Republic of the Philippines Essay
Republic of the Philippines
Poverty has been a major problem in the Philippines.Unfortunately, the number of Filipinos suffering from the aforementioned social problem is increasing every year.Some have more than enough to eat, are well clothed and healthy, and have a reasonable degree of food security but others may have inadequate food and shelter. Their health is often poor, they may be unemployed and their prospects for a better life are uncertain at best.As one of the developing countries, the Philippines is still suffering from several sociological and economic problems. Incidence of poverty seems unstoppable. Many Filipinos are suffering from extreme poverty and hunger and the worse thing is these vulnerable populations are rapidly increasing in number. (Monterola, 2013) In terms of Education, the government is also facing a very terrible problem.
There are many poor families cannot provide for the education of their children. Some families can only afford to eat one meal a day and they can’t even send their children to school. Sometimes the parents encourage their children to work and earn for their living, so that they can have something to eat. But we cannot blame them, because sometimes it is better to have something for supper, than to have something to feed your mind. (Mochique, 2012) Low-income parents are often overwhelmed by diminished self-esteem, depression, and a sense of powerlessness and inability to cope—feelings that may get passed along to their children in the form of insufficient nurturing, negativity, and a general failure to focus on children’s needs. (Jensen,2009) In a study of emotional problems of children of single mothers, (Eamon and Zuehl,2001) found that the stress of poverty increases depression rates among mothers, which results in an increased use of physical punishment.
Children themselves are also susceptible to depression: research shows that poverty is a major predictor of teenage depression Children raised in poverty rarely choose to behave differently, but they are faced daily with overwhelming challenges that affluent children never have to confront, and their brains have adapted to suboptimal conditions in ways that undermine good school performance.(Denny et al., 2004). There are many factors that can affect academic performance. The physical condition of the student has a great deal to do with that person’s ability to do a good job on anything and to understand anything. For example, if the student has poor eyesight, he/she might not be able to read well. If the student has hearing impairment, he/she might not be able to listen and understand instruction. If student has disease, it might impair his/her ability to do the required work. A student’s Socio Economic Status (SES) can affect his/her ability to perform well academically.
Student with less money might not be able to purchase school supplies (rulers, paper, pens, computer, books, etc.) that could help them with their work. They might not also visit their doctors and dentist very often and might suffer from undiagnosed illness or dental problems that cause pain or otherwise impair the student’s ability to perform well. To prevent this, the government thinks of some ways to give every Filipino youth the education they deserve, because every youth deserves to have a decent education for them to be the next leaders not only of their generation but of the country as well. We should also take care of their welfare. The proclamation of SB No. 3412 PANTAWID PAMILYANG PILIPINO PROGRAM (Four P’s) has been a big help to the youth, as the primary beneficiaries.
The program aims to help not only the youth of Metro Manila but also the youth of the whole country. Our government is one of the institutions that guide or motivate us to succeed. They want to prioritize our rights, especially for the children. They want us to achieve the primary education that’s why, public schools were built. But there’s still a high absentee rate of the students because the income of their parents can only provide them food. This program aims to eradicate poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality, reduce child morality and improve maternal health through the financial assistance given to the recipients or poor families. It is very helpful in our community because many poor families are in need of better health asnd better education. (Mochique,2012)
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the Effects of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (Four P’s) to the Academic Performance of Beneficiaries in Antongalon Butuan City. Specifically, it will seek to answer the following questions: 1. What is the Profile of the Beneficiaries in terms of :
1.3 Family Size; and
1.4 Parents Monthly Income?
2. What is the Health condition of Beneficiaries in terms of : 2.1 Health practices;
2.2 Nutritional practices; and
2.3 Socio Economic Status?
3. What is the extent of the implementation of four P’s?
4. What is the level of Academic performance of the Beneficiaries in Antongalon Elementary School?
5. Is there a Significant Effect of the Four P’s Program to the Academic Performance of the pupils in relation to the Health and Condition of Beneficiaries?
