Background of the Study Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 19 March 2016

Background of the Study

Chapter I
Introduction
Nowadays, many researchers and proponents are into developing an online system for a certain establishment. Our society is living in the 21st century, a computer based generation, where many devices and softwares are being made. Being knowledgeable about it is one way to make living less complicated. And so with the use of the Internet, development of this kind of systems was made possible. A Website with Online Reservation is not a new thing, there has already been created for an airline, a restaurant and many more. To start with, Online Reservation is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions usually related to air travel and purchasing of product/ service. The benefits of this type of system is that it can let the user take and enjoy complete control, it is capable of advertising for specials and new offers. It can also show a customer a range of scheduling option that is difficult to obtain over the phone where you can see exactly the available schedules. It also provides convenience, because you can make reservations in anyplace with an Internet connection, your home, office or on the go with a mobile internet device. This is one of the solutions on how can a establishment provide convenience to their customers, because since it was made online, no need to go to the clinic just to reserve for a consultation or a certain service. It grants an advantage to both the establishment and their customers. As for an example, a health facility such as Clinica Marikina, a clinic which comprises many specialties which are as follows: general surgery; obstetrics and ob-gynecology; pediatrics; internal medicine; family medicine; rehabilitation medicine; radiology; dentistry; Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT) Surgery; opthalmology; dermatology; endocrinology; reproductive medicine & infertility. And also, the clinic offers services such as, complete laboratory, Electrocardiogram (ECG), X-Radiation (X-RAY), ultrasound and physical therapy.

Clinica Marikina is just one of the clinic who experiences disorderly type when making a reservation, when having it in a manual way, it gets misleading for the clinic’s staff and even the patient, because there are instances in making a reservation by hand without the aid of computer is quite confusing, records get los because of some unfortunate events that took place, like what the storm ONDOY did, a mishap takes place where in they appear to have the same schedule they reserved for and circumstances that doctors are suddenly not available for that day but there has already been a reservation made, these experiences hassles both the patient and the clinic management or staff. In lieu with that, the proponents think that developing an Online Scheduling and Reservation System for the clinic can be of great help to its management. Since it is made online, there is no need for the patient to go to the clinic for reservation and experience long time of waiting and long queues because of too many customers waiting for their turns as well to have their reservation scheduled, and this would save their time for doing some other things. As for the clinic, since reservation has been made accurate and organized, rendering of services can now flow as planned. And another thing is that the files and records of reservation can now be easily updated, kept and organized. And with this, the information about the clinic, its services, doctors and their availability, can be easily updated. General and Specific Objectives

The general objective of the study is to develop a Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation Specifically, the study aims to:
1. Design a Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation for the available schedule of the doctors, with the following features:
a.Enable report generation, that can be done weekly to keep track of the transactions being rendered.
b.Permit only four (4) users, the administrator, doctor, staff and the patients.
c.Put up a search box that is capable of filtering data to make searching easier.
d.Incorporate Paypal to the system for the payment.
e.Provide a patients form, that will be filled up by a registered patient to determine if he/ she reserves for himself/ herself or not.
f.Provide a chatbox, that would enable the staff, patient and the doctor to communicate.
g.File maintenance of Doctor’s Profile.
h.Online Registration for the patient.
2. Construct a website with online reservation as designed.
3. Assess the system’s performance and its functions.
4. Provide tables that would serve as the storage, and processes/ modules that could enable the users to use and access the system.

Scope and Limitations
The proponent focuses mainly on developing a Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation. There would only be four users of this system, the doctors, patients, staff and the administrator. Doctors

The doctors are capable of updating their profile and schedule. He could also view the reservation being made with them, the date and the time the patient has reserved for. The doctor is also capable of editing his own profile and adding his specialization as long as the service is on the list of the services offered and created by the administrator. The doctor can also participate in chat conversation between the staff and patient. The doctor’s account can only be created by the administrator of the clinic. However, the doctor cannot reserve a walk-in patient. Patients

The patients, on the other hand, is the one who is capable of reserving for a service. He could also view the services, the doctors name, specialization along with the service the doctor renders and doctor’s available schedule. The patient should first pay the reservation fee before he can make a reservation. The patient will then recieve an email confirmation concerning the reservation the patient has made. The patient can also cancel the reservation he has made. However, when it comes to cancelling a reservation, the patient’s money is not refundable. Moreover, these features in patient module can only be done when the patient logs in. The patient’s reservation can also be canceled by the administrator or the staff as long as the patient gives the permission to do so. Staff

The staff will be the one who will confirm a reservation – arrived if the patient arrived at the clinic or has been served and canceled if the patient ask staff to cancel patient’s reservation. He could view the reservations and confirm a reservation that has already been rendered. The staff can
also register a walk-in patient in the online reservation of the clinic. When the staff registers the walk-in patient, the walk-in patient will have an account if ever the walk-in patient wants to make a reservation online. The staff can also make a reservation for walk-in patient who wants to make a reservation. Administrator

The administrator can add, edit, delete certain information in staff, patient, doctor, and even the administrator’s module.

Patient Module:
The administrator can search a patient by id number, last name, first name and even the patient’s email address. The administrator can edit patient’s information. However, the administrator is not capable of editing the patient’s login information. The administrator is capable of deleting the patient’s account. When the administrator deleted the patient’s record, the record will be move to a different table. Moreover, the administrator can also add or register a patient in case the staff is not around.

Doctor Module:
The administrator can search a doctor by id number and doctor’s first and last name. The administrator can edit doctor’s information such as doctor’s first name, last name, and doctor’s specialization. However, the administrator is not capable of editing doctor’s login information. The administrator is also capable of deleting doctor’s account. In addition to that, the administrator is also the one who is capable of creating or adding a new doctor’s account.

Services Module:
The adminstrator can search services either by id number or service name. The administrator can also edit service’s name and service classification. The administrator can also delete service being rendered by the clinic. Moreover, the administrator can also add new services.

Chat History Module:
The administrator can view, edit and delete all the chat conversation being
made by staff, doctor and patient. The adminstrator can also ban user by banning patient’s username or allow user to chat again. The reason why there is banning of user in chat room is because there may be times that there will be patient who would say/type a foul word. However, the system can not automatically detect foul word(s).

Reservation Module:
The administrator can view all the reservations made by the patient and the cancelled reservations. The administrator also has the capability to confirm a reservation.
Generate Report Module:
The administrator can view all the transactions made by the patient. The administrator can view the total amount of payments the patients had paid and view who are those patients including their transaction details.

For the system’s limitation, the study is only limited to Clinica Marikina and other features which are not discussed will not be part of the study. To be specific, the system cannot perform a simple consultation to the patient online, it is not capable of doing a refund because the payment that was made was forfeited since the slot they reserved for was closed, and did not permit other patients to reserve for it, letting it used to no purpose, and for the fact that it is considered as a reservation fee. The system also provides an email notification to staff and patient depending of what transaction they make. However, the system is not capable of alerting the staff that there is a new registered patient or there is a new reservation made. Alerting means there will be a pop-up message stating that there is a new reservation or new registered patient. Significance of the study

Due to the increasing population of Clinica Marikina’s patients, this study will help the clinic in storing their client’s information on safe repository. The proposed system aims to benefit the clinic in maintaining their files, as well as keeping track of the reservations and schedulings being made each day. The proposed system aims to benefit the following: The Clinic

The main beneficiary of the study is Clinica Marikina. Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation, would be adapting the new innovation of technology through web that will make their work with optimum performance. Since that this is an Information System, one of its advantages is that it will be organized. And the system itself could possibly attract customers because it was made online, which means, no need to go to the clinic when making a reservation. The Doctors

The doctors would also benefit, in such way that they are always aware of the reservations being made with them, and they can also update their own schedules anytime. The Patients
The patients will benefit by means of not having a hard time going to the clinic just to make a reservation. They could avoid those long queues and reduce the time being wasted for waiting for their turns to have an appointment. The Proponents

The proponents would also be a beneficiary of the study since the proponents would value the importance of enhancing their skills and work performance while grasping knowledge throughout the study.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDY AND LITERATURE
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies, underlying the framework of the study. It includes the conceptual model of the study and the operational definition of terms.

