rhetoric 2

Aristotle
established a techne of rhetoric, not just about giving speech, but building an argument.
-Recognized that it is hard to persuade audience. Believed you need to adapt to audience.
-Aristotle did not think much about delivery in rhetoric

Aristotle
His approach to rhetoric was pragmatic and scientific.

Cicero
Cicero is to Aristotle as Longinus is to Gorgias. More is known about Cicero than any other ancient Roman (because Aristotle’s writings were lost)

De Inventione
Cicero’s 1st book. Written when he was 19. Poorly written (collection of notes), written in technical style. Was not a mature work on nature or practice of rhetoric.
– Is about the invention of rhetoric and how it was taught to young men Like Cicero in late Roman Republic.
– Introduced major theme of Cicero’s rhetorical career – which is union of wisdom and eloquence and Canons of Rhetoric

De Orator
Cicero’s second book. Written when he was in 50’s. About the speak and focuses on delivery approach of rhetoric.
– More mature work in rhetoric and a response to Plato’s criticism of the art in Gorgias.
-Composed as a dialogue, conversations to provide insights about rhetoric.
-Main concepts – humor, orator qualities, audience centrality, union of wisdom and eloquence

How does Aristotle attempt to reconcile ideas of Sophists and Plato?
-Aristotle is the arch between Sophists and Plato’s view of rhetoric
-At first Aristotle adopted Plato’s ideas towards rhetoric, but later moved to more of a systematic study of art.

What are the three proofs that Aristotle stated could be used to persuade an audience?
-Logos an argument based on logical reasoning and words. Done through enthymeme and examples.
-Pathos (Emotion)-Persuasion through the ethical use of emotion to aid an audience in moving into reasoning and action
-Ethos (Credibility) – Persuasion through the human character and goodness of the speaker.

Which proof did Aristotle think rhetors should rely on?
-Aristotle held that out of the three proofs, ethos was potentially, ethos was the most persuasive. He believed that when people are convinced that a speaker is knowledgeable, trustworthy (credible), and has their best interests at heart, that the audience will be very likely to accept what the speaker is saying.

How can logic also lead to pathos?
Example: Logic > Hunger and malnutrition are still the number one risks to health worldwide. A child dies every 5 seconds meaning that 16,000 die everyday. That is like the entire population of Warrensburg (16,304) dieing to hunger. The statistics involved in this argument elicit an emotional response (pathos).

-What is an enthymeme? What proof does it relate to?
-A rhetorical syllogism used in order to get the audience involved and engaged (thinking to fill in missing parts). A syllogism is deductive reasoning. By leaving out part of the speech the audience will fill it in with a premise that is then shared by the speaker and the audience. (The argument is constructed with the audience)
-Relates to logos (logic)

What is a fallacy? What did Aristotle think of the use of fallacies?
-A fallacy is false reasoning that may seem serious or reasonable but are not, such as wordplay, reasoning from part to whole, using indignant language.
-post hoc fallacy – suggests that because one event followed another, the former caused the latter.
-Another fallacy is omitting relevant facts- one may argue because a politician failed to sign the health care reform bill therefore she opposes the health care reform. What was not mentioned (omitted) is that the politician in question was preparing to introduce her own health care reform bill.
-Aristotle thought that speakers needed to be aware of the different types of fallacies and that they were unethical and should be avoided.

What are the three rhetorical settings described by Aristotle?
-Deliberate oratory (legislative)- Addressed the use of resources and solutions to problems facing the city-state. An audience member for a deliberate speech is a judge of the future, deciding what will be best for the city-state.Orators sometimes chose this term to describe themselves.
-Epideictic oratory (ceremonial)- Speeches given at funerals or following a military service. The speeches could also be used to praise citizens for a great accomplishment or condemn someone for a vicious action. The audience member for an epideictic speech is a spectator, who observes the speaker’s presentation or display.
-Forensic oratory (judicial or courtroom pleading- These speeches involved accusation and defense of an individual accused of a crime. Each audience member for a forensic speech is a judge rendering a judgement about a past event. The real focus is on reconstructing the past; What was done? Who did it? (Questions lawyers ask about the past in order to make a case)

What emphasis did Aristotle put on delivery of speech?
Aristotle put very little emphasis on the delivery speech, delivery was emphasized by Cicero.
-Aristotle considered the matter of delivery “unworthy” of systematic discussion but because it is a part of rhetoric it must be discussed.
-Aristotle believed that the linguistic manner should be appropriate to the occasion; above all the speaker must be clear.

