Review of Related Literature and Studies Essay
Review of Related Literature and Studies
The importance of the business educators is increasing as the business world becomes more complex. Through this program, the students are educated to become skilled individuals who can contribute meaningfully to the overall effectiveness in an office setting, teaching and learning in schools. According to Hornby (2006) he says, “Curriculum is a subject that is included in a course of study or taught in a school, college, etc.”
On the other hand, Uwaifo (2006) stated that a close look at the current Vocational and Technical Education curriculum generally reveals some problems that border on inadequate course content. Uhumuavbi and Ebhomhen (2006) in their own vain statement, they said that irrespective of the level of education and training given during the pre-colonial days in Africa, it was functional because the curriculum was relevant to the needs of the society. Unemployment if it existed, at all was minimal and very few young men roamed the villages and towns with nothing to do.
According to Snyder (2008), a flexible curriculum is important because there is no single curricular path to career success. We are giving students more flexibility; this is not a radical departure from our curriculum. While Robert and Booth (2008) stated that the curriculum changes allow students to increase the intensity of their studies. According to Hasan (2001) the current status of the Indonesians educational system is somehow affected by current academic performance, curriculum, and quality of teachers and level of education.
The policy directions for curriculum development were very positive and there was a lot of challenge for the Ministry of National Education to follow-up in the implementation of policies formulated, design a curriculum that includes technological system and information system to uplift the academic performance in every level of education. Updating of the physical facilities is needed to improve teaching and learning process. Wagan (2001) stressed that continuous evaluation of the school curriculum should not be overlooked. Time and development in the business call for change and modification.
The suggestions of graduates maybe a rich source of information for authorities, curriculum makers and in-service training program coordinates for materials that need emphasis and innovations. The National Association for Business Teacher Education (NABTE) is the institutional division of NBEA. The primary purpose of the organization is to promote business teacher education by providing national leadership and services to its member institutions and business teacher educators.
Membership is open only to such colleges and universities that offer business teacher education curriculums approved by their respective State Departments of Education for the certification of business teachers. NABTE highlighted the importance of professional development in its publication, Business Teacher Education Curriculum Guide & Program Standards (2011). It emphasizes that business teacher educators should be involved in continual professional development activities and highlighted the importance of the course itself for future reference.
The education paradigm emphasized during the early part of the 21st Century clearly called for an emphasis on basic skills (No Child Left Behind, 2001). The term “basic skill” is widely recognized as skill in reading, writing, or math. In fact, the United States national assessment of educational achievement assesses students in two basic skill areas: mathematics and reading. The term reading refers to the ability of a subject to phonemically announce and comprehend written or symbolic material. A licensed teacher is even highly regarded, according to the No Child Left Behind Act 2001, “highly qualified means that teachers have passed the teacher licensing examination.” (Tileston, 2004, p. 8). Foreign Studies
Earlier research studies into the professional development needs of business teacher educators felt they needed more preparation in the development of new teaching methods; it seemed to echo the same perception of practicing business teachers (Polkinghorne, 2006). As a result, Boatright (2005) reported that all teachers must receive “adequate preparation” to work with an “integrated curriculum”.
Most teacher education programs use students’ grade point average (GPA) as a criterion for admission (Mikotovics & Crehan, 2002). Some programs combine GPA with ratings of a written profile, which requires applicants to describe relevant experiences and why they are interested in teaching or with letters of reference (Caskey, Peterson, & Temple, 2001) or with ratings of applicants’ performance in an interview (Denner, Salzman, & Newsome, 2001). In the United States, standardized test results are commonly used. Results from specific pre-requisite education courses also may be utilized.
Finally, for applicants intending to become high school teachers, most consecutive programs require university-level coursework in the subject areas to be taught. Grade Point Average. GPA is the most widely used criterion for admission to teacher education programs (Lawrence & Crehan, 2001; Mikitovics & Crehan, 2002). It is generally believed to measure academic ability and so is thought to predict success in the instructional parts of the programs. However, a more important reason for its popularity as a criterion is likely its ready availability from students’ transcripts and its use by other advanced degree programs. Written Profile.
The second most widely used criterion for entrance into teacher education programs is an applicant profile, typically consisting of written responses to specific questions about relevant experiences and interest in teaching. Such a profile includes much of the same information that could be elicited in an individual interview.
The responses may be reviewed by the teacher education program for evidence of appropriate preparation and genuine interest and for evidence of unsuitability for teaching (Caskey, Peterson & Temple, 2001). In Ontario, all but one teacher education program uses some form of profile or essay response for screening applicants (Teacher Education Application Services, TEAS, 2004). Interview. The interview provides a unique opportunity for the teacher education program to gather information about an applicant’s language proficiency, attitudes, and interpersonal skills, in addition to information similar to that which could be gleaned from a written profile (Denner et. al., 2001). Interview ratings have also been found to be of limited value for predicting student teaching performance (Byrnes et. al., 2000; Caskey et. al., 2001; Denner et. al., 2001).
