Read the following introductions and select the best one for this report. Introduction A
The purpose of this project is to introduce our group’s two conceptual designs. We have included the following sketches for each car: 3 dimensional view, elevation, plan, front, rear and interior view. Also, we have included a discussion of how the designs meet the criteria given in the project outline. The cars could be suitable for short trips in busy areas.
With the rise in global warming and increasing pollution levels, it is becoming essential to find a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine petrol powered car. The aim of this project was to create two designs for a fuel cell powered car, the main criteria being environmental friendliness in terms of both emissions and materials. This report presents the designs for two such cars, each of which includes the following components: engine, fuel, wheels, accessories, safety features and materials.
Car A is aimed at the upper end of the market, while Car B is a mid-range vehicle suitable for family use. A description of the design and an analysis of operational efficiency for each car are followed by a comparison of the two designs. Finally, the most cost efficient design is recommended. Select the best introduction for this report.
How to Write a Research Paper Introduction
One of the most important areas of any project is the research paper introduction that defines the standard and the quality of the project right from the very outset. You have to pack in lots of important information within a short space which can be difficult for students. Here are a few guidelines to help you write a proper introduction for the paper.
Provide A Problem Definition:
Your research paper introduction will be the first time that your problem is described and not just treated as a subject. It is very important that you are precise and compact in your definition. The sample introduction is not a place to write a complex thesis or go on about every single possibility associated in the problem. On the other hand, you cannot limit the problem to a few words. A proper research paper introduction should define the problem in one or two sentences through keywords that are essential to the context of the project. This is extremely important for scientific papers.
Research Paper Introduction Example
If you read about how to write a research proposal than these 2 next items will be easier for you to understand: Give A Structured Review:
When you are writing your research paper introduction, you should be building it around a specific outline that provides an overall review of the paper. Your introduction would be different from an abstract in some aspects but it still needs to highlight all the possibilities of the project. If there are any primary limitations to your work, you can also mention that in brief within the introduction. Sometimes the final project can turn out a bit different from initial planning. It is advised to write your research paper introduction towards the end of your work so there are no contradictions with the conclusion.
Include All The Proper Sources to a Sample Introduction:
Some of the best research paper introduction samples include primary resources supporting the argument or research of the problem. You should search for similar resources from your local library and on the net to put on your paper.
When you are mentioning a source, cross check it if is from a credible site and if the information is correct. It is better to develop a sample research paper introduction based on well known portals for sources rather than individual and independent websites. You should only mention those sources that closely highlight your specific theme of research.
Sample Research Paper Introduction
Introduction for a research paper
Common Sample Introduction Mistakes:
One of the many ways students mess up their research paper introduction samples is by making simple and common mistakes. The first thing to keep in mind is the word limit, usually restricted to fifty words. If you go on talking about the project, it should count as an error on your part so you need to be concise.
You should also proof read your introduction quite a few times to avoid making any grammatical or sentence construction errors. Your research paper introduction should be optimized for keywords that are distributed in the main body of the project and deal with the essential context of research.
Students focus a lot on content and guidelines but tend to ignore basic outlines of the introduction or abstract, getting lesser grades. If you work upon these research paper introduction guidelines, you would surely come up with a professional quality paper as your assignment. Author of an article.
What impact does playing video games have on children or adolescents? The most widely used “positive” impact video games are said to have on children is that they may improve a player’s manual dexterity and computer literacy. Ever-improving technology also provides players with better graphics that give a more “realistic” virtual playing experience.
This quality makes the video game industry a powerful force in many adolescent lives. However, numerous studies show that video games, especially ones with violent content, adversely affect a teen’s aggressive behavior.
Part of the increase in aggressive behavior is linked to the amount of time children are allowed to play video games. In one study by Walsh (2000), a majority of teens admitted that their parents do not impose a time limit on the number of hours they are allowed to play video games. The study also showed that most parents are unaware of the content or the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) rating (see below) of the video games their children play.
In another study conducted by Gentile, Lynch, Linder & Walsh (2004, p.6) “adolescent girls played video games for an average of 5 hours a week whereas boys averaged 13 hours a week”. The authors also stated that teens who play violent video games for extended periods of time show the following behaviors:
1. Tend to be more aggressive
2. Are more prone to confrontation with their teachers
3. May engage in fights with their peers
4. See a decline in school achievements. (Gentile et al, 2004).
Another negative impact is that players are rewarded for their violent acts. The interactive quality of video games differs from passively viewing television or movies because it allows players to become active participants in the game’s script. Players benefit from engaging in acts of violence and are then able to move to the game’s next level.
