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Review of related literature and studies Essay

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This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies that serving as a background and frame of preference upon which conceptual framework was formulated. This material gave much background and information for the present study. Related Literature (12 page single space) p 7-21 2. 1 Slavery 2. 1. 1 Timeline of Significant Events. The slave trade had a long history. The first importation of slaves by the Spanish vessels from Africa to America took place in 1522. The first African Slaves arrived in Virginia, USA in 1619. The English colonies start the lawful establishment of slavery in 1660 which included the United States.

The start of the big waves of slave importations into the English colonies from Africa occurred in 1700. The slaves start to outnumber the English Americans in 1720. The Quakers start to fight against the evils of Slavery in 1750. The French and Indian War resulted to the expulsion of the French army from many parts of North America for ten years starting in 1753. The United States war for independence from Great Britain started in 1775 in the war of Lexington and Concord.

The United States finally declared that it wanted to be independent from the Great Britain on July 9, 1776 .

And, the Continental Congress of the United States formally approved their Articles of Confederation on July 9, 1778. And, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania finally abolished the practice of slavery. Great Britain and the United States formally signed the Treaty of Paris agreeing to stop the independence war between the two countries and to recognize the United States as a new nation. And, the Continental Congress sends the new Constitution to the state for ratification on September 28, 1783. George Washington is proclaimed as the first president of the United States on April 30, 1789.

The Bill of Rights that contained the first ten amendments were approved by more than three fourths of the United States territory and becomes part of the United States Constitution. The United States bought Louisiana from France for fifteen million U. S. dollars. And the members of the United States formally made a law banning the importation of slaves into the United States . Further, the White Churches start their religious outreaches to the African American slaves. The United States quelled the revolt orchestrated by Nat Turner in Virginia.

Abraham Lincoln was chosen by the people as the sixteenth president of the United States on March 4, 1861. General Robert Lee’s Confederate army formally surrenders and ends the Civil War on April 9, 1861. The thirteenth Amendment was finally approved by the United States Congress. Lastly, the United States Congress approves with finality the fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This amendment gives automatic citizenship to the slaves. This amendment also punishes those states that do not comply in with the Amendment to remove slavery by taking away the rebelling state’s representation in Congress.

Also, all free men are given the right to vote under the fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution The Beloved novel also had a theme entitled slavery. Slavery is described by the novel’s author as commonplace. This means that the people who have slaves are considered normal people. The people during this time period accept that slavery is an institution and its philosophy and mindset affects the lives of many people in the slave –prevalent parts of the United States. Consequently, slavery had its advantages and disadvantages. There are also good owners of slaves as well as abusive owners of slaves.

Beloved speaks of Garners. They are the owners of the slaves like Sethe. They were very kind to the African American slaves. In return, the slaves like Sethe and Paul D. , another slave, respected the Garners. This happy cooperation between the Garners and the slaves came to an abrupt end when the Garners died. This novel describes the years before the Civil War and the years after it. Morrison’s lyrical narrative coherently weaves together the supernatural and the tangible giving a literary masterpiece that pours out a dazzling achievement resulting to a spellbinding reading activity .

They were replaced by the cruel leadership of the Garner replacement. The replacement was a man known only as school teacher. Paul D later stated that their happy home would only last as long as the Garners were alive. This was definitely true. Paul D. further reiterated that their happy home under the Garners would be shattered upon his death. The novel also dictates that the Garners are for against the practice of slavery. However, the novel identifies the slaves as just simple playthings or workers who were manipulated by the Garners to feed their fantasies and wants with the slaves as instruments.

In a simple to read manner, Beloved author Morrison wants to paint a picture in the minds of the Beloved readers how big the problem of slavery is. Morrison also indirectly gives clues as to how widespread and evil the slave trade was during those fateful time periods. The author, Morrison, also emphasizes that there are some ways to eradicate slavery. In the Bodwin home, there is a statue of an African American child. The statue has on it an inscription that reads “At Yo Service”.

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