these tags to cover the cars.

            The initial competition will come from the indigenous park owners. But a good dialogue can prevent any disagreements. Also, they could be called to participate in the marketing by partnership and attracting more customers.

Product research and development

            The product research and development can be improved in the following lines:

Internet marketing
Media advertisements
Being responsive to the needs of the customer by the customer care unit

Market Analyses

Description of the industry

The company is described as one aimed to create a service where customers register for covering there cars through out the whole day. Meaning an employee would come in the morning to your car, cover it and come back before you leave work and remove the cover or the shade intended to cover your car. Studies have shown that car left in the sun can reach up too 70c and in the shade can reach up to 40c a significant temperature increase. These studies have been conducted in Melbourne Australia, and the climate there is very similar to Kuwait and we may even have higher temperature rates, due to the dryness of our desert climates. After acquiring large number of cars using the service daily, the car shade can be used as advertising space.

 Due to the cars locations scattered all over Kuwait city, and with the high rise building being developed, the car shade space can be an attractive place to advertise and get people attention. So from the sunlight problem we have created to sources of income. To fully utilize the employees time, when from 8 till 10 the car shades are being setup after these hours the employees can clean and wash cars that added this service to there package, then back to the car shades from 2 till 4.

Targeted markets

            The target market are government and company workers, who come for work at 8am and park their vehicles to go for work and then close between 5pm-10pm everyday. These are those that will utilise the services provided by the company.

Marketing research

The market research, which is one of sampling of public opinion done to see the response of citizens on the project, indicates that there is a large percentage of those who acknowledge the adverse effect of heat on the cars and need the service. But, this needs marketing and timely introduction.

To evaluate the heat burden in parked cars, a study was done to measure inside car temperatures in different situations. A large car and a small car were parked in direct sunlight and in shade. In direct sun, the highest temperatures recorded in the small and large cars were 78 C and 65 C, respectively. The highest temperature in shade for the small car was only 44 C. There was a tremendous buildup of heat inside the car parked in direct sun as opposed to shade (p less than 0.001), and the small car heated more quickly than the large car under similar conditions (P less tan 0.001). Leaving the windows partially or fully open is not protective. With partial ventilation the highest recorded temperature in the small car was 70 C. These findings suggest that the heat burden of poorly ventilated, parked cars exposed to direct sun can be enormous. The common practice of leaving infants, toddlers, elderly people, and pets in cars under these conditions could cause them tremendous heat stress. The potential hazards of this practice should be recognized and special precautions should be taken.

Competition

            The major competition shall stem from existing park owners and those who are in the transport sector. There shall be new indications for partnership with competitors so as to improve the service and improve marketing networks.

Barriers to entry

            The main barrier to entry shall be the existing park owner. Also, the potential barrier shall be the registration regulation, laws and government requirements for the establishment of such service in the city centre. But these issues should be treated with professionalism, citing all the need and advantages with possible guarantees and partnership moves.

The Management Team

v President, Chief Executive: He is the owner of the company and foresees all the activities of the company. He is the major shareholder

v Vice President of Research and Development: He see that the company grows by bringing up new research devise to gain market and maintain the lead in the industry

v Chief Operating Officer: He ensures that there is a smooth day-to-day running of the company. He mobilizes resources and personnel to see that the customers are satisfied

v Vice President of Sales ; Marketing: He is the person who makes sure that the ideas and products are sold to the public both by both adverts and contacts with customers

v Chief Information Officer: His responsibility is to gather useful data on needs and updates for the company on need and requirements. Also, he handles the online marketing and the information services in the company

v Director of Human Resources: He is responsible for recruiting worker and ensures that they carry out their duties according to instructions for customer satisfaction

v Chief Financial Officer: He collects all the money and issues receipts for transactions. He also handles the balance and income statements and all financial records of the company

v Legal adviser: He handles all legal issues and documents of the company and it’s relation with customer and the government authorities.