However, they found that ratings of applicants’ performance in a group interview predicted student teaching performance and that this type of interview was a better predictor than academic criteria. More recently, Byrnes, Kiger, and Shechtman (2000) studied 65 pre-service teachers, comparing their university supervisors’ and supervising teachers’ ratings of their student teaching performance with their ratings from a group interview intended to assess applicants’ verbal, interpersonal, and leadership skills.
The group interview ratings added significantly to the prediction of the university supervisors’ ratings of the pre-service teachers’ student teaching performance, after controlling for the contributions of GPA and ACT test scores, but not to the prediction of the supervising teachers’ ratings. Standardized Tests. Many teacher education programs in the U.S. use results from standardized tests in their selection processes. For example, 28 states and the District of Columbia require applicants to pass the Praxis I: Pre Professional Skills Assessments (Educational Testing Service, 2006), which tests basic skills in reading, writing, and mathematics knowledge.
There does not appear to be a consistent protocol for the use of or selection of standardized tests in the United States, and none are used in Canada as the mandate for Education falls under the jurisdiction of provincial governments. Courses in Subject Area. Applicants for consecutive programs who wish to train to be elementary school teachers are often assumed to have adequate subject matter knowledge if they have a Bachelor’s degree (although some programs will require them to also pass tests of reading, writing, and mathematics).
Applicants for preparation as high school teachers, however, typically must provide proof of adequate knowledge of the subject areas they intend to teach. Often, this requirement is met by providing a university transcript showing completion of the required numbers of courses in the specialization areas. More recently, Stotsky (2006) has suggested that the content of the course should be considered and that university academic departments should be held responsible for the content knowledge of elementary and high school teachers in their disciplines. Overall Success in a Teacher Education Program.
A few studies have examined the ability of admission criteria to predict overall success in a teacher education program. Caskey, Peterson, and Temple (2001), for example, analyzed the admission data for 82 applicants who were subsequently admitted to a one-year consecutive teacher education program. They found that ratings of reference letters and a writing test score were most highly correlated with overall program performance.
The correlation has the GPA of: 11 with personal statements, 16 with the performance of problem-solving by group, and with a holistic rating of completion application with .03 GPA. Together, the six admission criteria accounted for 38% of the variance in program performance. Hamel and Merz (2005) indicated the potential positive impact on student achievement emphasized through legislation seemed “reasonable enough” (p. 158). In fact, they indicated that teacher education institutions should work with federal policy makers to find the best way to improve student achievement.
A myriad of social science researchers indicated subject-matter knowledge is an important component of effective teaching (Draper, 2008; Kehe, 2003; Stone et. al., 2008). A teacher’s ability to contextualize abstract content-knowledge to authentic learning opportunities is essential to the student’s ability to retain and apply knowledge to unique situations.
Contextualizing subject-matter knowledge in social context is supported in both content area reading and cognitive research. Early content area reading research focused on students’ ability to pronounce written materials. To achieve this, according to the National Policy on Education (2004), computer education was integrated into the primary school curriculum, a welcome development but sad to note that subjects like shorthand, typewriting, commerce, and book-keeping are integrated together to form business studies thereby losing their original identity.
In the growing demands of today’s modern world one should be aware of the striking challenges and complexities of life today. Being aware of these things can do a big contribution in terms of the development of the society as well as the citizen of the society. The test of the greatness of a nation lies on the quality of education of its people. Thus, education plays a vital role in developing and producing locally and globally competitive citizens.
On the other hand, if Business Teacher Education program are aiming for quality education and successful teachers, they should consider the effectiveness of the courses and programs being offered as well as the competencies of the teachers in transferring the knowledge and skills to the future educators of the country. While various schools and other institutions offering business teacher education are having difficulties on improving the performance rating of the graduates in the licensure examination for teachers, it is very interesting to know the admission policies of the schools and the quality of the business teacher education program in producing competitive educators of the country.
On the article of Vea Reynaldo (2009) discussing about the World education news and reviews, she made mention about the Philippine educational system. She said that entrance to universities and other institutions of higher education is dependent on the possession of a high school Certificate of Graduation and in some cases on the results of the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE), or in many colleges and universities the results of their own entrance examinations.
The NCAE is administered to fourth-year high school students to gauge the quality of the individual institutions they are attending, it was not designed or intended as an admission test, but has nonetheless served that purpose for some institutions and helps students to choose their career paths. Privately administered testing programs through the Center for Educational Measurement (CEP) are also widely used by colleges for admissions purposes. The two most common ones are the College Scholastic Aptitude Test (CSAT) and the Admission Test for Colleges and Universities (ATCU).
The Philippine Education Placement Test (PEPT) is a national examination designed to evaluate the grade level of students returning to the school system or seeking admission to college based on knowledge and skills gained through formal and non-formal methods. Paredes (2000) states that the task of universities, colleges, and other educational institutions engaged in teacher education is to produce teachers whose preparation allow them to possess not only a high degree of technical skills and a thorough education underlying the practice of teaching, but also to become persons qualified to assume the responsibilities of educational leadership in the communities in which they will work.
