Research methodology Essay
There are several types of research methodology, however this discourse is mainly focused on what would be described as a case study, since its primary effort is to review the potential that Pepsi Saudi would emerge from its decision to implement Balance Scorecard as a winner. So this will use both quantitative and qualitative research framework . This section will outline the qualitative and quantitative research methods, the case study research method, and the questionnaire research method.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Usually quantitative research employs the method that is based on testing of theories.
It uses measurement of numbers, and statistical analysis to perform its studies. The idea behind quantitative research is often to ascertain that a generalized theory or the prediction of a theory will be confirmed by using quantitative method. So it starts with the hypothesis and the theories that requires to be tested. The approach of quantitative research include the use of instruments, usually formal and generally recognized instruments. It is conducts experiments with an underlying expectation that a consensus would be arrived at. It usually aims to arrive at a predictable generalization, and it would normally have a causal explanation.
It can control and manipulate the subject, with deduction and analysis. The idea is really to establish consensus by reducing data to numerical indications. So the goal of quantitative research is the determination a given prediction, it wants to see that such generalization could be verified or confirmed. In general the quantitative methodology assumes that there is an objective reality which is independent of the person doing the research, it also takes the position that the subject of study can be done in an objective manner.
The researcher must maintain independence from the research object. And the research is not expected to be value affected. In other words the researcher must make sure that he or she does not become a part of the research. This is known as being value free of the research itself. The quantitative methodology tests cause and effect by using deductive logic. When done correctly a quantitative research should be able to predict, and explain the theory in question. (O’brien 1998).
TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: There are generally three different types of quantitative research, experimental research, qausi -experimental research, and surveys.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: In experimental research, the researcher is active, as opposed to a passive agent who simply observes. The researcher is able to manipulate the subject that is being studied, or at least some part of the subject that is being studied. Also experimental research entails that the research must use some kind of control in the research process, usually a control group would be one of the elements of experimental research. Also the researcher would apply random selection to the control group.
The research applies manipulative element to some of the subjects under study but he will not apply the same manipulation to other subjects. So the research uses what is known as “placebo” in some of the experimental subjects, and not in others. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: Quasi-experimental research does not use the control random system that experimental research uses, but it can manipulate some independent variables. So in order to five authenticity to the result of the quasi-experimental research, the researcher can implement some controls, but he does not use random system.
SURVEYS: Surveys uses cross- sections or longitudinal studies, and questionnaires in its research. It uses data and conducts interviews with the aim of making an estimation about the given subject of study. Surveys does not involve experimental interventions. Survey are considered advantageous because it could be used to study many subjects, in many topics. Also the information garnered from surveys could be used for different purposes. Although surveys are usually expensive, but they are considered economical because the results could be applied to various things. (Polit 1989).