Respiration is the process in which the body is supplied through an organelle called mitochondria in the cells, this is done by producing ATP. Essay
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There are two types of respiration, which occurs when your body has enough oxygen to make the reaction take place aerobic needs glucose, and oxygen, which in turn creates carbon dioxide and water with energy being the byproduct. The other is anaerobic this occurs if the cells cannot be supplied with enough oxygen this reaction takes place by using glucose with the products being carbon dioxide and lactic acid. The most common respiration is aerobic as it occurs at low intensity of activity and anaerobic happens when you are doing high intensity of activity (75% and above of maximum heart rate)
Respiration can be measured by taking the carbon dioxide produced, this needs special equipment which we do not have.
Another way is by taking the levels of glucose used also oxygen used in the reaction all requiring high level of equipment. We will need to make a repeatable method to get the recording of respiration, with this set temperature will need to be made in order to calculate the average time for the reaction to take place and end, the mean of the temperature is needed to record respiration of the organism throughout the experiment.
When calculating there needs to be two constants time and temperature to keep the experiment fair as possible. The test should be done multiple times so we can get an accurate result.
The energy produced from respiration is ATP which stands for Adenosine Triphosphate this comes from the mitochondria of the cell it is easy to remember the mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell if no mitochondria we would not have enough energy to complete simple daily tasks.
• A peak flow meter can be used to measure peak flow
• Measuring how fast air comes out of the lungs when forcefully exhaling after inhaling fully
• A peak flow meter is used for people that have asthma
• It also can prevent asthma attacks if the reading is too low you could be on the way of having an asthma attack
• This is the volume of air your lungs can hold
• This is important in the part of intake of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide
• To calculate lung capacity, you need a piece of equipment called spirometer which you blow into
• This measures the amount of speed air is inhaled and exhaled
• The higher the lung capacity the more oxygen can go to the cells for respiration
• Is the pressure of the circulatory system
• Often measured for diagnosis
• It is measure in millimetres of mercury the healthy reading of 120/80 is what you want
• When respiring you will see a drop of blood pressure during inhalation and increase when exhaling
• Is the amount of beats in a set amount of time usually being 1 minute
• It is based on the number of contractions in the ventricles
• You can measure your heart rate by putting your fingers on your neck
• Count the beats in 6 seconds and times that by 10
• That then gives you your BPM
• The breathing rate help determines the amount of oxygen the cells can get in the body.
• During exercise there is an increase in breathing as our need for oxygen increases.
• This is caused by the muscle demanding more oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide levels which stimulates faster and deeper breathing
• To calculate breathing rate by doing the same for heart rate
• These can both be used in medical industry as it can tell if someone’s heart/breathing rate is too high
This is the rate of which metabolism takes place in the body. At rest the measurement is when someone is a complete rest and when a high amount of energy is burned, this is done by finding the amount of calories burnt in a set amount of time. The most accurate way of finding your basic burn rate is when a subject has fasted for 12 hours and had 8 hours sleep then measuring after, but you can also do a estimation (Mifflin St. Jeor Equation) which was first introduced in 1990.
• For men: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) + 5
• For women: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) – 161
The average calories burnt in a day for female is 1,620cal a day and for men it is 2,200 or around about as it is hard to get an averages of this sort. Also this is the average amount of calories to allow your body to do basic functions such as breathing and blood circulation. Your metabolic rate depends on the amount stress of the function like if you\’re exercising your metabolic rate would be higher as your body is doing more functions equaling in more calories burnt but if you are sitting on the sofa watching tv your metabolic rate will be low.
Air temperature is also another factor that can affect metabolic rate like if it warm outside your metabolism would be lower as your body doesn\’t need to use energy to keep you warm it is the opposite when it is cold.
In the medical industry it is good to have good respiration as it brings many health benefits. It is needed for normal body functions such as moving, it is essential to all living things. Respiration is needed for energy for the cells within the human body. Within the medical side of respiration, this is needed to give energy for cellular multiplication, homeostasis, etc.
The commercial use of respiration is used rarely, yet is probably the thing we rely on most in the food industry. For example, to make bread we need respiration in yeast (which is a fungus) reacts with sugar causing respiration which then causes the bread to rise when it is baked at the right temperature. Also it is needed in alcohol which again uses respiration, so respiration is mainly used in the food industry which is taken for granted.
The rate of reaction will be affected by the temperature. As it heats up meaning more activity at the enzymes once the temperature has risen enough the enzymes will become denatured which makes them not able to synthesize the particles
• Control variable – The controlled measurements are the amount of yeast, amount of water in the bath, size of conical flask and the concentration of glucose these all need to be controlled as if they are not then the test will be unfair and will give unreliable results
• Independent – the temperature is the independent variable as it is the thing that we are changing by 10oC each time till we reach 60oC this is the only independent variable
• Dependent – rate of reaction to produce 10cm3 of CO2 is the dependent as this depends on the temperature with how mostly science works as the temperature goes up so does the reaction.