Enriquez, (2000) gives importance on accepting students engaged in Teacher Education Program who would unselfishly devote their lives to the noble task of teaching, which the researchers think will do a great help in producing competent teachers that will help students to become a productive citizen of the country.
The admission policy at Polytechnic University of the Philippines on the year on school year 2011-2012 is on a FIRST-COME-FIRST-SERVED basis subject to the availability of slots. In addition to the general criteria set by the University, admission to an academic program depends on the satisfaction of the specific criteria such as PUPCET Score, High School General Weighted Average and High School final rating requirement in selected HS subjects.)
In the College of Education, the specific criteria in admitting aspiring students should have a minimum PUPCET score of 99, on the high school general weighted average their minimum requirement is 82% and the final rating in the English subject should be 82%. The students should pass also in the final interview to be admitted at the College of Education. According to Basaen, et. al. (2005), he wrote about the results of licensure examinations have become measures of the quality of instruction, faculty, and students.
Accrediting agencies as well as C.H.E.D. have used government board examination results as gauge in granting schools the university status, center of development, and center of excellence. Moreover, on the results of the licensure examination for teachers at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines from the year 2008-2013 the researchers had gathered. It had been showed from year 2008 that overall results were 63%, wherein 91 out of 144 passed the examination. While on the year 2009, the overall results were 56% wherein 267 out of 479 had passed.
On the year 2010 there are 141 who passed out of 359 examinees equivalent to 39.25%. While on the year 2011, the overall results were 40.86 wherein 143 had passed out of 350. On the other hand, on year 2012 the overall results was 72.69% where in 330 out of 454 had passed the examination. Lastly, on the current year 2013, the results decreased from 72.69% to 60.33% wherein 146 had passed out of 242. Thus, there is varying results on the performance rating of the students at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. It only goes to show that there is still a need of an improvement.
Licensure examination is a scholastic aptitude test designed to measure some intellectual abilities and skills and that will serve as a requirement for eligibility in the teaching profession. It is the last hurdle that a candidate must face to acquire a license to work. A board has the ultimate responsibility to ensure that the examination meets the technical, professional, and legal standards, and protects the health, safety, and welfare of the public by assessing candidates’ abilities to practice competently in their chosen field. According to Ornstein and Levine (2006, p. 28) licensure and testing for teachers is one of the steps that improves public confidence in the teacher workplace.
Panawidan (2000) found in her study of The Status of the Teacher Education Program of Higher Education Institutions in Region XII that the enrolment in Teacher Education was relatively high compared to other disciplines. She said that teacher education programs are found to be oversubscribed including courses in Business Education, Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication. There seemed to be resurgence in the demand for teachers here and abroad.
She also said that teacher education program was well implemented by majority of the teacher education institutions because of compliance to CHED requirements. In addition, results showed that there were more LET passers in the elementary level than in the secondary level.
There are several factors which could influence the performance of higher education institutions that are offering teacher education program. According to Tan C (2006) in her study of the Factors influencing the performance of teacher education program in selected state universities and colleges in Region IV-A, some faculty-related factors and dean-related factors influenced the performance of teacher education programs in terms of passing rate in the LET and employment rate of graduates.
Supervision of the deans indicated by the dean’s activities towards the improvement of classroom instruction and dean’s supervisory practices for the development of better school and community relationship had significant and positive effect on the passing rate. The more often the deans did such activities, the higher was the passing rate in the LET. Another factor was the school climate since a good school climate results to higher passing rate in the LET, although this condition had a negative influence on the employment rate.
The dean’s longer years of teaching resulted to lower passing rate in the LET but the dean’s education attainment positively influenced the employment of the graduates. Layba (2003) conducted his study on Evaluation of the Quality Teacher Education Program in Higher Education Institutions in the Province of Laguna which consisted of 13 privates and public tertiary schools for school year 2002-2003. In his study, the researcher involves the administrators and teachers of selected tertiary schools as respondents.
The results revealed several strengths and weaknesses of the education program among school respondents. According to Limo (2010) on his study about the Need-based Reviewer in Technology and Livelihood Education for the licensure examination for teachers, it is concluded that the reviewer in T.L.E. is a useful materials in preparing education graduates whose major are technology and livelihood education to take the LET. LET-T.L.E reviewer prepares graduates in the LET in the different components they are not trained in.
It has a content update in each component or practice test items that guide the target user on how to identify the correct answer. Moreover, the reviewer was found highly valid as to objectives, contents, instructional materials and practice test items; hence they are expected to be able to assist the TLE graduates to pass the LET.
Valenton and Dela Cruz (2007) found on their study about The “Performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) of Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Technology and Home Economics Graduates at Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology”, the batch passing rates of LET takers from 2003-2006 were all lower than 30%. Also, the LET takers had a satisfactory performance only in the Field of Specialization and did not perform well in the General Education and Professional Subjects. It might be implied that the BSE Graduates major in T.H.E. did not perform well the LET given in years 2004 to 2006.
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