Gentile & Anderson (2003) state that playing video games may increase aggressive behavior because violent acts are continually repeated throughout the video game. This method of repetition has long been considered an effective teaching method in reinforcing learning patterns.
Video games also encourage players to identify with and role play their favorite characters. This is referred to as a “first-person” video game (Anderson & Dill, 2000, p. 788) because players are able to make decisions affecting the actions of the character they are imitating. After a limited amount of time playing a violent video game, a player can “automatically prime aggressive thoughts” (Bushman & Anderson, 2002, p. 1680). The researchers concluded that players who had prior experience playing violent video games responded with an increased level of aggressionwhen they encountered confrontation (Bushman & Anderson, 2002).
In a Joint Statement (2000) before the Congressional Public Health Summit, a number of American medical associations — the American Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Psychological Association, American Academy of Family Physicians and American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry — caution parents about violence in the media and its negative effect on children.
Their report states that exposure to violent media can elevate aggressive feelings and thoughts, especially in children. These effects on aggressive behavior can be long-term. Although fewer studies have been conducted on interactive video games, evidence suggests that playing violent video games may have a more dramatic influence on the behavior of children and adolescents (Joint Statement, 2000). Tips on managing your child’s media consumption
Because of the popularity of video games, completely eliminating them from your child’s life might be difficult. But there are a number of suggestions for decreasing the negative impact that they might have on your child. Here are a few tips: * Know the rating of the video games your child plays (see below). * Do not install video game equipment in your child’s bedroom. * Set limits on how often and how long your child is allowed to play video games. * Monitor all of your child’s media consumption — video games, television, movies and Internet.
* Supervise your child’s Internet use — there are now many “video games” available for playing online. * Take the time to discuss with your children the games they are playing or other media they are watching. Ask your children how they feel about what they observe in these video games, television programs or movies. This is an opportunity to share your feelings and grow closer with your child. * Share with other parents information about certain games or ideas for helping each other in parenting. The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB)
The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory body established in 1994 by the Interactive Digital Software Association (IDSA). The major video game manufacturers created this board after concerned groups and parents applied pressure over the content of video games. Similar to the movie industry’s rating system, all major game companies now submit their new products for rating to specially trained raters at the ESRB. The ESRB rates over 1,000 games per year.
The ESRB looks at a number of factors when rating games. In particular, it considers the amount of violence, sex, controversial language and substance abuse found in a game. Based on its developed guidelines, the ESRB then gives an age recommendation and content descriptor to each game submitted. The following are the rating symbols currently in use, according to the ESRB Web site.
Early Childhood (EC): Content should be suitable for children 3 years and older and contain no objectional material.
Everyone (E): Content suitable for persons ages 6 and older. The game may contain minimal violence and some “comic mischief.”
Teen (T): Content suitable for persons ages 13 and older. Content is more violent than (E) rating and contains mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes.
Mature (M): Content suitable for persons ages 17 and older. Content definitely has more mature sexual themes, intense violence and stronger language.
Adults Only (AO): Content suitable only for adults and may contain graphic sex and/or violence. Adult Only products are not intended for persons under the age of 18.
Rating Pending (RP): Game has been submitted to the ESRB and is awaiting a final rating.
The ESRB Web site has more details about this rating system, as well as the “content descriptors” that are used in conjunction with the ratings on game packaging. The site is also useful for parents who want to search for the rating of a particular game.
Bushman, B. & Anderson, C. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679-1686.
Gentile, D. A. & Anderson, C. A. (2003). Violent video games: The newest media violence hazard. In D. A. Gentile (Ed.), Media violence and children. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishing.
Gentile, D. A., Lynch, P., Linder, J. & Walsh, D. (2004). The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 5-22.
Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children: Congressional Public Health Summit. (July 26, 2000.) Available:http://www.aap.org/advocacy/ releases/jstmtevc.htm, Accessed 9/2004
Walsh, D. (2000). Interactive violence and children: Testimony submitted to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate. (March 21, 2000.) Available:http://commerce.senate.gov/ hearings/0321wal1.pdf (Acrobat), Accessed 9/2004
The gamer community had a near-miss this week in Ohio, when a 15-year-old boy collapsed after playing “Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3” for up to five days straight. The Columbus teen was rushed to the hospital with severe dehydration, where he recovered, according to a report from TV station WCMH on Aug. 7. Players who delve too deeply into their electronic worlds can face various health risks, ranging from deep vein thrombosis, or blood clots, to severe dehydration. For instance, in July, a Taiwanese teenager was found dead after sitting for 40 hours in an Internet cafe playing “Diablo 3.” At the time, doctors speculated he died from a heart attack caused by a blood clot that formed during the long session.
