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‘Everyone has told a lie at some point, but as it contradicts something we know to be true, lies are always exposed, revealing the truth beneath them’. Complexity affects almost everyone. In the field of ethics, making decisions in organisations has been entirely simple. It is more challenging when the society becomes complex. The questions ‘what lies behind it?’ and ‘what is the purpose of it?’ are discussed in the given essays. These essays probably look for a material cause, which might turn out to be relatively simple, such as hypothetical theory of everything.
The main argument which is discussed in Hiebert’s essay is the difficulty in defining the religion due to its complexity. There are many contradictions from both sides because the variations in the religious types has led to an extreme variety in the observations. The author considers that the violence is a human problem, not a religious issue. The human behaviour has overlapped with the cultural norms of behaving.
The author considers religion as the central organising force of the society. On the other hand, in the second essay by Santiago Sia, the author states that the relationship between ethics and religion is harder to find. “‘What is wrong’ becomes ‘what is prohibited by god’ has led some people to think that there is an intrinsic link between morality and religion” (Sia, Ethics and religion). The author states that the presence of god makes those people happy who believe in god but on the other side, who do not believe in god also live happier lives.
So there is a contradiction in the belief of god from both sides.
Hiebert has made comparisons between the ethics and religion but the consideration points for ethics are less as compared to religion. So as to reach a proper conclusion, the author must discuss both views in equal quantity. Moreover, the theological and philosophical assertions made by Sia are unsupported. The author can also add counter examples which can make similar claims. This is similar to the argument from uniqueness.
Some of the responses that are made, complies with the main arguments and are well-supported. The thinking of the authors is suggestive of further lines of inquiry. The reader can understand that what assertions and predictions are made by the author.
To conclude, the papers are well-written and provided with main arguments discussed in the essays. Moreover, some examples and evidences are also provided to support the arguments which make the essays more organised. Though some parts of the essays need to be reorganised yet the readers may get benefits reading these essays as most of the arguments are well-discussed.
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