Organizational structure

Figure 1: Organizational structure

Production Plan

Service Operational management is the set of managerial activities used by an organization to transform resource inputs into service. Service Operational managers supervise the transformation process and the planning and designing of operations systems, managing logistic, quality and productivity. In the Service operational management process the quality and productivity is a fundamental aspect. Service Operation management is the “core” for the most service provided organization because it is responsible for the creations of the organization’s service. All type of organizations must plan system create goods and service that satisfy customer needs.

Transforming Process:

The main part of the Service operation management is the transforming process through which input are converted into outputs. The transformation of the process merges inputs in predetermined ways by using different process and technology to create a service. Service Operational management controls the process by taking measurement feedback to ensure that this process generates quality product efficiently.

Figure 2: Transforming process of input into the service

External Risks

The external risk provision such as loss of car should be provided for in the arrangement and appropriate compensation made. Other risks such as natural disasters are beyond the scope of the budget.

Internal Risks

            Internal risks such as disloyalty by customers and workers and documentation and accounts errors should be addressed by the President and Chief Executive and final decision taken by him

Insurance Provisions

            There must be an insurance cover for any car for the service and this should be verified. Also, the company should be insured and pay regular premium. The insurance policy for the vehicles should one that brings fewer burdens on the company.

Contingency Plan

            Other contingencies should be taken care of by putting some money aside for any eventuality which is beyond the scope of discussion.

Economic Overview

The markets for car cover and park services are affected by changing economic conditions. As a result, it is the impact of the economy on Riordan Manufacturing’s major customers and markets that must be analyzed in order to determine how the future direction of the economy will affect Riordan Manufacturing.

Real Gross Domestic Product (GDO) Growth

The Kuwait economy has shown some weakness during the first half of 2005. This weaker growth has led to a slight decrease in estimates for economic growth in 2005 and 2006. One reason for this relative weakness in the economy is the large and persistent trade deficit, a factor that continues to reduce estimates for economic growth. The high level of oil prices is another important contributor to weaker than expected economic growth early this year. Consumers are adjusting to the reality that oil prices will remain high rather than being a temporary event, and even if oil prices fall the decrease will be small. Another problem confronting the economy is the weak labor market. One last factor was the end of accelerated depression. On the positive side, consumer demand continued to be strong, and capital spending has been stronger than expected.

An important contributor to economic growth starting in 2001 has been very simulative fiscal and monetary policies. We should expect slower increases in government spending, and possible tax increases in 2006 in order to reduce the government budget deficit from excessively high levels. At the same time, the Federal Reserve has been raising its target for the Federal Funds rate. This should continue throughout at this year. These policies should tend to reduce economic growth in the near future. The greatest immediate uncertainty is the impact of these policies on long-term interest rates. Long-term interest rates are more impacted by the bond market than Federal Reserve policy.

To summarize, the economy will continue to demonstrate slower but still a good level of economic growth. Consumer spending will moderate, capital spending should continue show relative strength, the housing market will slow only to strong rather than the very strong levels we see today. Lower oil prices will tend to support economic growth. A stabilizing factor for consumer spending will be the large increase in the net worth of households we have seen due to the strong housing market. Offsetting these positive trends will continue to be the sizeable trade deficit, slightly higher interest rates, and high levels of household debt.

Futures

Futures in business refer to an agreement to deliver a commodity at a future date at a specific price. A commodity refers to any item that can be bought or sold and delivered. Commodities include agricultural products, metals, oil and natural gas, bonds, currencies, and other goods. Futures, also called futures contracts, are standardized according to the amount of the commodity, the quality, and the exact date of delivery. For example, a futures contract for corn specifies the delivery of exactly 5,000 bushels of a certain quality of corn on a specific date.

