Cicero focuses on
invention of rhetoric
What does he employ to define arguments in forensic speeches?
procedure within rhetorical invention by which one would ask certain questions in order to arrive at the point at issue in the debate
What factor is important in forensic speeches?
proper formation of the parts
five canons of rhetorical composing process
invention, arrangement, style, memory, delivery
What did feat did Cicero accomplish?
successfully defending a man with parricide
One of the most…
eloquent speakers in Rome
defined the relationship between…
rhetoric and philosophy
Cicero’s style is characterized by…
amplification–naming the same thing two or three different ways in succession, adding elaborating + qualifying clauses + developing periodic sentence
heightened emotion + exploring every facet of an idea
Cicero vs. Asiatics
they are ignorant of philosophy
Cicero vs. Atticists
limited the rhetorician’s resources
What is used to help the rhetorician develop a variety of styles?
Cicero’s most complete, mature statement on his views on rhetoric
How does Cicero promote excellence in oratory?
uniting broad learning + the study of both rhetoric and philosophy
How did Cicero emulate Plato?
De Oratore is an outdoor discussion like the Phaedrus
Oratory’s crucial function in distinguishing…
people from animals, making civil order possible
what branch of philosophy is most important?
human life and conduct
Natural ability is…
rhetoric curriculum supports your
What cannot be separated?
words and matter–style is not separate from ideas
Good style is…
correct, lucid, ornate and appropriate to particular situation
Cicero vs. other philosophers
condemned Socrates/Plato separation of rhetoric + philosophy
believed some Sophists to be philosophers–admired their application of philosophy to political science
Value the orator who…
eloquence comes from
natural talent + practice
Art of oratory must not depart from
language of everyday life + usage approved by the sense of the community
You need a knowledge of…
Distinctive style has (2)
choice of words + arrangement
what must you do to the audience?
calm or kindle their feeling
Oratory derives its beauty + fullness from
Oratory has the power to…
win the will of assemblies of men
Human beings have unique capacity to
reproduce thought in word
Devoting energy to studies that engage you..
makes you better, others better + the Republic better
like Socrates, you must gain an understanding of…
life and human nature
To participate effectively in public business you must grasp
customs + general law
the best speakers…
comprehend the matter at hand fully
Science and philosophy must come to oratory for…
style–to be eloquent you can’t just be smart, you have to know how to sound good
3 branches of philosophy?
mystery of nature, dialectic, human life + conduct*
Is oratory a science?
not in the strict sense, but experience furnishes a system of rules
why is oratory not a science?
oratory is a changeable matter, not an exact one
Chief contributor to the virtue of oratory?
The orator in a way must…
fear if the speech is good enough
Activity + Ability falls under 5 divisions…
what to talk about,
construct + arrange the arguments,
add adornments of style,
keep ideas guarded in memory,
deliver them with effect + charm
Like training for a game,
practice of oratory is essential
Best author and teacher for eloquence?
the pen–prepared + thought out ideas
Crassus’ good exercise?
translating famous Greek speeches to Latin–insight required to choose words
To influence his audience,
he needs knowledge of the world
What does he do with knowledge of the world?
amplifies it by eloquence in the way the audience desires
Essentials to master facts of a case…
fact of alleged act (plea),
its nature (justifiable or not?)
its definition (explaining reasoning)
What is useless to the orator?
Stoic doctrine (indifference to pleasure or pain–takes the life out of it)
What doctrine is useful?
What is essential to capture the interest of the audience?
variety of treatment; differentiate your speech
You must secure the audience’s…
favor + inspire suitable emotions
The speaker himself must…
feel the emotions he wishes to excite
wise thinking + elegant speaking
what is inseparable?
oratory + philosophy
Eloquence needs more than…
rhetorical theory, its needs knowledge + wisdom
Eloquence embraces ___________ + and expresses ___________
all virtues, natural principles + knowledge,
whatever topic in a graceful + flowing style
Where is eloquence needed and why?
to prove, to please, to sway or persuade
“propriety”–what is appropriate
Types of style?
Plain style needs…
a bit of life + sound reason
The middle style serves…
to charm (produce a pleasing effect)
Orator of the third style is…
magnificent, opulent, stately and ornate
Grand speaker has…
the greatest power
Eloquence requires all three styles…
discuss commonplace matters simply,
matters of moderate significance in a tempered style,
weighty affairs in a grand manner
eloquence has the power to…
sway men’s minds + move them in every possible way