And last summer, a 20-year-old man from the U.K. died from a blood clot after spending 12-hour sessions on his Xbox. His father told “The Sun” newspaper, “He lived for his Xbox. I never dreamed he was in any danger.” [10 Easy Paths to Self Destruction] While these are extreme cases, they are a reminder that sitting at a computer or console for days, whether it’s for “World of Warcraft” or for work, isn’t healthy for anyone.
But psychologists who study video games and kids say parents needn’t worry about the amount of time spent gaming, unless screen time starts to affect school, health or social life. (And, of course, a stint of tens of hours gaming is likely to negatively affect schoolwork and lead to social woes.) That said, researchers remain concerned about the effects of violent content in video games, which have been linked by many studies to aggressive behavior. Too much screen time?
These days, screens of one kind or another occupy youth for 50 hours a week, a 2010 survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation reports. “It’s a full-time job plus 10 hours of overtime, and that’s the average,” said Douglas Gentile, a psychologist and director of the Media Research Lab at Iowa State University. Video-gaming consumed nine weekly hours for teens, the Kaiser survey found, while a Harris Poll conducted for Gentile during the same period reported 13 hours a week spent gaming on computers and consoles. While some kids can shoot ’em up for hours, for others, too much time gaming leads to poor school performance. Recent studies have finally linked the cause and effect, showing that gaming displaces after-school academic activities such as homework and reading.
A 2010 study from researchers at Denison University in Ohio, published in the journal Psychological Science, compared two groups of boys that had never owned gaming systems. They gave one group a system right away, but withheld games from the other group for four months. Boys who received the video-game system first had more teacher-reported learning problems and significantly lower reading and writing scores than the other boys. Problems in school are relatively easy for parents to fix: Limit screen time — of course, if you can get the controller out of his or her hands. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no more than one to two hours per day in front of any electronics.
Violent games and aggression
What’s harder to control is violent content in video games. The Pew Research Center reported in 2008 that more than 90 percent of games rated as appropriate for children 10 years or older contained violence, including games rated “E” for everyone. (Most researchers define violence as the ability of a player to intentionally harm others in a game.) Now most researchers will agree that video games can help as well as harm. For example, educational games boost learning, and action games can improve vision and spatial skills. Video games have also been used successfully to teach children self-care skills for asthma and diabetes. And then there’s the primary reason people play video games: They’re relaxing. Gentile thinks the flickering screen and varying sound levels trigger a primitive brain response.
“One of the reasons I think we find television and video games so relaxing is they provide the attention for you. It forces you to orient to the media. You don’t have to work to pay attention like you do in [a] classroom lecture,” said Gentile. But a preponderance of evidence links violent video games to an increase in aggressive behavior in teens. The behavior wasn’t violent crime, like school shootings, but small yet hurtful offenses like teasing, name-calling, rumor-spreading and fist fights. In a review of 130 studies of kids and teens, Iowa State University researchers found that violent video games increased the likelihood of aggression and decreased empathy. The meta-analysis appeared in 2010 in the journal Psychological Bulletin. [5 Ways to Foster Self-Compassion in Your Teen] Which teens are vulnerable?
Of course, repeated exposure to violence in any environment has a deleterious effect, Gentile noted. “Seeing violence anywhere increases the risks that a child might become involved in aggression, whether as a perpetrator or a victim,” he said. But video games are phenomenal teachers. Players get immediate feedback and rewards for punishing competitors. And not only do games reward hostility, they train your brain to respond to real-life problems with aggression, research indicates. In fact, games can prime teens to react to slights with name-calling or pushing, instead of choosing to avoid confrontation. “So when I get bumped in the hallway, I don’t assume it’s an accident anymore,” explained Gentile. “What comes to mind first is to retaliate in some way. Those aren’t the only options you have, but we never think of them because what we see over and over in the media is ‘You killed my monster, now you must die.'”
But psychologist Patrick Markey’s research suggests just some teens are susceptible to these effects. Markey found people withcertain personality traits — those who are highly neurotic, less agreeable and less conscientious — are those more likely to become hostile from gaming. The 2010 study appeared in the journal Review of General Psychology.