What is Cicero mean by saying great orators should have Wisdom and Eloquence? (Union of wisdom and eloquence)
Wisdom (brain)
Eloquence (tongue)
-Once seen as two different concepts that lead us to have one set of professors to teach us to think and another to teach us to speak.
-Cicero wanted to prepare students to take the role of complete orator, a leader. A leader and complete orator had to manifest the values of the state each time he spoke and that required eloquence and wisdom.
-Therefore, Cicero thought to reunite “the tongue and the brain, and thus to produce great speakers who also were great thinkers.” Because oratory was essential to Roman government, justice, and civic life generally it was essential that an individual be a wise and responsible speaker. Cicero viewed eloquence as nothing less than civilization’s foundation. He also believed that eloquence was a key connection between civic virtue and individual virtue therefore creating a dynamic interaction between the speaker, the state, and the citizens.
– Cicero viewed the ordinary audience as an important fact rather than a flaw. The citizens of Rome were Rome itself; they were to be consulted, not condemned (Audience centrality, must be considered).

What were Cicero’s Canons of Rhetoric?
-The five Canons of Rhetoric taught one how to divide up a speech and also imposed an order on talk, and thoughts that preceded it.
1.Invention, is the discovery of valid or seemingly valid arguments.
2. Arrangement, the order the arguments are arranged in the speech
3. Expression, is choosing the proper language to use for the invented material. A language needs to be used that allow speakers to convey their arguments in a striking and persuasive manner. Great language captures and holds the audiences attention
4. Memory, is the firm mental grasp of matter and words. Because orators deliver long and complex arguments without written notes, a trained memory was essential.
5. Delivery, is the control of voice and body in a manner suitable to the dignity of the subject matter and the style. Orators practiced movement, gesture, posture, power and grace of an actor because a speech in a Roman courtroom or in the Senate was seek as a performance.

What was Cicero’s addition to the study of humor?
-One of Cicero’s most distinctive contributions to the history of rhetoric was the treatment of humor in oratory. He believed that you could not teach humor. Cicero sought to provide orators some guidance on this difficult topic.
-When using humor in speeches it is important to maintain dignity and consider the audience (respect the audience’s sensibilities), because you do not want to offend them and there are somethings that should just not be made fun of. Respecting one’s audience is considered to be a cardinal rule that must be followed if the benefits of humor are to be realized.
-The benefits of using humor are to relieve dullness, wins goodwill for its author, and reinforces positive qualities of the rhetor
-For Cicero humor demonstrates mental agility while at the same time attracting and holding audience interest.
-Cicero discussed the types of humor such as mimicking and obscenity should be avoided or used sparingly in order to avoid a negative reaction.
-DON’T: Make fun of human suffering, make fun of the well-liked

Quintilian said rhetoric was a Good Citizen, Speaking Well, what does this mean?
-This implies a moral function of rhetoric
-He sees the orator in the role of a good citizen intent on employing rhetorical powers for the benefit of Rome.
-A true orator must be: conservative citizen, honorable person, one who adds to virtues natural gifts that have been honed through practice, and careful instruction.
-Questionable characters cannot do so however studying rhetoric can further develop the character of a GOOD person

What does Longinus add to the understanding of rhetoric?
– On the sublime- emphasizes the principles of good writing
– He suggested a link of rhetorical theory to literary criticism
– But Longinus seemed to have more of an ethical bent
-He took rhetoric to be viewed as the means of achieving distinction and grace in writing.
– Five Sources of Great Writing
1. Vigor of mental conception
2. Strong and inspired emotion
3. Benefited by artistic training
4. Choice of words and language
5. Word- arrangement (composition)
– Use of examples
– Figures of speech

How was rhetoric uses differently in Greece and the Roman Republic/Empire?
-Greeks of the 4th century did not make a sharp distinction between thinking and speaking;one activity was intimately associated with the others. Cicero reunited thinking and speaking (wisdom and eloquence).
-Rhetoric in Rome was a co-op of Greek ideas.
– There was tension between Greek and Roman culture BUT Greek-based rhetorical studies resided solidly at the center of a liberal education in Rome.
-Roman rhetorical training emphasized style and diction, making aesthetics of language central to effective speech.
-Though the Roman’s learned rhetoric from the Greeks, they lent the art their own particular emphases.
-Romans used insights of Greek rhetoric to transform the Latin language which was considered rough and vulgar by the Greeks, into one of the great beauty, power, and subtlety of expression.
-Cicero added humor to rhetoric which the Greeks did not have
-Roman orators were like Sophists because they used rhetoric for political and personal success

Who is a contemporary person who you believe reflects the elements of what Cicero thought were important for a speaker to have? Why?

Why and how are Aristotle and Cicero still important for today’s rhetorical scholars?
They laid down the foundation for today’s rhetorical scholars. -They set up what we know as public speaking.