Futures originated in the 19th century when farmers and wholesale buyers began using forward contracts. Forward contracts assured future delivery of agricultural produce at set prices. Terms of the forward contracts varied. For example, one farmer might make a contract with a buyer for the delivery of 975 bushels of corn in three weeks, while another farmer might contract for 1,500 bushels in five weeks. By 1865 the contracts had become standardized according to amount, quality, and date of delivery and began to be called futures contracts.

Business people and farmers buy and sell futures contracts to reduce the risk of price changes in the commodities they deal in. Every year farmers run the risk of losing money if prices have fallen for their crops by the time their crops are ready for market. Farmers can offset this risk by buying a futures contract that will still earn a profit if crop prices fall. For example, if a wheat farmer owns a 90-day futures contract to sell wheat at $5.00 a bushel, and prices fall to $4.25 a bushel in 90 days, the farmer can sell the contract for a profit. The farmer will earn less for the crop, but will profit from the futures contract. This method of risk reduction is called hedging.

Futures are not just useful contracts for farmers, wholesalers, and merchants. They have become financial instruments, like stocks and bonds, and investors trade them in large quantities on exchanges such as the Chicago Board of Trade(CBOT) and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME). Today, investors are not required to actually deliver or receive the commodities listed in the contracts. Less than 10 percent of present-day futures contracts result in an actual exchange of goods. The majority of contracts are settled in cash.

While useful for hedging, the futures market is a risky area for speculative investing. Because worldwide supply and demand for commodities changes, commodity prices often fluctuate rapidly. Investors who are willing to assume a good deal of risk—that is, speculators—are the ones who trade in futures. Speculators try to determine whether the price of a certain commodity is going to rise or fall. If they are correct, they can often make large profits as their futures contracts rise in value. However, poor judgment or bad luck can result in equally large losses.

Conclusion

Insurers distinguish between two types of risk: speculative risk and pure risk. Speculative risk offers both the potential for gain and the potential for loss. People who invest in the stock of companies, for example, take speculative risk. An increase in stock prices produces a gain, while a decline in stock prices produces a loss. Pure risk, by contrast, creates the potential only for loss. Although pure risks do not necessarily result in losses, they never result in gains.

Historically, insurance dealt only with pure risks, and most people still buy insurance to cover pure risks. No one, for instance, experiences a gain when they go a full year without an auto accident. However, some insurance companies now help businesses finance large losses including those incurred on speculative risks, such as the international exchange of currency. Also, in the 1990s financial markets and some professions outside insurance, such as the field of environmental impact and damage assessment, began to expand into risk management for the first time.

The reasons why customers need this product are numerous, based on the effects of cars being exposed to very high temperatures for a long time. To evaluate the heat burden in parked cars, a study was done to measure inside car temperatures in different situations. A large car and a small car were parked in direct sunlight and in shade. In direct sun, the highest temperatures recorded in the small and large cars were 78 C and 65 C, respectively. The highest temperature in shade for the small car was only 44 C. There was a tremendous buildup of heat inside the car parked in direct sun as opposed to shade (p less than 0.001), and the small car heated more quickly than the large car under similar conditions (P less tan 0.001). Leaving the windows partially or fully open is not protective. With partial ventilation the highest recorded temperature in the small car was 70 C. These findings suggest that the heat burden of poorly ventilated, parked cars exposed to direct sun can be enormous. The common practice of leaving infants, toddlers, elderly people, and pets in cars under these conditions could cause them tremendous heat stress. The asset requirement for a large scale investment is $35Millon. This is large and can be financed in installment for the first five years. The project is to yield the capital within five years of operation and then huge profits made.

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Websites:

v http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,20411-2392466,00.html

v http://www.ikea.com/ms/en_GB/local_home/homeshopping_new.html

v http://www.ikea.com/ms/en_GB/local_home/thurrock.html

v http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IKEA

v http://www.cbronline.com/article_feature.asp?guid=FB221B5B-86F4-42FD-96CF-2E15182676FE

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Essay On Risk Management In Healthcare. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/risk-management-6-new-essay

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