“The truth of the matter is that most people can handle this media, but for some people with a select predisposition, these people might be a little more aggressive, more prone to an argument here and there,” said Markey, a professor at Villanova University in Pennsylvania. “The most interesting part is there is really no research that suggests video games have a different effect than TV or movies. It has empirically never been shown,” said Markey. “Any media is supposed to engage us emotionally, and video games are a form of media, a form of art even.” Recreational Gaming
If all this hoopla surrounding a seemingly innocent pastime has you baffled, count me in. For people who view it as a source of entertainment, or even as a recreational activity, gaming spells out pure pleasure. Some may even wish to classify it as a brain workout. Human callowness is what leads us into making these hasty categories, for all that is pleasurable, is bound to suck our sanity in a whirlpool of addictions.
» When we speak of any recreational activity, we usually think of sharing, and online gaming is not too different. Gaming communities, at times, happen to be very closely bonded, with some interactions leading to lifelong relationships. Now, there certainly wouldn’t be this kind of outrage over youngsters bonding over sessions of football, isn’t it?
» Critics of gaming blame the overdose of violence that forms an integral part of certain games to the unruly behavior in players. But barring a few games, which indeed have a mature rating, the others do qualify as safe indulgences.
» Online gaming usually involves multiplayer games, and cooperation with partner players becomes an integral part of it. There is a distinct possibility of people bonding across countries and cultures, united by a common passion for gaming.
» One aspect which simply cannot be ignored is the positive effects of gaming on the player’s self-esteem. As the level of the games escalates, it calls for enhanced levels of skills, and surmounting these challenges gives the player a sense of achievement, and leads to confidence building.
» There are games which are meant to be enjoyed by the family, and when played together, they make for a few hours well-spent, and bring the members of the family closer, just as any other family activity would do.
» Games are looked at by some to be an outlet for their negative emotions. Pent-up frustration and anger makes way for a calmer mind when people play these games as a form of recreation, which otherwise would have had a negative effect on their relationships.
So, where does it go wrong for online gaming, and why are they blamed for causing harm to young and old minds alike? The answer lies in the fine line which separates indulgence and overindulgence. It happens to people who blur the demarcation between games and life. When we think of gamers, the first image that comes to our mind is that of a nerd, holed up in a room, hunched up in front of a computer screen with fingers furiously tapping on a keyboard/joystick. These people have no clue whatsoever about what goes on around them; they lose all track of time, forget their hunger and personal hygiene, all for the sake of a mere game.
» The aftereffects of being excessive are for everyone to see. Since such people are usually isolated for extended periods, their confidence usually deserts them once they are not in the company of a computer. Frequent mood swings and temper issues are not unknown.
» Family members of such addicts are often heard lamenting about the amount of time these people give to their obsession, which strangely enough, makes them more rebellious.
» Lack of social interaction also leads to extreme awkwardness when they find themselves in the company of actual people. To say that they suffer from social phobias would not be an overstatement.
» Getting involved with the wrong kind of people online can inculcate wrong values in a person. They may refuse to respect people or use profanity, which leads them to be ostracized from society. At the very least, it does have some negative impact on their communication skills.
» As with any addiction, this one too will push players to cross any limit to protect their obsession. Parental interference in preventing this addiction is usually unwelcome, and we have had some disastrous examples of violence as a result of this.
» Certain games with their prejudiced notions on genders and races actually influence an addicted gamer’s mind. They tend to carry these prejudices into their real life, adversely affecting their existing relationships. Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-does-online-gaming-affect-social-interactions.html Question
QUESTION: 1. Do playing online games affect the academic performances of your students? 2. What do you observe to the students who are very active in playing online games? What their behavior? 3. How will you work as a counselor to stop them in playing online games, or just to lessen it? 4. How do you handle students who are not motivated to study instead they choose to devote their attention in playing online games? 5. What do you think are the reasons why they get hook in playing online games? 6. As an educator, what are the positive and negative effects of online games to your students? 7. What will be the effect to them if they continue to play those games?
ANSWER: Hi Harold,
Many of the video games out these days are very well done. That includes online games. They can be very alluring and once you get involved they can be very absorptive.
Many of them are fun and very realistic.
They should be treated like any activity and done in moderation.
They can be huge time wasters so anyone playing them should be aware of that.
