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Cicero focuses on
invention of rhetoric

What does he employ to define arguments in forensic speeches?
procedure within rhetorical invention by which one would ask certain questions in order to arrive at the point at issue in the debate

What factor is important in forensic speeches?
proper formation of the parts

five canons of rhetorical composing process
invention, arrangement, style, memory, delivery

What did feat did Cicero accomplish?
successfully defending a man with parricide

One of the most…
eloquent speakers in Rome

defined the relationship between…
rhetoric and philosophy

Cicero’s style is characterized by…
amplification–naming the same thing two or three different ways in succession, adding elaborating + qualifying clauses + developing periodic sentence

Cicero’s aims?
heightened emotion + exploring every facet of an idea

Cicero vs. Asiatics
they are ignorant of philosophy

Cicero vs. Atticists
limited the rhetorician’s resources

What is used to help the rhetorician develop a variety of styles?
contemporary education

De Oratore
Cicero’s most complete, mature statement on his views on rhetoric

How does Cicero promote excellence in oratory?
uniting broad learning + the study of both rhetoric and philosophy

How did Cicero emulate Plato?
De Oratore is an outdoor discussion like the Phaedrus

Oratory’s crucial function in distinguishing…
people from animals, making civil order possible

what branch of philosophy is most important?
human life and conduct

Natural ability is…

rhetoric curriculum supports your
natural ability

What cannot be separated?
words and matter–style is not separate from ideas

Good style is…
correct, lucid, ornate and appropriate to particular situation

Cicero vs. other philosophers
condemned Socrates/Plato separation of rhetoric + philosophy

believed some Sophists to be philosophers–admired their application of philosophy to political science

Value the orator who…
possesses learning

eloquence comes from
natural talent + practice

Art of oratory must not depart from
language of everyday life + usage approved by the sense of the community

You need a knowledge of…
many matters

Distinctive style has (2)
choice of words + arrangement

what must you do to the audience?
calm or kindle their feeling

Oratory derives its beauty + fullness from

Oratory has the power to…
win the will of assemblies of men

Human beings have unique capacity to
reproduce thought in word

Devoting energy to studies that engage you..
makes you better, others better + the Republic better

like Socrates, you must gain an understanding of…
life and human nature

To participate effectively in public business you must grasp
customs + general law

the best speakers…
comprehend the matter at hand fully

Science and philosophy must come to oratory for…
style–to be eloquent you can’t just be smart, you have to know how to sound good

3 branches of philosophy?
mystery of nature, dialectic, human life + conduct*

Is oratory a science?
not in the strict sense, but experience furnishes a system of rules

why is oratory not a science?
oratory is a changeable matter, not an exact one

Chief contributor to the virtue of oratory?
natural talent

The orator in a way must…
fear if the speech is good enough

Activity + Ability falls under 5 divisions…
what to talk about,
construct + arrange the arguments,
add adornments of style,
keep ideas guarded in memory,
deliver them with effect + charm

Like training for a game,
practice of oratory is essential

Best author and teacher for eloquence?
the pen–prepared + thought out ideas

Crassus’ good exercise?
translating famous Greek speeches to Latin–insight required to choose words

To influence his audience,
he needs knowledge of the world

What does he do with knowledge of the world?
amplifies it by eloquence in the way the audience desires

Enhancing deliver
requires practice

Essentials to master facts of a case…
fact of alleged act (plea),
its nature (justifiable or not?)
its definition (explaining reasoning)

What is useless to the orator?
Stoic doctrine (indifference to pleasure or pain–takes the life out of it)

What doctrine is useful?

What is essential to capture the interest of the audience?
variety of treatment; differentiate your speech

You must secure the audience’s…
favor + inspire suitable emotions

The speaker himself must…
feel the emotions he wishes to excite

wise thinking + elegant speaking

what is inseparable?
oratory + philosophy

Eloquence needs more than…
rhetorical theory, its needs knowledge + wisdom

Eloquence embraces ___________ + and expresses ___________
all virtues, natural principles + knowledge,
whatever topic in a graceful + flowing style

Where is eloquence needed and why?
deliberative bodies;
to prove, to please, to sway or persuade

“propriety”–what is appropriate

Types of style?

Plain style needs…
a bit of life + sound reason

The middle style serves…
to charm (produce a pleasing effect)

Orator of the third style is…
magnificent, opulent, stately and ornate

Grand speaker has…
the greatest power

Eloquence requires all three styles…
discuss commonplace matters simply,
matters of moderate significance in a tempered style,
weighty affairs in a grand manner

eloquence has the power to…
sway men’s minds + move them in every possible way

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