Related Literature

Why get a Web Site? The Advantages of a company or business web site According to Paulose H. In his entry Why get a Web Site? The Advantages of a company or business web site. You may ask yourself, “Why Get a Web Site? Why do I need a web site … I already have a good customer brochure.” With an internet site, your product or service is accessible globally, to prospective customers 24 hours, 365 days a year. More and more people these days are using the internet as a first post of call because of its
convenience and to save time. Customers and the general public almost expect that a company has a web site. If people want information on a product or service, they are now saying, “I think they have a web site, I’ll check that out first.” The Top 10 Advantages of having a web site are:

1. You can publicize your business, service or products to millions of potential customers. Having a web site can increase your sales. 2. You can update your web site with your latest news or prices much easier and cheaper than print based media. A web site can save you a lot of money in communication and administration costs. 3. You can link your web site with other advertising campaigns therefore creating brand awareness. 4. Your business can advertise and publicise on the internet 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. 5. Your business now has an extra outlet for taking orders. 6. Web sites are easier and cheaper to change / update, than conventional print based media. Content Management Systems can be set-up so that you can update any section of your web site, whenever you want as often as you want. 7. Web sites make it easier for customers to do business with you. These customers can be global or local. 8. You can compete with other companies in your market area. 9. You can now place your web site address on your business card to enhance your image. 10. You can use your web site to network with other companies and build better business relationships, locally and around the world. Imagine the scenario whereby customers ring you requesting information on a product or service – there’s only so much you can do via telephone and delivering brochures via postal services takes time. It would be great to say, “If you take a look at our web-site, I’m sure you’ll find what you need there.” You would be surprised how many extra sales you could have by developing an on-line brochure or virtual store. Having an internet site also speeds up the time taken to react to customer queries, which can be done via e-mail. Alternative Online Payment System

From the article titled Alternative Online Payment System it says that to conduct an online payment transaction, a customer provides their online payment information to an alternative online payment provider like PayPal, WorldPay, Money Bookers, or gPay who in turn, processes the
customer’s online information. An alternative online payment system is affordable and simple to setup. Another advantage is that a merchant can use an established alternative online payment system provider such as PayPal or WorldPay to assure their customer’s security. However, some customers may be confused or suspicious when redirected to another website. Information access and formatting options are limited in an alternative online payment system. An additional disadvantage is that Alternative Online Payment Systems have high chargeback fees when a payment is recalled by the customer. No Merchant Account or Secure Certificate are required which are provided by the alternative payment providers. Fees are the highest of all 5 transaction methods. Examples of alternative online payment include PayPal, WorldPay, Money Bookers, and gPay. Manual Reservation System VS Online Reservation System

According to Garcia H. (2008) Manual Reservation System VS Online Reservation System it says that when it comes to manual reservation, it is more tedious or lacking in variety. For example is that when there is client who wants to reserve certain date and services, the client does not required at all to come to the clinic. Instead, the client can just simply log-in on the clinics’ website and make a reservation rather than through manual process wherein the patient is needed to stop by at the clinic to make a reservation. Next is committing mistakes, in manual process, there could be a chance that the inputted information is not on the correct required field. With that mistake, the staff or the doctor will have a difficulty finding that error, while through online reservation, the client will be prompted if his inputs are not valid for the required field because the system itself can detects errors. When it comes to keeping a record, computerized system is far more efficient than manual system because in manual, you always need big racks to store the information of the client. While in the computerized, the submitted information from the client will automatically be saved on the systems database. Therefore, retrieval of records are much easy than manual. Lastly, in terms of storage, the online system only requires at least 500GB of RAM to store the data, while in manual, the clinic don’t need to have a 500GB RAM but instead, at least 4 big size of file cabinet to store all the clinics file. Online reservation also is environmental friendly because it
is virtually paperless.

Abesamis Dental Clinic
Dr. Edgardo Q. Abesamis founded Abesamis Dental Clinic to serve the industry-based corporations in the Southern Metro Manila Area. They render services such as Oral Implantology, General Dentistry, Orthodontics, Periodontics and Pediatric Dentistry. With these services, the clinic also have an online reservation for appointment wherein it is use for dental appointment. To make a reservation, the client is required to input his basic information such as last and first name, phone number and email address. These fields are in the same page with the desired appointment date, clinic branch appointment time, and services. Unlike in the proposed system, the proponent proposed that the field for inputting the basic information of the client would be in the different page from the reservation module. In Abesamis system, it only inform its clients that a staff will call within 48 hours for confirmation whether the reservation the client have made is accepted or not. The Abesamis Clinic also does not have implemented enough security for the system. The clinic dont require the client a reservation fee. Unlike in the proposed system, the client is mandated to pay at least P150.00 for reservation fee for the clinic to ensure that the client is not a bogus reserver. (Retrieved October 10, 2010 from http://abesamisdental.com/index.htm)

Lahey Clinic
Lahey Clinic is a physician-led, nonprofit group practice. Nearly 450 physicians and more than 4,000 nurses, therapists and other support staff work together to provide compassionate care and superior patient outcomes. The Clinic’s multidisciplinary approach allow patients access to preeminent physicians from virtually every medical specialty, who cooperate to develop personalized treatment plans for each patient. From advanced technology to research and medical education, Lahey Clinic combines the renowned specialty resources of its medical centers with top-quality primary care services at community-based practices throughout northeastern Massachusetts. Lahey Clinic Medical Center in Burlington encompasses an ambulatory care center serving more than 3,000 patients each day and a 317-bed hospital. Lahey
Clinic Medical Center, North Shore, in Peabody, serves more than 800 outpatients each day and includes a 10-bed hospital. Both feature 24-hour emergency departments, and an American College of Surgeons verified Level II Trauma Center is based at the Burlington facility. Aside from their services, they also have online appointment system. By completing the following form, the customer can submit an online appointment request to see a Lahey Clinic physician. If the customer does not have a specific Lahey physician in mind, their staff will be the one to assist by scheduling an appointment with a provider who meets customer’s needs. Online appointment requests are processed in three business days. For urgent appointment requests, the customers should call the clinic’s phone number. Or, to reach the physician’s office, the customer should see the telephone list for all Lahey Clinic locations. For canceling and rescheduling of existing appointments, the customer is also required to call the Appointment Office at either of the numbers provided. (Retrieved October 4, 2010 from https://www.lahey.org/Appointments/Domestic/DOM_ApptForm.asp?S=JGFIKJMDK)

Campbell Clinic – Orthopaedics
For nearly a century, Campbell Clinic has been a leading figure in orthopaedics. It is a course immediately set by their founder, Dr. Willis C. Campbell when he opened his clinic in 1909. In the years following that event, Dr. Campbell organized the Department of Orthopaedic residency program, and co-founded The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and served as its first president. His knowledge and influence ran so deep that he even wrote the first textbook on the subject – known as Campbell’s Operative Orthopaedics – which soon became the definitive work on the specialty, and retains that status even now.

Campbell also has its online scheduling of appointment. The appointment can be made by calling their hotline number or the customer may also use the appointment form. However, injury appointments cannot be made online.

In their appointment form, the customer is requiring to provide contact information. Customers are asked if they ever been a Campbell Clinic patient, they also asked what problems bring them to Campbell Clinic.
Campbell Clinic shows the list of their Physician in their appointment form. The time of appointment is divided into two – morning appointment and afternoon appointment. After sending the appointment form, there is a message saying that the request is being processed and the clinic will contact the customer within 24 hours with information regarding their request. (Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.campbellclinic.com/cms.asp?ID1=On-line+Services&ID2=Thank+You) Synthesis

Based from the related literatures that was gathered, the proponent can say that having a website can publicize the business, service or products to millions of potential customers. Websites are quicker, easier and more cost-effective to update than print based media. The company can have pictures, details and prices of company’s products, the very latest company information, or maps indicating the location of the company on the website. A website can play an integral part of the company’s promotional and marketing strategy. It also makes a powerful statement about the company’s business. Online Reservation System relies on time reduction of processes involving manual entries of scheduling and reservation. Moreover, the system could less the risk of committing mistake unlike in manual procedures.