6. Is there significant relationship between the profile of beneficiaries with the academic performance of the pupils?
7. Is there significant difference before and after they become a four P’s member? Hypothesis
On the basis of the problem of the study, the hypothesis below will be formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Ho1: The Four P’s Program has no significant effect to the Academic Performance in relation to the Health and Condition of Beneficiaries
This study will be anchored on the theory that Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (Four P’s) influences the academic performance of the Beneficiaries. The Constitution, Article 2, Section 9 provides that:
The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all. According to 2006 Annual Poverty Statistics of the National Statistical Coordination Board, 27.9 Million Filipinos or one-third (l/3) of the entire population are poor. To address this problem the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) together implemented a Conditional Cash Transfer Program known as Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) inspired by the successes of similar programs in Latin American countries such as Bolsa Familia in Brazil, Familias en Accion in Colombia and Oportunidades in Mexico. In Esperanza and Sibagat, Agusan del Sur for example, two of the pilot areas of the 4Ps elementary school enrollment has increased by fifteen percent (15%).
Children covered by 4Ps have higher attendance compared to the general population of children in school. There has also been a significant increase in the vaccination rate as well as a decrease in prevalence of malnutrition among children. Given the far reaching effects of this program in empowering the poor to cross over from their lives of poverty to a better future, there is a need to ensure the sustainability of this Program from one administration to another. South Learning on Conditional Cash Transfers workshop held at ADB Headquarters, 16-19 April 2013 that was organized in cooperation with Inter-American Development Bank. The workshop aimed to enhance understanding of policy makers from developing countries in Asia and the Pacific about lessons learned from the use of CCT programs in Latin America and Caribbean. The field visit to Santa Maria and Pandi in Bulacan province (around 40km northeast of Manila) to learn about the program first hand and interact with the beneficiaries and program administrators was enriching.
The beneficiaries shared their personal stories on how blessed they felt to be a part of Pantawid Pamilya. Many parents previously were overburdened with worry on raising a family and not earning enough money to support their children. What little parents earned from odd jobs was only sufficient for daily expenses—their children frequently fell ill due to insufficient food and vitamins causing them to miss school. But this all changed for the better under Pantawid Pamilya. (Health Team, 2013) In our study, we will know, if these theories are really true. We will going to identify if the Four P’s implemented by the government is really effective for the improvement of the beneficiaries in Antongalon Elementary School in terms of, performance, and other educational development of the child.
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
Figure 1.Shows the Schematic Diagram of the Study
Significance of the Study :
The study aims to determine the effects of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (Four P’s) to the academic performance of beneficiaries. The result of the study will be beneficial to the following: Students. It will give information regarding their academic performance in school. They will be encourage and try their best to maintain their good performance in school as a beneficiaries.
Parents. They will be inform if the said program is really helpful in the improvement of the school performance of their child.
Government. They will be aware if the said program that they implemented is really effective in terms of education of the beneficiaries or not. And if they will find out that it will not improve the educational development of beneficiaries, they will think another strategies that will improve this program. School Administrators. It will provide data regarding to the academic performance of the beneficiaries.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
The Study will be conducted in Antongalon Elementary School. It involves all the beneficiary of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program( Four P’s) as a respondent. The main purpose of this study is to identify the Effect of Four P’s Program to the Academic Performance, and its Significant Effect in relation to the Health Condition of the beneficiaries. This is to give us information if the said program is really effective or there are positive or negative changes to the academic performance of the beneficiaries.
Definition of Terms :
To understand better the terms to be used in the study, the following terms will defined operationally. Academic Performance. This term refers to describe things that relate to the work done in schools. Family Size. This term refers to describe the number of household members. Health and Condition. This term refers to describe healthy lifestyle of the beneficiaries wether they live in a Healthy environment or not. Nutritional Status. This term refers to describe the state of the Four P’s beneficiaries health in terms of the nutrients in his or her diet. Parent’s Monthly Income. This term refers to describe the average earning of an individual in a month. Socio Economic Status. This term refers to describe the indicator that the beneficiaries are or is not economically disadvantaged based on his or her parents or family income
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies which serve as orientation of the writer to the different concepts, theories, methods, and treatments of the areas explored in the study.