Hazard Risk Possible Damage to Equipment Risk Rating Action Taken to Control Risk
Hot water Burning to the skin Conical flask, thermometer Low Taking extra care with the hot water during the experiment, and running cold water on any burns
Water on floor Slipping and falling Item(s) the student is carrying Low Clear up any spillages
Hot heating unit Burning to the skin None Low To make sure to be safe round the heating unit.
Water coming into contact with electricity
Heat bath, plug sockets
Keep water away from electrical units and make sure that no water comes into contact with the plug socket
• Measuring cylinders (x2 50cm3)
• Water heater
• Plastic tub
• Dried yeast
• Glucose solution (10%)
1. Measure 20cm3 of 10% glucose solution and pour into conical flask.
2. Measure out 3 grams of dried yeast.
3. Add the yeast glucose solution in the conical flask.
4. Place the yeast to the glucose solution in the water bath at set temperature (20, 30, 40, 50, 60oC) for ten minutes.
5. While waiting set up an inverted 50cm3 measuring cylinder in a washing bowl of water.
6. After the 10 minutes, place the bung with the delivery tube over the conical flask and insert the delivery tube inside the 50cm3 measuring cylinder. Start the timer.
7. Mix the yeast and glucose continuously until 10cm3 of gas is produced in the measuring cylinder.
8. Stop stopwatch and record results.
9. Then repeat the steps again 3 times
The rate of a reaction is calculated by the amount of product formed (reactant used) divided by the time taken. In the experiment, the rate of respiration was calculated by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide produced (10cm3) divided by the time taken in seconds, by which was the dependent variable in the experiment.
The average of the time taken to produce 10cm3 of carbon dioxide in seconds by finding the sum of the dependent variable (temperature) then dividing by the times repeated experiments (3). We then divided 10 by the time taken to find the rate of the reaction.
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To calculate the average, you do add the 3 results you got and divide the result by 3.
Time taken to produce 10cm3 of CO2
Temperature 1 2 3 Average Rate of Reaction
20 366 374 390 377 0.027
30 290 274 310 291 0.034
40 220 214 245 226 0.044
50 330 319 452 367 0.031
60 632 695 586 638 0.016
What the graph shows is that as the temperature rises so does the rate of reaction it then hits its highest peak at 40oC to then gradually becomes denatured to the point where the reaction barely takes place. The shape of the graph is like a hill it rises and then peaks to when it hits around 50oC is drastically goes down in the rate of reaction. What we can take from this is that the optimum temperature for the enzyme to function at is 40oC this is also when the yeast respires most known as peak respiration after 40oC the enzyme then becomes denatured to the point where it cannot be a catalyst and does not function properly this is known as denaturing. The highest recorded result was about 0.044 just under the 0.045cm3/s mark, the lowest was 0.016cm3/s, this happened at 60oC.
Looking back on the experiment I can say that the results were accurate to use. The experiment was repeated multiple times to make sure we could find any anomalous results in the tests this would make the results more reliable as well. My results that I got were accurate and easily repeatable this is seen in the results as when we repeated the test the results were the same and had no to very little difference.
The equipment we used was good enough for the experiment but if repeated in a lab the results could be more reliable as their equipment would be the latest technology an example of this is in the lab they would be able to use a gas syringe a gas syringe has measurements this is what makes it more accurate than using a measuring cylinder makes could give uncertain results as it done on eye sight and can be hard to read when it hits 10cm3. Another uncertainty would be the respiration of the yeast as not all of it could have respired, to come over this issue we could have left the yeast in the water bath overnight then added the glucose next day. Also another uncertainty is the gas released could be too quick to take down the result, to come over this we tried to be as accurate as possible with the results by getting someone to look at the measurement all the time.
Overall I feel like the experiment was a success although with a few minor changes would have made the test more accurate and reliable, there weren’t many anomalous results and checking them to other groups our tests seemed to line up.
With the temperature increasing so does the rate of respiration (reaction) this then cannot disprove my hypothesis. It cannot be disproven as the experiment gave us the results to prove it right (as the temp. Increases so does the rate of reaction). We found that the enzymes we used worked at an optimum temperature of 40oC which would make sense as the human body is around about 37.5oC this is because the heat makes the enzymes move more creating more of a chance for a reaction to take place. To apply this to industry to make yeast react at its optimum set the temperature around 40oC also for brewing.