Using an alternative payment system is what the proponent will adopt. The proponent will include payment on the proposed system to ensure that the client is not a bogus reserver.

Related Studies
According to the study of Ahmad, Israr (2009) entitled “Online Reservation System of White Palace Swat”. The theoretical hypothetical objective of his project is to minimize the time involved in processing and retrieval of information, error-free and provide accurate information. He alleged that the system should have a comprehensive database which provides access, insertion, updation, and deletion on each file and facilitate online queries and data promoting at where cursor is placed. User interface is one of the factors the proponent is considering. The interactive inputs screen is well
designed. It would make data entry simple and easy for the user and data will be accepted in the same manner as it is done manually but in a much attractive way. (Ahmad, I., (2009). Online Reservation of White Palace Swat. Retrieved September 28, 2010 from University of Santo Tomas. Dfd) According to Johnson, Walter J., a professional writer since the early 1990s. He was previously a full-time teacher at the university level. He has published in such journals as the “Salisbury Review”, “Church-State-Society”, “Rossia21” and many other publications. He is a professional historian, graduating with a doctoral degree in the history of social ideas from the University of Nebraska. He states that many establishment nowadays are into online reservation because this method can save many headaches. Online reservation also provides security when it comes to room or services reservation.

One of the primary advantage of online reservation is convinience. It takes little time and minimized interaction between employees and clients. If the patient for example need to communicate with the clinic, he does not need to go to the clinic just to ask inquiries. Just like in the proposed system, the proponent includes a chatbox for the patients to inquire online. With that, the client does not required to go to the clinic.

A major advantage of using the internet to reserve a service is that the client will easily know what the clinic offers, the location of clinic, and the location. The client can have a choices like whether he wants to make a reservation or simply like to browse the site. Moreover, few people realize that once the client make a reservation, the client’s information is remembered in the computer system. This form of reservation offers security and complete privacy. In certain cases, regular return clients receive additional rewards and incentives for client’s loyalty. (Walter, J.(2010). eHow: The advatages of online reservation. Retrieved October 12, 2010 from http://www.ehow.com/list_6048257_advantages-online-reservation.html)

According to Turban E., et al.(2008). An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions. Also known as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular due to the widespread use
of the internet-based shopping and banking. In the early years of B2C transactions, many consumers were apprehensive of using their credit and debit cards over the internet because of the perceived increased risk of fraud. Recent research shows that 30% of people in the United Kingdom still do not shop online because they do not trust online payment systems. However, 54% do believe that it is safe to shop online which is an increase from 26% in 2006. There are numerous different payments systems available for online merchants. These include the traditional credit, debit and charge card but also new technologies such as digital wallets, cash, mobile and e-checks. Another form of payment system is allowing a 3rd party to complete the online transaction for you. These companies are called Payment Service Providers (PSP), a good example is PayPal or Wordplays. (Note PayPal also offers its own payment system) Electronic bill presentment and payment (EBPP) is a fairly new technique that allows consumers to view and pay bills electronically. There are a significant number of bills that consumers pay on a regular basis, which include: power bills, water, oil, internet, phone service, mortgages, car payments etc. EBPP systems send bills from service providers to individual consumers via the internet. The systems also enable payments to be made by consumers, given that the amount that appears on the e-bill is correct. Banks in Canada have been offering these on-line payment services for some time now, and are growing in popularity. Other service providers such as Rogers Communications and Aliant accept major credit cards within the bill payment sections of their websites. This service is in addition to the original EBPP method of a direct withdrawal from a bank account through a bank such as Scotiabank. (Turban, E. King, D. McKay, J. Marshall, P. Lee, J & Vielhand, D. (2008). Electronic Commerce 2008: A Managerial Perspective. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.550. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-commerce_payment_system) Synthesis

Based on the studies gathered by the proponents, Online Reservation System acts as a medium to give its users convenience and time management. Since the system can be accessed online, it can be accessed anywhere through the use of the internet. However, because it is online it is prone to security risk so the proponent added an electronic payment (E-Pay) to secure the
transactions and also to avoid imposters. Manual way of reservation is a very tedious job and requires manpower, in such a way that the person accepting the reservations will need to write and update manually the available schedule of doctors, so the online reservation is really a big help not only to the company but also to the clients. Conceptual Model

On the basis of the foregoing concepts, theories and findings of related literature, studies presented and insights taken from them, a conceptual model is developed as shown below. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

1. Knowledge
Requirements
a. Information
System
b. Scheduling and reservation system
c. Programming
Languages and
Software

2. Software
Requirements
a. OS (Windows 7)
b. Adobe CS
(adobe dreamweaver, adobe photoshop)
c. PHP (xampp)
d. Appache

3. Hardware
a. Computer (Laptop)
– 2 GB RAM
– Dual Core
b. Mouse
c. Keyboard
d. Printer (optional)

1. Analysis
a. System Requirements
b. System Definitions

2. Design
a.SDLC
b. Context Diagram
c. DFD
d. System Flowchart

3. Development
a. Program Coding
b. System test and improvement

Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation
EVALUATION

Figure 1. The Conceptual Model of Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation

The conceptual model of the study is composed of three blocks namely: the input, the process, and the output as illustrated in Figure 1. The input block presents the 3 sub-components knowledge requirements, software requirements and hardaware requirements. Knowledege requirements includes information system, programming languages/software and scheduling and reservation system. And for the software requirements of the said system, supports the platform of an operating system at least Windows XP/Vista/7, web programming language specifically PHP, using the Adobe Dreamweaver as we code the program, and execute it with a web browser and Adobe Photoshop as we design the system. Lastly, the hardware requirement is the computer unit alone, along with the internet connection that would perform the different functions of the system. Then for the process block, it consists of the system analysis, the design and the development. Under system analysis are system requirements and system definitions, wherein the needs and some
definitions will be explained and studied by the proponents. And for the system design, flowcharts and diagrams would be constructed to show the process and how the system functions. Finally, for the development, it is the coding and finalizing of the system, the phase where the proponents will now produce the output from the design. As an evaluation, testing and assessing the system to be able to know the possible conflict that would lead the system to crash. And for the possible improvement and add-ons to our system.

Definition of Terms
Technical
Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)
Refers to a style sheet language used to describe the presentation, semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in Hyper Text ark-up Language (HTML) and Extensible HTML (XHTML), but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and XUL. CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts. Database

Refers to an application that manages data and allows fast storage and retrieval of that data. A database consists of an organized collection of data for one or more uses, typically in digital form. One way of classifying involves the type of their contents, for example: bibliographic, document-text, statistical. Data Processing

Refers to a process of converting data into the information and it can also convert information into a data. It means data processing can convert any data from one format to another. By means of various sources, customers give their opinions as data. Information system takes that raw data as input to produce information as output. Hence, conversion of raw data into useful information is accomplished through an application of data-processing. Hypertext Pre-processor (PHP)

Refers to a widely used general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. PHP code is processed by an interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers and as a standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms. MySQL

Refers to an open source relational database management system. It is based on the structure query language (SQL), which is used for adding, removing, and modifying information in the database. Standard SQL commands such as add, drop, insert, and update can be used with MySQL. Reservation system

Refers to a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to travel. Originally designed and operated by airlines, they were later extended to travel agents as a sales channel. Airlines have divested most of their direct holdings to dedicated GDS companies, and may system are now accessible to consumers through Internet gateways for hotel, rental cars, and other services as well as airline tickets. Scheduling system

Refers to a software product designed to optimize demand-based manufacturing practices. Operational
Consult/Check-up
Refers to the general physical examination or it refers to the information or advice from someone who has special knowledge about particular subject. Disease
Refers to the abnormal condition of the body that causes discomfort and distress to the person affected. Inpatient
Refers to the patient who is admitted to the hospital and stays overnight for an indeterminate time or for several days. Outpatient
Refers to the patient who is not hospitalized for 24 hours or more but who visit the hospital, clinic or associated facilities for diagnose or
treatment.