Poverty remains a big challenge for the Philippines. Income poverty in the Philippines has generally declined since the early 1990s. From 33.1 percent of the population being poor in1991, the share of poor Filipinos was brought down to 24.9 percent in 2003. In recent years, however, there was a reversal in this trend. Latest official poverty estimates show that poverty has increased since 2003. In 2009, the share of the poor population, or those who are unable to meet their basic food and non-food needs, was estimated at 26.5 percent (NSCB, 2011). In addition to income poverty, human development outcomes especially in education and health care lagging. Primary education is still far from universal while maternal mortality and child malnutrition are among the highest in East Asia and Pacific region (NEDA, 2010). This happened despite the historically high record of economic growth in 2000 until 2010, which have raged 4.7 percent annually versus 2.4 percent of the two decades before. This suggests that, on aggregate, the poor have not benefited from growth. ( Velarde & Frnandez, 2011)
The limited capability of Filipinos to manage shocks slows the pace of reducing poverty. The failure of poverty to decline in 2009 was attributed mainly to the impacts of various crises that affected many Filipinos in 2008 and 2009, which include the food and fuel crises, the global financial crisis, and the disaster brought about by typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng in late 2009.The 2009 national household survey revealed that about 9.4 percent of the population, or about 8 million Filipinos, are living just above the poverty line and are at risk of falling into poverty when income shocks like these arise.2 The poor faces greater risks as they have limited means to cope. Surveys show that the poor were indeed disproportionately affected by recent shocks.3 In particular, it was found that the El Niño in early 2010affected 58 percent of the poorest households, half of whom depend on agriculture as their family’s main source of income.
The 2008 food crisis was also estimated to have increased the income shortfall of the poor from the poverty line by 1.3 percentage points, mainly because the poor are net consumers of rice (World Bank, 2008). Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4 P’s) is the Philippine conditional cash transfer program that aims to improve quality of life of the less fortunate family/families and end the cycle of poverty by investing a human capital. It is a program that leads by the DSWD Agency (Department of Social Welfare and Development) together with the DepED (Department of Education) and also DOH (Department of Health). This is a partnership between the two government agencies that aims to concoct jobs for people who are the beneficiaries of Aquino’s Administration (Vecina 2013). The Pantawid Pamilya was launched in February 2008 with the first 330,000household beneficiaries (Set 1) and then scaled up in 2009 to cover another 320,000 households (Set 2).
By April2011,theprogram has grown to about 1.9 million household beneficiaries and is slated for further expansion by the end of 2011 and 2012. To become eligible for the Pantawid Pamilya, a household needs to satisfy a uniform set of criteria, which include (i) residing in program areas of the Pantawid Pamilya, (ii) being identified as poor based on a proxy means test (PMT), and (iii) having a pregnant woman or having at least one child below 15 years old at the timeof enrolment into the program ( Velarde & Fernandez, 2011). Since 2007, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Philippines is the conditional cash transfer program implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), along with cooperative partner institutions such as the Department of Education, Department of Health, Department of the Interior and Local Government, and various other government institutions. The 4Ps was patterned after the conditional cash transfer programs in Latin American and African countries which have been proven successful as a poverty reduction and social development measure (DSWD, 2011).
The Four P’s program serves as the government’s answers to the pressing issues regarding poverty. Calvo (2011) defines the CCT as programs that provide cash benefits to finance the basic needs and foster investment in human capital to extremely poor households. These benefits are conditioned on certain behaviors, usually related to investments in nutrition, health, and education. The emergence of CCT (4 P’s) programs occurred during the late 1990s, with Mexico’s innovative Progress program emerging as one of the earliest schemes in 1997. The evidences highlighting the effectiveness of Progress motivated a rise in similar programs across Latin America. Throughout the late 1990s and into the early part of the new century, CCT programs were implemented in Honduras, Brazil and Nicaragua. CCT (Conditional Cash Transfer or 4 P’s) programs are presently being implemented in several Latin American countries including Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, and several more.
Indonesia and Pakistan are only some of the Asian countries which employ the CCT programs as a major tool of their social policy. In general, these programs provide money and financial assistance to poor families under the condition that those transfers are used as an investment on their children’s’ human capital, such as regular school attendance and basic preventive health care. The main mission of most CCT programs is to prevent inter-generational transference of poverty, that is to say, investing in young children and providing them with the provisions necessary for better opportunities in the future. Being a conditional cash transfer program, beneficiaries receive grants when they comply with program conditions. The Pantawid Pamilya provides two types of grants – a health grant of Php500 ($125) per household per month for 12 months and an education grant of Php300 ($7) per 6-14 year old child attending school (for a maximum of 3 children in this age range)for 10 months of the school year.6 Health conditions apply to pregnant mothers and children aged 0-5, while education conditions apply to children aged 6-14.
