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Chapter 1Introduction The topic chosen for my research methods is the influence of substance abuse among college students. The reason why choose this particular topic is because college students make up one of the largest groups of drug abusers nationwide. Approximately teenagers between the ages of 18-24 years old are already at a higher risk of addiction. The temptation to drink is strong because college students overwhelmingly find that alcohol makes socializing easier. Not all college students immediately start binge drinking and doing drugs, but routinely drinking to have more fun leads many students toward addiction.
In this research topic it states the reasons why college students turn to such substance abuse. As for my own reasoning’s, the high rates of substance abuse among college students can be attributed to a number of factors, including stress. As students are facing the high demands of coursework, part-time jobs, internships, social obligations and more, many turn to substance abuse as a way to cope.
Other than that, another factor which leads students to involve in substance abuse addictions is because of their course load. More students than ever are taking stimulants, such as Adderall, to help them stay awake long enough to study or complete assignments by their due dates. All too often, these prescription drugs are obtained without a legal prescription. Moreover, curiosity is also one of the reasons why students are getting involved in such activities, since college students are exploring many new aspects of their lives in personal and professional realms.
It’s not uncommon for that self-exploration into drug experimentation. Lastly, peer pressure is one of the important reasons why college students who are surrounded by other people experimenting with recreational and performance-enhancing drugs are more likely to try these substances for themselves. 1.2 Problem statement According to Nichter, Mark Nichter, Carkoglub, Lloyd-Richardsonc, (the Tobacco Etiology Research Network (TERN) 1 2009) said that smoking served multiple utility functions for this population including (1) facilitating social interaction across gender, (2) allowing one to structure time and space at a party, (3) enabling party smokers to smoke with fewer negative side effects, and (4) helping to calm one down when drunk. The objective of this research has shown a positive association between smoking and alcohol use, little attention has been given to the utility functions of these co-occurring behaviors.Findings from Benson, Flory, L. Humphreys, S. Lee (2015) stated that the relation between stimulant medication misuse and extra-curricular participation, academic outcomes, depression, and eating disorders requires further investigation, as do the reasons why students divert or misuse and whether policies on college campuses contribute to the high rates of misuse among students.Researchers A. Ford & Blumenstein from Self-Control and Substance Use among College Students (2013) state that self-control was significantly related to all forms of substance use with the exception of other illicit drug use. The objective of this current study is to seek to confirm and extend this line of research by examining the generality of self-control across several forms of substance use: binge drinking, marijuana use, prescription drug misuse, and other illicit drug use.Researchers E. Velazquez, S. Poulos, A. Latimer, and E. Pasch (2012) said that their research is to explore associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use among college students. They find out that energy drinks are readily available to students and pose potential health risks. Students who report greater energy drink consumption also consume more alcohol, are more likely to mix energy drinks and alcohol, and experience heavy episodes of drinking, which is problematic given the potential negative consequences of these drinks.Based to researcher McCabe, S. E. (2008) stated that nonmedical users of prescription drugs are at higher risk for drug abuse, whereas medical users without a history of nonmedical use are generally not at increased risk. Drug abuse screening should be routine for college students, especially among individuals with any history of nonmedical use of prescription drugs.Problemssmoking was stigmatized during the context of one’s everyday life as a student at parties while consuming alcohol, smoking was viewed as normative and socially acceptablethe misuse of stimulant medication among college studentsthe uses of medical and nonmedical drugs (opioid, stimulant, sleeping, and sedative or anxiety)1.3 Research Objectives To investigate the effects of students consuming alcohol and smoking To explore the factors of misusing stimulant medication among college students To examine the significant of students taking medical and non-medical drugs 1.3.1 Research questionsWhat are the effects of students getting involve in consuming alcohol and smoking?What are the factors of misusing stimulant medication to a student’s life?What are the causes of taking medical and non-medical drugs?1.4 Significance of study The reason for this investigation is to identify the influence of substance abuse among college students and how it impact on student’s performance. This research will be carried out among students and to determine the impact on them. Thus, substance abuse is an illness that can happen to anyone, not just students. Drugs addiction does not give an effect on student’s performance, but it also will give a negative impact on their physical appearances, and also affects their emotional and mental wellbeing. 1.5 Definition of Key TermSubstance abuse is a real problem in the school environment which affects students between the ages of 13 and 24. The use of legal and illegal substances persists throughout high school and college, increasing their risk for drug abuse. Due to these risks, parents, school faculty, and students should be aware of what the effects of drug abuse on academic performance are.Student’s Performance (Academic)Substances use among students with multiple risk factors is more likely to lead to addiction and affect their academic standing. Other risk factors could include depression, navigating major life changes or living in a familial or community setting where drug use is prevalent. Teenagers that use drugs may become a part of anti-social groups who are less likely to value education, structure and social propriety. The negative behaviours of this group mentality simultaneously create the desired sense of belonging while isolating oneself from the people who could help the mostParentsParents can work with other community to use the prevention principles in selected substance abuse programEducatorTeachers and lecturers can incorporate research-based content and delivery into their regular teachings in their classroomsChapter 2Literature ReviewBased on the researchers Nichter, Mark Nichter, Carkoglub, Lloyd-Richardsonc from the Tobacco Etiology Research Network (TERN) 1 (2009) said that smoking can cause several negative impact to an individual’s health. This study was conducted among college freshmen and a qualitative data was carried out in the above study. The results reveals that smoking served multiple utility functions for this population including facilitating social interaction across gender, allowing one to structure time and space at a party, enabling party smokers to smoke with fewer negative side effects, and helping to calm one down when drunk. It’s also stated