Patient
Refers to the person who receives medical attention care or treatment. Payment information
Refers to the receipt of the patient once they paid the down payment of the services. Symptom
Refers to the signs or to the indication of disorder or disease, especially when experience by an individual as a change from normal function, sensation, or appearance.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter would present the project design, project development, its operation and testing procedure as well as the evaluation procedures. Types of Research
The group consider this study as a descriptive research, also known as statistical reaserach. Descriptive research answers the question who, what, where and how and it describes data and characteristic about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averagaes, and other statistical calculations. Although descriptive reseach is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind the situation. Descriptive reseach is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain better understanding of a topic for example, a frozen ready meals company learns that there is a growing demand for fresh ready meals but doesn’t know about how much the area of the fresh foods. So the company has to carry out research in order to gain a better understanding. The group choosed descriptive study because the system that the group are proposing is already an existing system, wherein the proponents developed, improved and understand the system but still based from the alike previous reservation systems.

Project Design

Figure 2. Context Diagram of Website for Clinica Marikina with Online
Reservation Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation System has four level of access which are the following: Doctors

The doctor will enter his username and password to gain access the system. Then he could add and update his own schedule and profile. He has the capability to view the reservation being made by the patient with them as the Doctor. And the doctor can also update the specializations that he renders. The doctor can send messages to the patient or staff through the chatroom provided in the site as well. Patients

If the patient is not yet registered, and he wants to schedule and create an appointment, he is then required to register by filling up the form that only needs patient’s personal or basic information. Afterwards, the system will create an account for that specific patient. When the patient has already registered, every time he wants to use the Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation, he is required to enter his username and password to access the system that will perform specific functions only for the patient. He is capable of making and cancelling his reservations but before he does, he should have paid first the reservation fee, which is Php150.00. The patient is also capable of sending chat messages to staff and doctors for inquiries. And if there is any updates about the patient’s information that is need to be modified, the patient could also update his profile. Staff

The staff will enter a password and a username to access the system. The staff is the one who reserve for the walk-in patients. He is capable of receiving and responding to the chat of the patients. The staff is capable of registering a walk-in patient to the system as well. By any chance that the staff has some updates or changes to his profile, he could update it. In confirmation of the patient’s payment made through PayPal, the staff is the one who inputs the payment details to monitor the payment just before allowing the patient to continue with his reservation. Administrator

The admin will enter his username and password to access the system. He is capable of viewing all the databases. The databases that he could manage are
the services, doctors, patients, staff, chat messages, advertisements and reservation only. The administrator has the capability of making a reservation for a walk-in patient, registering an account for the walk-in patient, staff and doctor. The administrator could also add and update the clinic’s services once there has been necessary updates about it. In accordance to the chat messages, the administrator is capable of banning and allowing users to use chat. The administrator could also post some advertisements that randomly appears in the system’s different pages.

Data Flow Diagram
Figure 3. Data flow Diagram of Administrator for Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation The Administrator will login through the specified username and password. By managing the accounts, he could add, edit and delete records of patients, staffs and doctors. The administrator is also capable of managing the clinic’s services, the administrator can add a service, and as well as update and delete it too. The administrator can also manage the chatroom, editing and deleting certain messages that he chooses. The administrator is capable of banning a particular user if the user has made violations such as sending unneccessary messages or foul words that can offend the other users. As an administrator, he can also post advertisements that he chooses, might from the affiliates or some random advertisement that is health related. The administrator can also manage the reports and reservation, the reports wherein it could be sorted out by certain parameters, it might be by a patient’s name or staff’s name, or could even be by month or year. The administrator is the one that is capable of confirming reservations wether the reservation that was made was successfully rendered or was cancelled, that falls under the managing of patient’s transactions. And the administrator could also make reservations for the walk-in patient, if there comes a time that staff is not around to make a reservation for the walk-in patient.

Figure 4. Data flow Diagram of Staff for Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation As shown from the figure above, the staff has to login first to access the system through inputting their own username and password, after logging in, the staff wil be able to update his profile, it
may be his basic information and could even change his password. The staff is also capable of registering a walk-in patient to the system by inputting the personal information of the walk-in patient. A chatroom is also provided for the staff to be able to respond to the messages that was being sent by the patients for some inquiries and queries with regards to Clinica Marikina. As a staff, the capability of generating reports, wherein he could have it sorted out by month, by year or by patient. The staff could also reserve for a walk-in patient but the payment will not be online, the walk-in patient will just have to pay it in cash. Aside from that, the staff is the one who is capable of confirming payment transactions done by the patient through paypal, through this confirming of payment.

Figure 5. Data flow Diagram of Doctor for Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation As shown from the figure above, the doctor will have to first login to the system through inputting the username and password that was provided defaulty by the time the administrator has created an account for the doctor. After the username and password got verified by the system and was confirmed as valid, the doctor will now be able to update his own profile if the doctor has any updates regardingsome of his information. The doctor can also manage his own schedule, the doctor could add, edit and delete a particular schedule. The doctor is capable of updating the specializations or the services he renders. The doctor can respond to messages through the system’s chatroom, it could be possible queries/ inquiries regarding the clinic or it may also be about the doctor’s available schedules.

Figure 6. Data flow Diagram of Patient for Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation From the figure shown above, the patient will have register to the system to be able to have his account, and one way of validating his account is an activation link. Once that the patient account has been activated, the patient will be able to access the functionalities intended for patients, but before being able to access the functionalities, the patient must login to the system by inputting the username and password that he filled up in the login information. The patient can update his own profile, and upon modification of information, a prompt message will be
displayed to the patient saying that the data was successfully saved. The patient is the one that is capable of sending messages to the clinic’s employees (doctor and staff) through the chat room. The patient can make reservations by inputting the transactions details that was sent to the patient’s mail by the staff as he have made payment online, then for the confirmation of the reservation, a prompt will be shown to the patient that he has successfully made a reservation.

Figure 7. Level 2 Data Flow diagram of Make Reservation
From the figure shown above, it shows the second level of process 5.0 of patient which is the “Make Reservation” process. In this diagram, the inside process of make reservation is shown. When a patient makes a reservation, the patient should have already paid the reservation fee, online, through PayPal. Upon his payment in PayPal, an e-mail will be sent to them that is composed of the transaction details of the reservation fee that they have paid. The patient will have to check his mail first to acquire the transaction details to confirm his payment as he make a reservation. As the patient have successfully inputted the transaction details, the list of services will be displayed and that is where the patient will have to select. After selecting a service, the doctor who renders that service will be shown along with his schedule. After the patient has selected a schedule, a notification for the reservation will be sent to the patient as he finishes the process by a prompt message saying that the reservation has been successfully submitted.

Figure 7. Level 2 Data Flow diagram of Login
In the figure shown above, we could see that all the login process are all alike with all the users, it only differs in the databases that accepts and sends the data. In each login module of patient, doctor, staff and the administrator, will have to input the username and password, then the system will have the inputs they made if it is valid or invalid, if the inputs are valid, the login will be confirmed that it is valid and will enable them to access the system, if it is invalid, it will return to the user a prompt that the inputted username and password are invalid.

Flowcharts
Figure 9.0 Guest’s Flowchart
First, the guest needs to type the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of Clinica Marikina’s website in the guest’s browser. If the guest successfully entered the URL, the guest will be directed to the main page of the website which is the Home Page. The guest can view there the philosophy, mission and as well as the vision of Clinica Marikina Multispecialty Clinics, Inc. If the guest wants to view a different page, the guest can click the next tab which is the Services Page. The guest can view there the list of services the clinic is rendering. The services are listed by category or specialization. If the guest like to view other page again, the guest can click the third tab or button which is the Affiliations Page. The Affiliation page contains the pictures of all the affiliated company of Clinica Marikina Multispecialty Clinics, Inc. The guest can also view the fourth tab which is the Doctor’s page. The list of doctors is ordered by last name and the guest can search for a specific doctor by searching the doctor’s specialization, first name, or last name. After searching for a specific doctor, the patient can click the View doctor’s schedule to view the available schedule of the said doctor. If the guest likes to view different page, the guest can also view Contact Us page, this page shows the contact information of the clinic.