A beneficiary household can receive a maximum health grant of Php6,000 ($143) and a maximum education grant of Php3,000 ($72) per child if it complies with the health and education conditional ties of the program100 percent throughout the year. Actual grants received by beneficiaries depend on their compliance to health and education conditions, which is regularly monitored through the Pantawid Pamilya’s Compliance Verification System (CVS). Based on the latest CVS reports, children’s attendance to school and visits to health centers have been improving in 2010. In the last quarter of 2010, close to 80percent of children registered to receive the Pantawid Pamilya education grant complied with the program conditions, that is, they were present in school at least 85 percent of the time during that period. Compliance of children registered to receive the health grant improved as well especially among Set 2 beneficiaries, although at a slower pace than education.
The increase in compliance rates especially in early 2010 also reflects efforts made in updating beneficiary information. This ensured that schools and health centers where children go are correctly recorded in the system so that compliance is monitored properly and grants are paid accordingly ( Velarde & Frnandez, 2011). DSWD claims that the initial implementation of 4Ps has had remarkable results such as the prevention of stunting or where the height of a child is less than ideal for one’s age due to poor nutrition. Another is that more women gave birth in hospitals and thus lessening the risks of maternal mortality and health complications for the new-born. DSWD’s assessment, however, remains preliminary. (Somera, 2010) The underlying concept of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4 P’s)s, is: once individuals are healthy, better fed, and educated, they will be able to overcome poverty in the long run (Valencia, 2009).
A study of (Mella.et.al,) stated that The 4Ps intend to provide the basis for this much needed equality by providing the poor people with the education that they could not access otherwise. Malnutrition, which is prevalent among extremely poor families, is also expected to decrease. Since it is a prime requirement for beneficiaries to avail of the health services being offered in their health centers such as pre- and post-natal services, vaccination, and periodical check-ups before acquiring their money grants, the health and nutrition of the poor families are safeguarded. Philippines Conditional Cash Transfer Program Impact Evaluation 2012 by (Chaudhury ,Friedman & Junko Onishi) found that Pantawid Pamilya is meeting the objective of keeping children healthy, as evidenced by a reduction in severe stunting17 among poor children 6-36 months of age, which is expected to have long-term benefits.
Notably, impact evaluations of CCT programs around the world have not proven to reduce stunting at such early stages of program implementation, but Pantawid Pamilya appears to be an exception. The (First wave of the Impact Evaluation Survey, conducted in 2011) found out that enrolment in preschool and daycare was 70.3 percent among children three to five years old in Pantawid Pamilya barangays. This was 10.3 percentage points higher compared to children in non-Pantawid Pamilya barangays which only resulted to 65.0 percent enrolment. This pattern was also seen in the elementary school level wherein enrolment was higher by 4.5 percentage points among children six to 11 years old in Pantawid Pamilya Barangays than the non-program group baseline rate of 93 percent. These results were also consistent with higher school enrolment.
(Carbayas, 2012) also stated that, the DSWD stressed that the 4Ps is a stimulus package for the poor intended as social investment rather than plain cash assistance, i.e. dole-out. Cash assistance is given to qualified families provided that the family complies primarily with the conditions set for health and education. Therefore, the 4Ps is not seen as the sole solution to poverty reduction, but the program should be seen on its ability to bring back poor children to get better education and a healthy life to gain dignity and prepare them for their future. (Mella,Osido & Suing) conclude that the 4Ps is a good example of strengthening the government’s capability of distributing the country’s resources to those who are extremely in need.
It is undeniable that there are many poor households that will benefit from the said program, and that the program covers the basic needs. Likewise, the government’s effort in making the country’s educational and health services system inclusive is a huge step towards social mobility and equality. This studies and theories will help us to provide an idea about our study. It will give us more information on how Four P’s affect the development of beneficiaries in terms of education. It will serve as our guide and basis of our study.
This chapter includes the research methodology, the research locale & the population of the respondents of the study, the research instruments, data gathering, scoring and quantification of data and statistical treatment.
The descriptive research method through the questionnaire as the data gathering instrument will be utilized in order to seek answers to the problems being imposed in the study. It is descriptive, because it will seek to determine the effect of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino (Four P’s) program to the academic performance of beneficiaries in Antongalon Elementary School, Antongalon Butuan City .