that whereas smoking was stigmatized during the context of one’s everyday life as a student, at parties while consuming alcohol, smoking was viewed as normative and socially acceptable. Preventive interventions are needed on college campus that target co-substance use and address widespread misperceptions about the harm of tobacco use and addiction.Next, researchers Benson, Flory, L. Humphreys, and S. Lee said that the misuse of stimulant medication among college students is a prevalent and growing problem. Besides that stimulant medications are typically used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to alleviate symptoms associated with difficulty focusing and lack of impulse control. These medications, such as Adderall (i.e., amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) and Ritalin (i.e., methylphenidate), require a prescription from a physician, ideally after a diagnosis of ADHD has been confirmed (Barkley 2006). Prescriptions for stimulant medications are on the rise; between 2002 and 2010, the number of prescriptions for ADHD medications for youth under 18 increased 46 % (Chai et al. 2012).Additional researcher Sean Esteban McCabe Screening for Drug Abuse Among Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs in a Probability Sample of College Students stated that his objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of 4 classes of prescription drugs (opioid, stimulant, sleeping, and sedative or anxiety) and to assess probable drug abuse among 4 mutually exclusive groups of medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. This research is based on a web survey and was self-administered by a probability sample of 3639 college students (68% response rate). As a result a total of 40.1% of respondents reported no lifetime use of at least 1 of 4 classes of prescription drugs, 39.7% reported medical use only, 15.8% reported both medical and nonmedical use, and 4.4% reported nonmedical use only. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were greater among medical and nonmedical users (adjusted odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.4-7.3) and nonmedical users only (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 4.0-10.6) compared with nonusers. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse did not differ between medical users only and nonusers. Nonmedical users of prescription drugs are at heightened risk for drug abuse, whereas medical users without a history of nonmedical use are generally not at increased risk. Drug abuse screening should be routine for college students, especially among individuals with any history of nonmedical use of prescription drugs.Chapter 33.1 IntroductionThis chapter presents the research method which is divided into research design, sample and population, research instruments, procedure for data collection, and procedure for data analysis. Research methodology is the process used to collect information and data for making decision. The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques. Methodology refers to the analysis of the methods used of appropriate to a field of study. The purpose of the research methodology is to provide a view of the methods that was applied to this research3.2 Methodology This study attempts to find out the usage of substance abuse toward student and how it affects their studies’ performance. This study is used in quantitative methods. Quantitative method is involving in objective measurements, statistical analysis, numerical data and mathematic tools that collect through the surveys or by manipulating the existing statistical data using the calculation techniques. As a sample of this research about 100 participants which are students from Unitar International University from the different course are being randomly asked questions about the topic. This research also using semi-structured survey which is conducted to two lecturers from Unitar International University. To achieve this research goal, this study uses some research instruments for example like the Likert scale, online surveys and close ended questionnaires as the quantitative these instruments are chosen because they can give reliable and the relevant answer.3.3 Research Design A quantitative research has been used in this study. This is a research that uses numbers instead of words to understand and explain the phenomena. Online survey has been used in this study. The research will measure the students’ perception towards the effects of substance abuse 3.4 Data collection Data collection is a process of measuring and gathering information on variables of interest. Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources research problem.3.5.1 Procedure of data collection The researcher secured a research permit and authorization letter from the Faculty of Education and Humanity for data collection. The researcher also confirmed and verified the questions that is included in the survey from the supervisor to proceed to the next stage. The researcher collected the students email address and then found the right application to create the survey. Once the survey was created the researcher copies the link and mailed the link to the students to complete the survey.3.5.2 Procedure of data analysis Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics in form of pie charts and percentages. The data collected from the survey was analysed with the number of respondents with the questions that the researcher has included in the survey.References Nichter, M., Nichter, M., Carkoglu, A., Lloyd-Richardson, E., & Tobacco Etiology Research Network. (2010). Smoking and drinking among college students:It’s a package deal. Drug and alcohol dependence, 106(1), 16-20.Benson, K., Flory, K., Humphreys, K. L., & Lee, S. S. (2015). Misuse of stimulant medication among college students: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Clinical child and family psychology review, 18(1), 50-76.McCabe, S. E. (2008). Screening for drug abuse among medical and nonmedical users of prescription drugs in a probability sample of college students. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 162(3), 225-231.Ford, J. A., & Blumenstein, L. (2013). Self-control and substance use among college students. Journal of drug issues, 43(1), 56-68.Oshodi, O. Y., Aina, O. F., & Onajole, A. T. (2010). Substance use among secondary school students in an urban setting in Nigeria: prevalence and associated factors. African journal of psychiatry, 13(1).Velazquez, C. E., Poulos, N. S., Latimer, L. A., & Pasch, K. E. (2012). Associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use behaviors among college students. Drug and alcohol dependence, 123(1-3), 167-172. Goldstein, A. L., Flett, G. L., & Wekerle, C. (2010). Child maltreatment, alcohol use and drinking consequences among male and female college students: An examination of drinking motives as mediators. Addictive behaviors, 35(6), 636-639.Padhy, G. K., Das, S., Sahu, T., & Parida, S. (2014). Prevalence and causes of substance abuse among undergraduate medical college students. Ind Med Gaz, 148(8), 276-82.Simons, J. S., Gaher, R. M., Correia, C. J., Hansen, C. L., & Christopher, M. S. (2005). An affective-motivational model of marijuana and alcohol problems among college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(3), 326.Knight, J. R., Wechsler, H., Kuo, M., Seibring, M., Weitzman, E. R., & Schuckit, M. A. (2002). Alcohol abuse and dependence among US college students. Journal of studies on alcohol, 63(3), 263-270.
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