Figure 9.1 Guest’s Flowchart
In Figure 9.1, it shows the continuation of the flow of system in guest perspective. The last page the guest can view is the Online Reservation Page. This page allows the user to enter the online reservation proper if and only if the guest became a registered patient by registering. If the guest registers to the online reservation system of the clinic, the guest needs to fill up a registration form and if the registration is successful, the guest should check his email and follow the instructions written in the email sent by the clinic. After that, the guest can now login his username and password. If the login information is incorrect, the guest should re-enter his username and password, however, if the login information is correct, the registered patient will be directed to the home page of the patient’s panel in online reservation page. If the patient doesn’t want to register, the patient can view the other pages again.

Figure 9.2 Reservation of Patient Flowchart
In Figure 9.2, it shows the reservation flow of the patient. First, the patient will choose if he wants to make a reservation or cancel his existing reservation. If the patient chooses to make a reservation, the patient should accept first the terms of agreement then if the patient is already paid, the patient can now fill up the payment form – (details can be found in patients inbox or spam messages in his email), fill up reservation form, choose the doctor, select date and make a reservation. If the patient is not yet paid, the patient should click the Not Yet Paid button to be directed to Clinica Marikina’s Paypal store. If the patient chooses to cancel a reservation, the patient should click the Cancel Reservation button then choose the reservation the patient wants to cancel then click the reservation ID and confirm if he is sure to cancel his reservation. If the patient clicked yes, the patient will be directed to the updated list of his reservations under cancel reservation button, if the patient chooses no, the patient will be directed to the index page of the patient’s panel.

Figure 9.2.1 Patient’s Profile Flowchart
In Figure 9.2.1, it shows the flow of viewing of profile of the patient. There are three (3) options there to choose from which are Edit Profile, Change email, and Change password. If the patient chooses the Edit Profile link, the patient will then be directed to the edit profile page. If changing of profile is successful, the patient will be directed to his updated profile. If the patient wants to change his email address, the patient will be directed to the change email page wherein the patient can edit his email address. If changing of email is successful, the patient will be directed to his updated profile page. Lastly, if the patient wants to change his password, the patient will be directed to the change password page. If changing of password is successful, the patient will be directed his profile page, if not, the patient should enter his new password again. Figure 9.2.2 View Doctor’s Page Flowchart

Shown in Figure 9.2.2 is the flow of viewing of doctor’s page. The patient can search for a specific doctor by searching doctor’s specialization, first
name or last name. To view doctor’s schedule, the patient should click the View doctor’s schedule button.

Figure 9.2.3 View Chat Room’s Flowchart
In Figure 9.2.3, it shows the flow of viewing the chat room. The patient will see there a chat box and if the patient wants to chat with the staff or doctor for some inquiries, all the patient needs to do is type the message and click the submit button. If the patient wants to logout, all he need to do is click the logout link and the patient will be directed to the home page of the clinic’s website, if the patient doesn’t want to logout, the patient can browse the online reservation page again.

Figure 9.3 Login of Employees’ Flowchart
In Figure 9.3, it shows the flow when the employees are going to login on their respective account. First is to click the employee login link that can be found on the bottom of website of the clinic. The user will then choose from the dropdown menu if he is whether a staff, a doctor or the administrator. If the user is a staff, the staff can choose if he wants to login or did he forgot his password. If he chooses to login, the staff needs to enter his username and password. If the login information is valid, the staff can now access staff’s panel. If the staff forgot his password, the staff needs to enter his email address then check his email’s inbox to see his login information.

If the user is a doctor, he should enter his username and password. If the login information the doctor entered is valid, the doctor can now access the doctor’s panel and if not, the doctor should re-enter his username and password again. If the doctor forgot his password, all the doctor needs to do is click forgot password then enter his email address. The login information should then be send to the doctor’s email address. The doctor should check his email’s inbox to see his login information.

If the user is the administrator, he should enter his username and password to access his page. If the password is invalid, he will then be requested to try entering again his username and password. If the administrator forgot
his password, he should click forgot password link and enter his email address. A message will be sent to his email address containing his login information. The administrator should check his email’s inbox to see his login information.

If the user is not one of the employees aforementioned, he can browse the clinic’s website or login in the online reservation page.

Figure 9.4 Patient’s tab in Staff panel’s Flowchart
In Figure 9.4, it shows the flow when the staff chooses patient’s tab. First thing will happen is the list of registered patient will be displayed. Then the staff can choose if he wants to search for a patient or add a new patient in their record. If the staff chooses to search for a patient, the staff can select from the dropdown menu the options to search a patient such as search by patient’s ID number, first name, and last name or email address. Then the staff will enter the ID number, first name, last name or email address of the patient he likes to view. After the result has been displayed, the staff can click the registration ID of the patient to edit patient’s information or delete the patient from the record of the patient. If the staff chooses to edit patient’s information, all he needs to do is click the edit button then edit patient’s information. If updating of patient’s information is successful, the staff will be directed to the page where the searched patient is displayed, if not, the staff should edit patient’s information again. If the staff wants to delete patients, the staff needs to click the delete button, if the staff clicked yes, he will be directed to the list of patients and if not, he will be directed to the page where the searched patient is displayed. Another option is if the staff wants to add a patient. If the staff clicked add patient link, all he needs to do is fill up the registration form for walk-in patient. If adding of patient is successful, there will be a prompt stating that the patient is successfully added and the staff will be directed to add patient form again. If adding of patient is not successful, the staff will need to fill up the form until it become successful.

Figure 9.4.1 Services tab, My Profile tab and Chat History tab in Staff
Panel’s Flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.4.1 is the system’s flow services tab, my profile tab and chat history tab inside staff’s panel. First is if the staff wants to view the list of services, if yes, the list of services will be displayed, if not, the staff can view other page. If the staff clicked the My Profile tab, the staff’s information will be displayed. If the staff wants to edit his profile, all he needs to do is click the edit button then edit his profile. If updating of his profile is successful, the staff will be directed to his updated profile, if not, the staff needs to edit his profile again. If the staff does not want to edit his profile, he can view other page. If the staff clicked the Chat History tab, the chat box will be displayed containing message from different users of the online reservation system. If he wants to chat all he needs to do is type the message and click submit. If he does not want to chat, he can view other tab again. Figure 9.4.2 Reservation’s Flowchart

Shown in Figure 9.4.2 is the reservation’s flowchart that is still under staff’s panel. If the staff chooses to view the reservation page, the list of reservation will be displayed and the staff can searched for a specific reservation by searching it by date of reservation, service name, doctor’s name and even patient’s name then the result of the search will be displayed. The staff can also view the canceled reservations. If the staff clicked the canceled reservation link, the list of all the reservations that has been canceled will be displayed. If the staff clicked the arrived reservation link, the list of all the reservations that has been rendered or served will be displayed. The staff also has the capability to confirm a reservation. If the staff will confirm a reservation, all he needs to do is click the confirm reservation link then choose the reservation he wants to confirm. The staff has three options to choose from, whether to click the Arrived button if the patient who made the reservation arrived in the clinic at the right date and time or the service the patient did reserve has been rendered, or the staff can click the Cancel button if the patient gives permission to the staff to cancel the patient’s reservation or the patient didn’t come to the date of his reservation, or the last option which is Re-activate button where canceled reservation can turn into an active
reservation again, this button is very helpful if ever the staff clicked the cancel button or arrived button unintentionally.