As a counselor I wouldn’t discourage playing games. I would ask the person how involved they are how they interact with them. If they spend too much time, I would advise they look at that behavior.
If I had a student who what adicted to playing games, I would treat it like all adictions.
People can get hooked into these games because they provide a challenge; they are very realistic; and they are an opportunity to “pour” yourself into something.
The positives are that they are an excellent change of behavior if you need that. The negative are that someone can let them get out of control and control their life. They can spend too much time playing. They can loose sleep. They can get addicted.
I do not believe there is any long-term affects to playing the game itself. They are very real but they are not reality.
If someone confuses them with reality, they have a worse problem then playing the game and that should be addressed.
The long-term affects might be the residual behavior arising out of abusing them such as addiction, sleeplessness, other social problems related to too much activity.
If you need further info or clarification, please write again.
———- FOLLOW-UP ———-
QUESTION: 1. In your own words, how do you define online games or video games? 2. what can you say to those people or students who are playing online games?observation about thier manners and behavior? Case For
Several research studies have been conducted that indicate video game addiction is real in around 10% of gamers who meet criteria for video game addiction. Grüsser et al (2007) found that pathological gamers differed from regular gamers in terms of daily time spent playing, and had higher “expected relief of withdrawal symptoms when gaming,” and higher “craving due to the expectation of a positive outcome of gaming.” These are all characteristics which mirror those of of substance dependence. Skoric et al (2009) showed that video game addiction is independent of simply how much time is spent playing, and how engaged children are with the game. In their study, addiction tendencies were negatively related to scholastic performance, while no such relationship was found for either time spent playing games or for video game engagement.
A similar pattern of video game addiction being negatively related to scholastic performance was previously found in a separate study by Chiu et al (2004). Charlton’s (2002) factor analysis provided support for computer addiction as a unique concept. This research demonstrated the importance of recognizing the specific characteristics of computer addiction, rather than simply adapting measures of pathological gambling, which are likely to overestimate the occurrence of computer addiction. Recognition of video game addiction would allow support services to be integrated into community addiction settings, and specific training to be provided to staff. This is particularly important given the high incidence of concurrent disorders among those with video game addiction.
Video game playing may have several advantages. Proficiency in video games can develop the self esteem of the player. It can develop eye-hand coordination, and can have other educational features. More sophisticated games can help players to develop other skills, and recent developments have built in aspects of physical exercise — although this may have limited appeal to gamers. The reality of popular culture is that we are more and more dependent on technology. A generation ago, computers were complicated and difficult to use, but modern computers are more user-friendly, and are relatively easy and enjoyable for the majority of people to use. Video games allow people to have positive experiences of using computers, that can provide transferable skills for using computers for a variety of purposes.
Bearing in mind the potential positive effects of video game playing, to label the activity an addiction without sufficient evidence and interpretive guidelines about what constitutes addiction (as opposed to benign or positive game playing) could deter many children and their parents who could possibly benefit from video games. This would be a mistake. There is wide variation in video games, and although some appear to have harmful effects, particularly through the promotion of violence and other anti-social behaviors, this is a function of the content of specific games, rather than a characteristic of video games per se.
Video games as a medium have equal potential to develop positive social skills, or to provide benign forms of entertainment — although these may not be as easily marketable to kids. As with other addictions, there is a risk that a label like video game addiction could be used too liberally, without paying attention to other concurrent or underlying conditions, such as attentional problems, autism spectrum disorders, depression and anxiety disorders. These conditions have different treatments which might more effectively help the excessive game player. And video game addiction is vulnerable to the same criticism that all behavioral addictions are — that addictions are a chemical problem resulting from the intake of addictive substances, not a pattern of behavior.
Where It Stands
The APA is not saying that video game addiction does not exist, nor that it is not addiction, but simply that they are looking at the issue and won’t make a decision until the next edition of the DSM comes out in 2013. In the same release in which they withdrew their recommendation that video game addiction be recognized, the APA expressed serious concern about the consequences of excessive video game playing in children, stating: “Psychiatrists are concerned about the wellbeing of children who spend so much time with video games that they fail to develop friendships, get appropriate outdoor exercise or suffer in their schoolwork.
Certainly a child who spends an excessive amount of time playing video games may be exposed to violence and may be at higher risks for behavioral and other health problems.” Therefore, whether or not video game addiction is acknowledged as a real addiction, or even as a mental health problem in and of itself, the APA is clear that excessive video game playing in children can be unhealthy, and can lead to other problems.