Research Paper on Extraction of Pectin
Research Paper on Extraction of Pectin
Sampalok, being of prehistoric introduction, is planted throughout the settled areas of the Philippines and is cultivated for its many uses. The plant is a large tree from 12 to 25 meters in height. The pods are oblong, thickened, and 6 to 15 centimetres by 2 to 3 centimeters, slightly compressed, and provided with a thin, crustaceous epicarp and a pulpy, acid, edible mesocarp. The young leaves flowers, leaves, and young pods are being used by people for seasoning foods like “sinigang”. The pulp surrounding the seeds, called “malasebo” is eaten outright either with or without salt (E. Quisumbing, 1951). Sampalok pulp contains Pectin which can be useful in our society and possibly be extracted. Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. The main use for pectin (vegetable agglutinate) is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in food.
On this account, the researcher would like to experiment on tamarind pods, which has Pectin content and to extract it for further use, which can help in the food industry here in our country. Statement of the Problem
The study aims to extract Pectin from Sampalok (Tamarindus indica) pods. Specifically to answer, the following questions:
* How can Pectin be extracted from Sampalok?
* How much Pectin can be extracted from the Tamarind fruit?
* What general characteristics did the Pectin from the Tamarind fruit exhibit? Hypotheses
* Pectin cannot be extracted from Tamarind.
* No amount of Pectin can be extracted from the Tamarind.
* The tamarind fruit did not exhibit characteristics of Pectin. Significance of the Study
This study will help reduce the country’s importation of pectin from other countries. . Based from Government’s statistical data, our country had imported about 93,150 kilos of pectin in 2008. The cost incurred in importing Pectin is about P27, 000 per kilo. Finding an alternative source of pectin from locally grown plants like tamarind will help reduce the country’s dependence on pectin importation as well as help the local economy. If proven that pectin can be commercially extracted from tamarind then the local populace will be encouraged to cultivate tamarind as extra income.
Scope and Limitations
In this study, the researcher is only limited to use the tamarind pulp surrounding the seeds, called “malasebo” Tamarind pulp is the main independent variable in the extraction of pectin except for the materials needed for the extraction process. This project is limited only in extracting pectin from tamarind pulp.
Review of Related Literature
Pectin is defined as complex mixtures of polysaccharides that make up approximately one third of the cell-wall dry substance of most types of plants (Van Buren, 1991). The function of pectin in plants is to contribute structural integrity to the cell wall and adhesion between cells. The methods of extraction will vary based on the actual makeup for each particular plant type. For example, protopectins are brought into solution by hot dilute acids. The general makeup of the pectin content varies with ripening of the plant and it is fairly easily brought into solution depending on the plant type (Van Buren, 1991).
Commercial pectin extraction is mainly from citrus peel and apple pomace, but several other sources exist such as sugar beets and sunflower heads. Because it is a natural additive for foods, pectin is being considered for a number of applications beyond the traditional jams and jellies. Pectin is now used as thickeners, water binders, and stabilizers. It is used in yogurts and pastry glazes and as a stabilizer in drinkable yogurts and blends of milk and fruit juices (May, 1990). Pectin is also being used as a texturizing fat replacer to mimic the mouth-feel of lipids in low-calorie foods and shorter chain galacturonic acids have been considered as clarification agents in fruit juices (Braddock, 1999).
Pectin is also being used as a texturizing fat replacer to mimic the mouth-feel of lipids in low-calorie foods and shorter chain galacturonic acids have been considered as clarification agents in fruit juices (Braddock, 1999).
Pectin has also been investigated for its usefulness in the pharmaceutical industry. Among other uses it has been considered in the class of dietary fibers known to have a positive effect on digestive processes and to help lower cholesterol (Braddock, 1999). It also is utilized to stabilize liquid pharmaceutical emulsions and suspensions.
Pectin is capable of forming gels with sugar and acid. Because of this gelling ability one of the well-known uses of pectin is in high sugar jams and confectionery jellies, dating back to at least the 18th century (IPPA, 2001).
The subsequent materials were used in the study: 1 kg fresh tamarind fruit, 750g water, kettle, a large bowl, cheese cloth, sieve, isopropanol, and drying oven. The fruit pods will then be put in the kettle and boiled for one hour. When boiling, heat to low and stir occasionally to break up pods. Transfer cooked pods with water in the large bowl and strain using a sieve, pressing pulp against it to extract all the juice. Then, strain the extracted juice again using the cheese cloth to produce a clear liquid extract. To remove impurities, use the most common method in which, mix the liquid extract with an organic solvent in which pectin is insoluble.
As International Food Standards permit the use of only methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol as an organic solvent, the researcher treated the liquid extract with isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol) in the ratio of 1 part liquid extract to 2 parts alcohol. In this process, when the liquid extract is mixed with sufficient alcohol, it solidifies the extract, making it firm enough to be handled. This precipitate (Pectin) is then washed several times to further remove other impurities. Once the pectin is isolated, it is dried in a drying oven overnight at 45 degrees Celsius, then ground to powder.
Definition of Terms
Pectin – is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. It is used in food as a gelling agent particularly in jams and jellies. It is also used in fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks, and as a source of dietary fiber. Tamarind – is a long-lived, medium-growth, bushy tree, which attains a maximum crown height of 12.1 to 18.3 metres (40 to 60 feet). The crown has an irregular, vase-shaped outline of dense foliage. The fruit is an indehiscent legume, sometimes called a pod, 12 to 15 cm (3 to 6 inches) in length, with a hard, brown shell. The fruit has a fleshy, juicy, acidulous pulp. It is mature when the flesh is coloured brown or reddish-brown.
The tamarinds of Asia have longer pods containing six to 12 seeds, whereas African and West Indian varieties have short pods containing one to six seeds. The seeds are somewhat flattened, and glossy brown. The tamarind is best described as sweet and sour in taste, and is high in acid, sugar, B vitamins and, oddly for a fruit, calcium. Extraction – the process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound using physical or chemical means.
* Quisumbing, E. (1951) Philippine Medicinal Plants. Genus TAMARINDUS Linnaeus pp. 434-436, Manila
* Srivastava, P. & Malviya, R. (2011) Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. 2 (1) Sources of pectin, extraction and its applications in pharmaceutical industry. pp. 10-18
* May, C. D. Handbook of Hydrocolloids pp. 169-188
* Huang, J. M. G. Improved method for the extraction of Pectin, PO Box 4200 Highstown, New Jersey 08520
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 19 December 2016
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