Figure 9.4.3 Remaining tab in Staff Panel’s flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.4.3 are the remaining tabs in staff panel such as Payment Panel page, Generate Report page and reserved walk-in patient page. If the staff chooses to view the Payment panel page, a payment form will be displayed. The staff will enter all the required information in the field to confirm transaction payment of a specific patient. If the staff chooses to view generate report page, a list of all the transaction will be displayed. The staff can sort the list by selecting from the dropdown menu yearly, monthly, name of the registered patient or name of the staff then the result will be displayed. Lastly, the staff can make a reservation for walk-in patient. After the staff clicked the Reserve Walk-in patient, a reservation form will be displayed. The staff should fill up the form and should manually receive a payment from the walk-in patient then the staff can submit the reservation form. If the staff wants to logout, the staff will be directed to the home page of the clinic’s website if not, the staff can freely navigate his page.

Figure 9.5 Doctor’s Panel Flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.5 is doctor panel’s flowchart. If the doctor wants to view his appointment page, a list of all his appointments will be displayed. If the doctor wants to search for a specific appointment, the doctor can search it by patient name or by the date of appointment, all the doctor needs to do is enter the name of the patient or the date then the result will be displayed. If the doctor wants to view his schedule page, all he needs to do is click the My Schedule tab. The doctor will be given to options there, whether to view doctor’s schedule of add new schedule. If the doctor chooses the view doctor’s schedule, all of the doctor’s schedule will be displayed. If the doctor wants to delete his schedule, he needs to click the reservation ID then click delete then confirm deletion. If yes, the doctor will be directed to his updated list of schedule and if no, the doctor will be directed to the original list of his schedules. Once the doctor deleted his schedule and there are patients who reserve for that schedule, an email
message will be sent to the patient’s email address stating that the schedule the patient reserve has been deleted and the patient is requested to reserve again. Moreover, if the doctor chooses to add a new schedule, a scheduler form will be displayed then the doctor now can make his new schedule.

Figure 9.5.1 Doctor’s Panel Flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.5.1 is the flow of viewing doctor’s profile. If the doctor would like to see his own profile, the doctor just need to click the My Profile tab then his profile will be displayed. Inside the profile of the doctor are three (3) options to choose from such as edit profile, change email and change password. If the doctor chooses to edit profile, a form will be displayed to edit his profile then all the doctor needs to do is edit is profile. If the doctor chooses to change email, he just need to enter a new email address then that is it, he is done and if the doctor chooses the change password, all he needs to do is enter his current them enter his new password twice for confirmation. If the doctor does not want to execute neither the two options aforementioned, the doctor can view other tabs.

Figure 9.5.2 Doctor’s Panel Flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.5.2 is the remaining tab in doctor’s panel. If the doctor wants to chat with patient or doctor, all the doctor needs to do is click the Chat History button. After that, a chat box will be displayed and if the doctor wants to chat he will just enter his message in the message field then click submit. If the doctor wants to add a new specialization, he will need to click the add specialization button then a dropdown menu will be displayed. The doctor can select from the list the specialization he wants to add then click submit button. Figure 9.6 Administrator’s Panel Flowchart

In Figure 9.6, it shows the main page or the home page of the administrator’s panel. If the administrator clicked the patient’s tab, a list of all registered patient will be displayed. The administrator can search for a specific patient by searching patient’s id number, first name, last name or email address from the dropdown menu. The administrator will
then enter the id number, first name, last name or email address of the patient the administrator wants to search in the search field then the result will be displayed. If the administrator clicked the ID number of the patient that was searched, the administrator can now edit patient’s information or delete patient from the record. The administrator can also add new patient, he just need to click add patient link then add patient form will be displayed. The administrator will then need to fill up the form to add a new patient. Figure 9.6.1 Administrator’s Panel Flowchart

In Figure 9.6.1 shows the doctor’s tab in administrator’s panel. If the administrator clicked the doctor’s tab, the list of doctors will be displayed. The administrator also has to options to choose from, to search for a doctor or add a new doctor. If the administrator chooses to search for a doctor, the administrator can choose whether to search doctor by id number, first name or last name then the administrator will type the id number, first name or last name in the search field. After that, the searched doctor will be displayed. If the administrator wants to edit the information of the doctor or delete the doctor from the record, the administrator will need to click the doctor’s ID. If the administrator choose to edit doctor’s information and it is successfully updated, the administrator will then be directed to the page where the searched patient is displayed and if the administrator choose to delete doctor from the list, there will be a prompt message that will be displayed stating that the doctor’s record is successfully deleted. The administrator can also add a new doctor. The administrator just need to click the add doctor link and then an add doctor form will be displayed. The administrator needs to fill up the form and if adding of doctor is successful, the administrator will be directed to the updated list of patient.

Figure 9.6.2 Administrator’s Panel Flowchart
In Figure 9.6.2, it shows the staff’s tab in administrator’s panel. If the administrator clicks the staff tab, the list of staff will be displayed. The administrator can search for a staff by selecting in the dropdown menu the search convention the administrator wants. The administrator can search staff record by staff’s id number, first name, last name or email address.
After selecting the convention the administrator wants, he will need to type the id number, first name, last name or email address of the staff in the search field. If the administrator wants to edit staff’s information or delete the staff from the record, he will need to click the id number of staff. If updating of staff’s information is successful, the administrator will be then directed to the page where the searched patient was displayed. If the administrator chooses to delete the staff from the record, and it was successful, the administrator will be directed at the updated list of staff. The administrator can also add staff, all he need to do is click the add staff link then add staff form will be displayed. The administrator needs to fill up the form to add a staff.

Figure 9.6.3 Administrator’s Panel Flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.6.3 is the service tab under administrator’s panel. If the administrator clicks the service tab, the list of services will be displayed. The administrator can search for a service by id number or service name then the result will be displayed. If the administrator clicks the service id of the searched service, the doctor can now edit or delete the service. If the administrator chooses the edit, the administrator can edit the name of the service and if it successfully updated, the administrator will be directed to the updated list of services. If the administrator chooses to delete the service and click yes as a confirmation then the service will no longer be found on the list of services. The administrator can also view the list of service classification if he will click the list of service classification link. The administrator is also able to add service classification and add services.

Figure 9.6.4 Administrator’s Panel Flowchart
In Figure 9.6.4, it shows the Chat History tab in administrator’s panel. If the administrator clicked the Chat history tab, the list of all the messages in chat will be displayed. The administrator can ban user from using chat, all he need to do is enter the username of the patient. The administrator can also lift ban from user by selecting from the list of banned users. The administrator can also search for message and at the same time, edit and delete the message. The administrator can also delete all messages in just
one click.

Figure 9.6.4 Administrator’s Panel Flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.6.4 is the reservation’s flowchart that is still under administrator’s panel. If the administrator chooses to view the reservation page, the list of reservation will be displayed and the administrator can searched for a specific reservation by searching it by date of reservation, service name, doctor’s name and even patient’s name then the result of the search will be displayed. The administrator can also view the canceled reservations. If the administrator clicked the canceled reservation link, the list of all the reservations that has been canceled will be displayed. If the administrator clicked the arrived reservation link, the list of all the reservations that has been rendered or served will be displayed. The administrator also has the capability to confirm a reservation. If the administrator will confirm a reservation, all he needs to do is click the confirm reservation link then choose the reservation he wants to confirm. The administrator has three options to choose from, whether to click the Arrived button if the patient who made the reservation arrived in the clinic at the right date and time or the service the patient did reserve has been rendered, or the administrator can click the Cancel button if the patient gives permission to the administrator to cancel the patient’s reservation or the patient didn’t come to the date of his reservation, or the last option which is Re-activate button where canceled reservation can turn into an active reservation again, this button is very helpful if ever the s administrator clicked the cancel button or arrived button unintentionally.