The study will be conducted at Antongalon Elementary School during the School Year 2014-2015. This school is located in the small barangay of Antongalon, Butuan City. This school is 1.5 kilometers from the barangay of Ampayon, and can be reached through a jeepney ride from Butuan City.
The Population and Respondents of the Study
The population of the study is composed of the selected pupils who are four P’s beneficiaries in all grade levels of Antongalon Elementary School. There are 73 beneficiaries overall. Since there are only few pupils, a universal sampling was used in the study.
This study will use the purposive sampling design in which the researchers selected the respondents who will still engage and current participants to the program.
A survey questionnaire will be used to gather the data on the profile in terms of age, sex, family size, and parent’s monthly income of the beneficiaries. This questionnaire has two types, the first type is the respondents profile and the second type is for their perception when they become a Four P’s beneficiary. The child questionnaire will be classified according to its trend of indication The researchers will sent a letter to the principal of Antongalon Elementary School requesting permission for the conduct of the study. Once the permission will be granted, the administration of the questionnaire will then be set. On the day set data gathering act, the researchers will personally gave an orientation to the pupils about the nature and purpose of the study. Then the questionnaire will be given and retrieved after the alloted time.
The data obtained will be tallied, analyzed and interpreted.
Scoring and Quantification of the Data
For the purpose of interpretation, the data will be quantified using the following scales:
Table 2. Scaling of the Students’ Profile
This study will be use the frequency, percentage, weighted mean, correlation, and t-test statistical tools in analyzing the data gathered from the respondents. The frequency that will be used to determine the profile of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (Four P’s) beneficiaries in terms of age, sex, family size, and parent’s monthly income. The spearman correlation will be used to determine the relationship between the Four P’s program and the Health and condition of beneficiaries with the formula :
r – is the correlation value
x- is the independent variable
y- is the dependent variable
n- is the number of respondents
1 and 6 – are constant
The t- test will be also utilized to determine the acceptance and rejection of hypothesis with formula shown below:
t – is the test relationship
y- is the correlation
Observations of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program in the field (Chin,2013)http://blogs.adb.org/blog/observations-pantawid-pamilyang-pilipino-program-field#sthash.qH0LzncW.dpuf) Overall, Pantawid Pamiliya is on track to achieve its objectives of promoting investments in the health and education of children while providing immediate financial support to poor families as highlighted in a recent impact evaluation by Chaudhury et al. (2013) funded by AusAID in coordination with DSWD, World Bank, and ADB. – See more at: http://blogs.adb.org/blog/observations-pantawid-pamilyang-pilipino-program-field#sthash.qH0LzncW.dpuf Retrieved May 06, 2013 Conditional Cash Transfer Program in the Philippines: Is It Reaching
the Extremely Poor?(Reyes&Tabuga)http://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/ris/dps/pidsdps1242.pdf 4Ps is expected to increase utilization of health services among the poor as the additional cash they receive will help cover costs; and improve nutritional status ofchildren through increased household income and various counselling and monitoringcomponents of the 4Ps.
Overview of the Philippines’
Conditional Cash Transfer Program:
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino
For the education grant,the conditionalities help improve the enrollment and schoolattendance rates of children. Children who attend pre-school orday care centers, primary school, or secondary school are requiredto maintain class attendance rates of at least 85 percent per month. Overview of the Philippines’
Conditional Cash Transfer Program:
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino
(PantawidPamilya)(Fernandez&Olfindo,2011)http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/06/11/000426104_20120611115455/Rendered/PDF/694220BRI0P1180of0Pantawid0Pamiliya.pdf Nearly three years since its launch, the Pantawid Pamilya hasalready shown positive impacts on beneficiary households. Thecash grants increase the household incomes of the poor, while theconditionalities have helped improve the education and healthof their children. Anecdotal evidence shows that net education enrollment rates of children in beneficiary households have risen, andthe number of children who undertake de-worming at schools andavail of vaccines from health centers has also increased. RETRIEVED (May 2011)
Education for the Poorest Children through Pantawid Pamilya (Formoso,2011) http://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/news/229-education-for-the-poorest-children-through-pantawid-pamilya 1,538,592 children beneficiaries of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program in different parts of the country are expected to commence the School Year 2010-2011 successfully and level up to the next