ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA AROMATICA SALISB EXTRACT AND ITS FORMULATION
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Curcuma Longa: Curcuma Longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as Turmeric, is native to Southwest India with its rhizomes being the source of a bright yellow spice with various medicinal applications. It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics and similarity used for its medicinal value, in the cosmetic industry, and as a dye. Herein, the medicinal potentials of this plant as well as that one of its bioactive constituents, curcumin, has been compiled.
Turmeric can be regarded as a drug for the management of many diseases, such as cancer, inflammations, microbial infections, diabetes, arthritic. Muscular disorder, biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, and sinusitis. Curcumin also displayed various pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticoagulant, antifertility, cardiovascular protective, hepatoprotective, and immunostimulant activities in animals. This chapter provides baseline information to encourage the use of this plant in the management of various human ailments (Omosa, Kuete, 2017).
Curcuma longa is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Its rhizomes (underground stems) are the source of a bright yellow spice and dye (Kuttuyil, 2015). Turmeric is the spice that gives curry its yellow color. It has been used in India for thousands of years as a spice and medicinal herb. Recently, science has started to back-up what Indians have known for a long time- it really does contain compounds with medicinal properties. These compounds are called curcuminoids, the most important of which is curcumin.
Curcumin is the main active ingredient in turmeric. It has powerful anti-inflammatory effects and is a very strong anti-oxidant. (Gunnars, 2018).Wound Healing: Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process of replacing devitalized and missing cellular structures and tissue layers. The human adult wound healing process can be divided into 3 or 4 distinct phases. Earlier authors referred to 3 phases- inflammatory, fibroblastic, and maturation, which has also been denoted as inflammatory proliferation, and remodeling- and this is maintained by some authors. In the 4-phases concept, there are the hemostasis phase, the inflammatory phase, the proliferation phase and the remodeling phase. In the 3-phases approach, the hemostasis phase is contained within the inflammatory phase. (Mercandetti, 2019)
Anti-Inflammatory: A drug or substance that reduces inflammation (redness, swelling, and pain) in the body. Anti-inflammatory agents block certain substances in the body that cause inflammation. They are used to treat many different conditions. Some anti-inflammatory agents are being studied in the prevention and treatment of cancer. (Nordqvist, 2017).Arachidonic Acid: Arachidonic Acid, or 5,8,11,14- eicosatetraenoic acid, is 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid esterified in the phospholipid domain of cell membranes. In response to chemical, physical, and hormonal stimuli, arachidonic acid is released from the glycerol, backbone sn-2 position by the action of various phospholipases A2, and can be subjected to rapid enzymatic conversion to a series of oxygenated derivatives collectively called eicosanoids. The emzymes catalyzing various structural modifications of free arachidonic acid include prostaglandin H synthases (commonly known as cyclooxygenases [COX]), lipoxygenases , and cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The resulting eicosanoids include prostanoids (prostaglandins and thromboxane A2), leukotrienes, lipoxins, and epoxylins. Esterified arachidonic acid can also be subjected to in situ peroxidation, catalyzed by oxygen radicals, to form a series of corresponding isomers called isoeicosanoids (Patrono, 2012).
The effect of Caffeic Acid on Wound Healing in Skin-incised Mice.Ho Sun Song, Tae Wook Park, Sang Soo SimThis study was carried out to investigate the wound healing effect of caffeic acid in skin-incised mice. Caffeic acid showed significant effects of anti-inflammatory activity and wound healing, such as, myeloperoxidase acitivity, lipid peroxidation, phospholipase A(2) activity and collagen- like