Figure 9.6.5 Administrator’s Panel Flowchart
Shown in Figure 9.6.5 are the remaining tabs in administrator’s panel such as Generate Report page and reserved walk-in patient page. If the administrator chooses to view generate report page, a list of all the transaction will be displayed. The administrator can sort the list by selecting from the dropdown menu yearly, monthly, name of the registered patient or name of the staff then the result will be displayed. Lastly, the administrator can make a reservation for walk-in patient. After the administrator clicked the Reserve Walk-in patient, a reservation form will be displayed. The
administrator should fill up the form and should manually receive a payment from the walk-in patient then the administrator can submit the reservation form. If the administrator wants to logout, the administrator will be directed to the home page of the clinic’s website if not, the administrator can freely navigate his page. Software Development Tool

Project development would involve constant framework of tasks and deliverables needed to develop the system. The system would be using the traditional method of software development life cycle (SDLC) in carrying out the project. The proponents uses the waterfall model software life cycle wherein it tracks a project from an idea that will developed by the proponents, through the project planning, requirements specification, software design, implementation, testing and maintaining. Software development stages, as shown in Figure 10, will present the sequence of activities for project development.

Project Planning
Requirements Specification
Software Design
Implementation
Testing
Maintenance

Figure 10. Waterfall Model

Project Planning
In this stage, it is where the group executed the required preparations for the project. The group sought out possible clients (clinic management) and once the group decided on a client, the group conducted some interviews in order to indentify the problems and needs of the establishment. The objectives that the group have set for this project are based on the client’s demands and preferences.

Requirements Specifications
As the group have finally proposed the system and have talked to the
client, the requirements were specified, wherein the system should be running online and the reserving schedule and services information should be filled up and be stored to the databases that only the administrator can access. As the group had the interview, problems and their necessities were stipulated, where it served as a stepping stone for the group to know what the group should do about the contents of the system in order to meet the requirements of the client.

Software Design
The group decided to make the system’s interface look simple but functional. The group of course going to consult the client’s desire on how he would want it to look like and what are the things he would like to include about some basic information of the clinic. The system will be applicable and can be used by both IT professionals and non IT professionals. The Proposed System for the Clinica Marikina includes patient’s record, reserved doctor’s schedule and services set by the patient. Also it includes screen layouts, process diagrams and other documentations. Moreover, an initial design of the system was created. The initial design covers the editing, adding, viewing and deleting schedules set by the administrator

Implementation
In this phase, the group is going to use PHP as their programming language and for the database; mySQL. The group will also look for a Web hosting that has a PHP and mySQL application so that users can access with the system.

Testing
Testing of the Scheduling System will be performed to make sure that the system will provide accurate and efficient output. The evaluation of this system is essential, since in this process, we can be aware of the possible causes of system crashes and deficiencies. Performing the white-box testing is what is on the group’s mind to perform some testing Maintenance

As the system will go through some testing, acquiring its results would prevent it from that certain error. The group have to do is to maintain the system’s performance and quality, make sure that the user could easily work
with it, they could probably check the user’s manual that the group are going to provide Software Evaluation Tool

Evaluators
An evaluation tools will be using by the group for the system to determine the usability and acceptability of the whole project. The evaluation tools will be made of the following: 1.Project Demonstration – a project demonstration would be conducted on the presence of the evaluator respondent which consist of the user of Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation System. There will be 60 respondents and the following proponents’ respondents are the; 5 IT professionals, 1 administrator of the Clinica Marikina, 1 staff from the Clinic, 10 doctors from Clinica Marikina, 23 Marikina, and 20 students from FEU-East Asia College. 2.Questionnaire – survey questionnaires will be distributed to the IT professionals, administrator, doctors and staff from Clinica Marikina, FEU-East Asia College students whose courses is about computer studies, and the Marikina Residents to evalute the group’s Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation System.

Sampling technique
Sampling is important aspect of the data collection. Its purpose is to make predictions based on statistical inference. The group chooses to use a simple random sampling because it gives equal probability. The sampling technique avoids bias and easier result analysis. With this sampling technique, the group can come up with an accurate result though sometimes there could be inconsistency when it comes to the outcome of the sampling technique with the population. And the group decided to select 60 respondents to survey the system. Software testing

The proponent used the positive and negative software testing wherein the system had undergo to different tests from which is positive or negative result were recorded. This type of testing requires inputting of data to check whether the user gives out right result.

Positive testing wherein the user will give the valid data/expected input
then the system will be giving the expected output that is correct. On the other hand, the negative testing tests the system by giving an invalid input or the expected input was not met. Just for example, there’s a text field that requires the user to input a character only, by providing only a character on that field means it’s positive testing and if giving an input other than a character, means it is negative testing.

In testing the software, the group chooses to use the waterfall model because of its advantages which are; waterfall model is easy to use, each stages and activities of the system are well defined, it helps to plan and schedule the project and the verification at each stage ensures early detection of errors. Statistical Treatment – Data Gathering Procedure

This study will use the mean to interpret the result of the survey. The mean is defined as the average of n numbers computed by adding the sum function of the number and dividing by sum function of n. The n is referred as the number of respondents that evaluated the system. The formula of mean is:

Table 1 shows the numerical rating which each of criterion in the evaluation instrument has a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the lowest which implied that the system software lacks the requirements needed by the spectator and 5 being the highest, while 4 is the second to the highest and 3 is the average grade which implied that the system software passed the expectation of the evaluators. Table 1 – Numerical Rating

Numerical Scale| Interpretation|
5| Excellent|
4| Very Good|
3| Good|
2| Fair|
1| Poor|

Table 2 shows that the data will be gathered and computed using the Mean Range Formula for the interpretation of results in meeting Software Quality Standards for Acceptance. Table 2 – Likert Scale

Numerical Scale| Interpretation|
4.51 – 5.00| Excellent|
3.51 – 4.50| Very Good|
2.51 – 3.50| Good|
1.51 – 2.50| Fair|
1.00 – 1.50| Poor|

Data Gathering
The group have used some techniques in order to gather data and these are the following:. * Questionnaire – wherein the group constarcted questionnaires to know the possible problems will be encounter of the system. From this, the proponents were able to constructed solutions for the problems. * Interview – the group intervied the client to know the problems and to know thier requirements regarding the system. * Research – the group researched many articles, studies or thesis that are similar from the study.

CHAPTER IV
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
This chapter presents the project description, project structure, project capabilities and limitations, and project evaluation of the study. Project Description
Using the Online Reservation System, it gives a lot of advantages for both clinic and patients. Wherein the proponents have designed and developed a Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation that allows patient to have a hassle-free of reservation of doctor’s schedule and services in Clinica Marikina by using their personal computer or laptop that has an internet connection. Moreover, Clinica Marikina can use this website as their advertisement of the clinic. The system can process payment transaction through Paypal for down payment for each reservation of the patient. The reserved doctor’s schedule and services that was filled up by the patient can’t be rendered by the clinic until the payment has already been made. The system’s online reservation is first come first serve basis and the reservation will be expired in two days when there’s no payment were
made after the reservation. Hardware Specifications

In order to cope with the goal for an online reservation website for Clinica Marikina, there must be a proper specification of hardware components of the system including the computer/laptop. Computer/laptop with the software programs is needed in order to meet the required specification and the main objective of the system.

* Computer
It contains the database of the system. The computer itself is needed in order to run the system.

* Peripheral Devices
These devices are used for asking query of the system.
* Monitor
* Mouse
* Keyboard
* Printer (Optional)

Software Specifications

When it comes to software appliance, the group used PHP for encoding a program and MYSQL for application of database. Web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer are needed to run the system. Windows XP/Vista/Window 7 is the main operating system used for the project.

Presentation of Results
The evaluation was based on the results of the survey conducted by the proponents to the 60 respondents with the total of 15 questions.

TABLE 3 Result of Evaluation
| Poor| Fair| Good| Very Good| Excellent|
Functionality|
1. The system displayed the correct output according to each specific function.| 0| 0| 0| 30| 30| 2. The system displayed the proper
validation.| 0| 0| 2| 24| 34| 3. The system protects the data and information from unauthorized access.| 0| 0| 1| 28| 31| Usability|

1. The system has the capability to be easily understood, learned, used and appears attractive to the user.| 0| 0| 1| 27| 32| 2. The system has the capability to enable the user to easily learn the applications.| 0| 0| 3| 20| 37| 3. The system has the capability to be easily operated and controlled by the user.| 0| 0| 4| 28| 28| Reliability|

1. The system is capable of handling additional loads when resources are added.| 0| 0| 1| 33| 26| 2. The system provides accuracy of the results| 0| 0| 1| 22| 37| 3. The ability of a system to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time| 0| 0| 1| 23| 36| Performance|

1. The restrictions and policies were implemented properly.| 0| 0| 1| 25| 34| 2. The system provides appropriate response while performing its function.| 0| 0| 1| 21| 38| 3. The system takes short response time for a specific task.| 0| 0| 3| 27| 30| Supportability|

1. The capability of the system to avoid unexpected effects from changes made in the software.| 0| 0| 3| 18| 39| 2. The capability of the system to enable modified data to be validated.| 0| 0| 2| 18| 40| 3. The system has a maintainable attribute.| 0| 0| 3| 16| 41|

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
1.1 The system displayed the correct output according to each specific function. Computation: {(30*5) + (30*4) + (0*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.5 Graph:

Figure 10.1 Results of the Survey Question 1.1

The figure above shows that both the category excellent and very good got 50.00% in terms of displaying the correct output according to each specific function.

1.2 The system displayed the proper validation.
Computation: {(34*5) + (24*4) + (2*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.53 Graph:

Figure 10.2 Results of the Survey Question 1.2

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 56.67% which has the highest rate; very good category got 40% and for good category got 3.33% in terms of the proper validation.

1.3 The system protects the data and information from unauthorized access. Computation: {(31*5) + (28*4) + (1*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.5 Graph:

Figure 11.3 Results of the Survey Question 1.3

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 51.67% which has the highest rate; very good category got 46.67% and while in good category got 1.67% of in terms of the protection of data and information from unauthorized access.

2.1 The system has the capability to be easily understood, learned, used and appears attractive to the user. Computation: {(32*5) + (27*4) + (1*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.52

Graph:

Figure 11.4 Results of the Survey Question 2.1

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 53.33% which has the highest rate; very good category got 45% and for good category got 1.67% of
in terms of the system being easily understood, learned, used and appears attractive to the user.

2.2 The system has the capability to enable the user to easily learn the applications. Computation: {(37*5) + (20*4) + (3*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.57 Graph:

Figure 11.5 Results of the Survey Question 2.2

The figure above shows that the category very good got 61.67% which has the highest rate; excellent category got 33.33% and while in good category got 5% of in terms of the system’s capability to enable the user to easily learn the applications.

2.3 The system has the capability to be easily operated and controlled by the user. Computation: {(28*5) + (28*4) + (4*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.4 Graph:

Figure 11.6 Results of the Survey Question 2.3

The figure above shows that both the category very good and excellent got 46.67%, while the good category got 6.67% in terms of the system’s capability to be easily operated and controlled by the user..

3.1 The system is capable of handling additional loads when resources are added Computation: {(26*5) + (33*4) + (1*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.42 Graph:

Figure 11.7 Results of the Survey Question 3.1

The figure above shows that the category very good got 55% which has the highest rate; very good category got 43.33% and while in good category got 1.67% in terms of the system’s capability of handling additional loads when resources are added.

3.2 The system provides accuracy of the results.
Computation: {(37*5) + (22*4) + (1*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.6 Graph:

Figure 11.8 Results of the Survey Question 3.2

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 61.67% which has the highest rate; very good category got 36.67% and while the good category got 1.67% of in terms of providing accuracy of the results.

3.3 The ability of a system to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Computation: {(36*5) + (23*4) + (1*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.58 Graph:

Figure 11.9 Results of the Survey Question 3.3

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 60% which has the highest rate of percentage, 38.33% for very good category and 1.67% for good category in terms of the system’s capability to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time.

4.1 The restrictions and policies were implemented properly. Computation: {(34*5) + (25*4) + (1*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.55 Graph:

Figure 11.10 Results of the Survey Question 4.1

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 56.67% which has the highest rate of percentage, 41.67% for very good category and 1.67% for good category in terms of the properly implemented of restrictions and policies.

4.2 The system provides appropriate response while performing its function. Computation: {(38*5) + (21*4) + (1*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.62 Graph:

Figure 11.11 Results of the Survey Question 4.2

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 63.33% which has the
highest rate of percentage, 35% for very good category and 1.67% for good category in terms of providing appropriate response while performing the function of the system.

4.3 The system takes short response time for a specific task. Computation: {(30*5) + (27*4) + (3*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.45 Graph:

Figure 11.12 Results of the Survey Question 4.3

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 50%, likewise 45% for very good category and 5% for good category in terms of taking a short response time for a specific task of the system.

5.1 The capability of the system to avoid unexpected effects from changes made in the software. Computation: {(39*5) + (18*4) + (3*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.6 Graph:

Figure 11.13 Results of the Survey Question 5.1

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 65% which has the highest rate of percentage, 30% for very good category and 5% for good category in terms of the system’s capability to avoid unexpected effects from changes made in the software.

5.2 T The capability of the system to enable modified data to be validated. Computation: {(40*5) + (18*4) + (2*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.63 Graph:

Figure 11.14 Results of the Survey Question 5.2

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 66.67% which has the highest rate of percentage, 30% for very good category and 3.33% for good category in terms of the system’s capability to enable modified data to be validated.

5.3 T The system has a maintainable attribute.
Computation: {(41*5) + (16*4) + (3*3) + (0*2) + (0*1)}/60 = 4.65 Graph:

Figure 11.15 Results of the Survey Question 5.3

The figure above shows that the category excellent got 68.33% which has the highest rate of percentage, 26.67% for very good category and 5% for good category in terms of having a maintainable attribute for the system.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of the study, conclusions and recommendations. Summary
Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation System has the capabilities to allow the users to perform the functions that are as follows: 1. The patients are capable of registering in this website that could enable them to make reservations, but before that, the patient should have paid first. There is also a chat room that enables the patient to speak with the staff if ever they have questions. 2. The doctors are capable of adding a new schedule that the patient could choose to reserve for. The doctor is also able to view the reservations that was made with them and is capable of updating their profile. 3. The administrator is capable of viewing the list of patients, doctors, staff, services, reservations, advertisements, chat history and reports. Adding and updating of data is only allowed with the patients, staff, doctors list and services. 4. The staff is capable of adding in a walk-in patient’s record for keepsakes. He has the capacity to also view the list of patient, services, reservations and view the reports for the generate report purposes. 5. The system allows the visitor to view the website with limited access. Also the system allows the visitor to inquire and register as a patient of the clinic.

From the results of the evaluations and surveys the proponents made, the system got a response that it was very good basing it from the FURPS criteria. 1. The system was evaluated and has been assessed to have an excellent evaluation rating by the evaluators in terms of functionality, for
the system’s function that works accordingly. 2. The system was evaluated and has been assessed to have an excellent evaluation rating by the evaluators in terms of usability, for the system’s provides an understandable way of using the system. 3. The system was evaluated and has been assessed to have an excellent evaluation rating by the evaluators in terms of reliability, for the system’s capacity to perform according to its function and being able to handle additional loads when resources are added. 4. The system was evaluated and has been assessed to have an excellent rating by the evaluators in terms of performance, for the system only takes a short response time and even provides appropriate response in each action. 5. The system was evaluated and has been assessed to have an excellent evaluation rating by the evaluators in terms of supportability, for the system is capable of validating the data that is being modified and even has a maintainable attribute. Conclusions

As what the proponents have shown and presented in their results, the following are the proponents’ conclusion: 1. The proponents concluded that base from the system that the group designed, the objectives were met. The group have made the Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation base on the Clinica Marika’s demand. The group successfully designed a system that is capable of handling the reservation being made with their clinic 2. FURPS model proves as a good basis for evaluating the significance of “Website for Clinica Marikina with Online Reservation”. 3. Through this system, patients can easily access the clinic’s service and doctor’s availability.

Recommendations
After being able to gather data and results, the following recommendations are as follows: 1. In chat, consider that it is only between a particular patient and staff, and no other patient can see their conversation. 2. Additional modes of payment to enable those who do not have any credit cards or PayPal account.

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